whole e-learning scenario is the IMS learner information package (LIP) specification. For learner registration, there are two initiatives currently dealing with: the IMS Enterprise Specification and the Schools Interoperability Framework which supports on the exchange of the data into K-9 environment (http://www.imsproject.org). When content is launched, it needs to communicate learner’s data and previous browsing activity and information. There should be some system to monitor all these activities. Work is going on in this context and is applying in the popular standard model SCORM of ADL. The latest release of ADL is the SCORM 2004. It includes the intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that works as natural human tutors . ADL is actively engaging in research and implementation of digital knowledge environment of future in the area of standards and authoring tools. AICC’s new release Package Exchange Notification Services (PENS) can define an interface between authoring tools and LMS systems to automate publishing and testing of learning materials accessed through LMS system. Kakoty and Sarma, 2011 argues in their previous paper that by integrating Expert System technology the whole e-learning system will be more learners centric and assistive for learner .
The category “ strategy ” includes all those articles that deal with the issues of business strategy and sustainability. It is a matter of fact that research on strategy is mainly performed in the New World Countries: Chile, New Zealand, US, Australia and Argentina lead the way to understand the links between wine and sustainability in a strategic orientation. Research techniques employed are often qualitative and case study research is frequently performed. One of the reasons could be the necessity to explore the main drivers of pressure towards sustainability taking into account the motivations and opinions of different wineries’ stakeholders. In fact, according to Flint (2009), in order to conduct such exploratory research, an appropriate methodology such as grounded theory is necessary that has been used to reveal how social actors interpret and act within their environments. In other papers, the aim is to enlighten an entire sector at national or regional level and for this reason a multidisciplinary case study ap- proach is employed (Guthey and Whiteman 2009; Cederberg et al. 2009). The topics in- vestigated in this category are diverse, but two trends stand out: at a country level the analysis is carried out to understand the boundaries of emerging organic wine industry and the implications to promote place branding activities; at firm level the interest is for internal and external pressures towards sustainable and environmental practices.
S. Young 22 , E. Zwamborn 23 , W. J. Sutherland 24
All affiliations are given in the Appendix
ABSTRACT: Limited resources and increasing environmental concerns have prompted calls to identify the critical questions that most need to be answered to advance conservation, thereby providing an agenda for scientific research priorities. Cetaceans are often keystone indicator spe- cies but also high profile, charismatic flagship taxa that capture public and media attention as well as political interest. A dedicated workshop was held at the conference of the Society for Marine Mammalogy (December 2013, New Zealand) to identify where lack of data was hindering cetacean conservation and which questions need to be addressed most urgently. This paper sum- marizes 15 themes and component questions prioritized during the workshop. We hope this list will encourage cetacean conservation-orientated research and help agencies and policy makers to prioritize funding and future activities. This will ultimately remove some of the current obstacles to science-based cetacean conservation.
introduced to different techniques and approaches to begin addressing their own alcohol misuse - strategies which the mentors themselves may have successfully employed.
Our combined analyses of OASys and TOP data also suggest that alcohol misuse outcomes could be improved by targeting support at those probationers experiencing more acute forms of social isolation (e.g. arising from a lack of close friends or associates) 6 . This could perhaps become a key area of focus for ex-service user/peer mentors working with ATR cases in the future in order to further improve alcohol misuse outcomes.
100 keyresearchquestions for the post-2015 development agenda
Johan A. Oldekop, Lorenza B. Fontana, Jean Grugel, Nicole Roughton, Emmanuel A. Adu-Ampong, Gemma K. Bird, Alex Dorgan, Marcia A. Vera Espinoza, Sara Wallin, Daniel Hammett, Esther Agbarakwe, Arun Agrawal, Nurgul Asylbekova, Clarissa Azkoul, Craig Bardsley, Anthony J. Bebbington, Savio Carvalho, Deepta Chopra, Stamatios Christopoulos, Emma Crewe, Marie- Claude Dop, Joern Fischer, Daan Gerretsen, Jonathan Glennie, William Gois, Mtinkheni Gondwe, Lizz A. Harrison, Katja Hujo, Mark Keen, Roberto Laserna, Luca Miggiano, Sarah Mistry, Rosemary J. Morgan, Linda L. Raftree, Duncan Rhind, Thiago Rodrigues, Sonia Roschnik, Flavia Senkubuge, Ian Thornton, Simon Trace, Teresa Ore, Ren e Mauricio Vald es, Bhaskar Vira, Nicola Yeates and William J. Sutherland *
We conclude that sufficient unanswered questions remain to feed research for several generations to come. This exercise has some shortcomings as does every scientific study: only a limited number of consultees were contacted and only a fraction of them (<40%) responded. However, there was substantial overlap in the more than 650 contributions we received, and the themes of the most urgent subjects were easily identified. We found it much more difficult to select from the mass of good questions which might have been too case-specific to be included in a publication also intended for non-specialists. We decided to focus on a broader level, which makes it difficult to answer single questions with single projects. Nevertheless, many of the questions can be split or broken down into digestible parts and offer objectives for studies within a defined time frame. On the other hand, it may be argued that 86 questions are too many to represent the “key” issues, but the final number of questions reflects the breadth of the topic and the current debates within the field.
100 keyresearchquestions for the post-2015 development agenda
Johan A. Oldekop, Lorenza B. Fontana, Jean Grugel, Nicole Roughton, Emmanuel A. Adu-Ampong, Gemma K. Bird, Alex Dorgan, Marcia A. Vera Espinoza, Sara Wallin, Daniel Hammett, Esther Agbarakwe, Arun Agrawal, Nurgul Asylbekova, Clarissa Azkoul, Craig Bardsley, Anthony J. Bebbington, Savio Carvalho, Deepta Chopra, Stamatios Christopoulos, Emma Crewe, Marie- Claude Dop, Joern Fischer, Daan Gerretsen, Jonathan Glennie, William Gois, Mtinkheni Gondwe, Lizz A. Harrison, Katja Hujo, Mark Keen, Roberto Laserna, Luca Miggiano, Sarah Mistry, Rosemary J. Morgan, Linda L. Raftree, Duncan Rhind, Thiago Rodrigues, Sonia Roschnik, Flavia Senkubuge, Ian Thornton, Simon Trace, Teresa Ore, Rene Mauricio Valdes, Bhaskar Vira, Nicola Yeates and William J. Sutherland *
and the natural sciences?” This form of question aligns closely with some of the descriptive question categories described in the social sciences, and Bakker even notes that these types of questions require descriptive answers, rather than design answers. He is much more interested in the how questions: questions that aim to achieve goals. While he notes some critiques of these types of questions similar to those posited by social scientists, he also argues that how questions are valid not because they necessarily demonstrate effectiveness, but because they provide proof of principle or existence. Eris describes these types of questions as generative questions, a class he proposes to add to existing question taxonomies. 45 He proposes five subclasses of generative design questions: proposal/negotiation, in which the questioner suggests a concept or negotiates an existing concept; scenario creation, in which the questioner creates a scenario to investigate possible outcomes; ideation, in which the questioner wants to generate as many concepts as possible without aiming to achieve a specific goal; method generation, in which the questioner wants to generate as many possible means to achieve a goal; and enablement, in which the questioner wants to construct acts, states, or resources that can enable the question concept. Unlike in the sciences, which aim to prove or disprove hypotheses resulting in single, concrete answers, a multiplicity of answers is a valid result in design research. Recent studies even show that generating multiple design ideas and outcomes, especially concurrently and parallel to one another, can spur more divergent ideas and thus better design solutions. 46
Operations management in not-for-proﬁt organizations
Terms such as competitive advantage, markets and business, which are used in this book, are usually associated with companies in the for-proﬁt sector. Yet operations management is also relevant to organizations whose purpose is not primarily to earn proﬁts. Managing the operations in an animal welfare charity, hospital, research organization or government department is essentially the same as in commercial organizations. Operations have to take the same decisions – how to produce products and services, invest in technology, contract out some of their activities, devise performance measures, and improve their operations performance and so on. However, the strategic objectives of not-for-proﬁt organizations may be more complex and involve a mixture of political, economic, social and environ- mental objectives. Because of this there may be a greater chance of operations decisions being made under conditions of conﬂicting objectives. So, for example, it is the operations staff in a children’s welfare department who have to face the conﬂict between the cost of providing extra social workers and the risk of a child not receiving adequate protection.
Knowing this first solution, we show how to use this analyticalapproach in a continuation technique to find the other solutions. The totality of the obtained solutions is represented in a plane where the abscissa is the amplitude of the supply voltage and the ordinate the amplitude of the system’s state variable (flux or voltage).
The curve thus obtained is called “bifurcation diagram”. We will be able to then obtain a synthetic knowl- edge of the possible behaviors of the two circuits and particularly the limits of the dangerous zones of the various periodic ferroresonant modes that may appear. General results related to the series ferroresonance and parallel ferroresonance, obtained numerically starting from the theoretical and real cases, are illustrated and discussed.
Estimates entered into the meta-analysis came from both standalone journal articles, longer individual studies and as distinct chapters of edited books on the subject appearing in both digital and physical formats. Of the initially collected batch of studies over two thirds were either irrelevant to the subject, or were on the other hand too specifically focused on a smaller topic or within specific regions or sectors for the type of national picture this study hopes to explore. Some of the observed studies made brief references to Sweden or reiterated Swedish data, but were largely concerned with estimating a local wage gap within another country. This proved to be a time consuming process, but one done with diligence and attentiveness in order ensure a wide-reaching and legitimate model. There was a strong showing as the total number of usable wage gap estimations available through the use of this method came to thirty two. The twenty studies which produced these estimates comprised research spanning over thirty years as well as data extending back roughly fifty years, while the most recent study accounted for was published in 2014 and the most recent dataset recorded in 2013. As expected, the primary authorship for gender wage gap studies was divided between both sociological and economic researchers in Sweden and internationally.
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
It is a part of the external analysis when doing market research and gives a certain overview of the different macroenvironmental factors that the company has to take into consideration.
Political factors include areas such as tax policy, employment laws, environmental regulations, trade restrictions and tariffs and political stability. The economic factors are the economic growth, interast rates, exchange rates and inflation rate. Social factors often look at the cultural aspects and include health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. The technological factors also include ecological and environmental aspects and can determine the bassiers to entry, minimum efficient production level and influence outsourcing decisions. It looks at elements such as R&D activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological change.
STATE PRioRiTy AREA: ENGAGEMENT
Student engagement means providing students with programs, course work and opportunities both in and out of the classroom that motivates them and keeps them in school. Research further shows that when students are healthy in mind and body, they are more engaged, miss less school, focus better in class, and are more likely to graduate. Different types of teaching methods can also keep more students engaged.
5. What does it cost and how long does it take?
Below are ranges for how much each phase of work may cost, along with the typical length of time to conduct the work.
In addition to the fees summarized below, it is critical for you to factor staff time into the cost of a branding project. You and your colleagues will be asked to participate in meetings and conversations with Mission Minded, to gather background information, to coordinate the participation of research study participants, and to give feedback to Mission Minded. While we will take the lead in driving your project forward and keeping it on track and on budget, you will be responsible for contributing time and ideas at various phases of the work. While it may be great fun to participate in this exciting work, it does take staff and volunteers away from their normal duties—even if your organization is lucky enough to have people already dedicated to communications.
David A. Peggie, a, * Jo Kirby, b Jennifer Poulin, c Wim Genuit, d Julija Romanuka, d David F. Wills, e Alessio De Simone, e Alison N. Hulme e
Dyes derived from brazilwood (Caesalpinia spp.) are known to have been used in a diverse range of objects, from Medieval European textiles to North American First Nations objects, while pigments made from brazilwood feature in the palette of a number of painters, including Rembrandt and Van Gogh. For almost two decades, an unknown marker has been used to detect brazilwood colourants in historical objects. Limited sampling opportunities mean that the identification of the chemical structure of this marker has eluded scientists to date. Using a combination of synthesis, UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, HPLC, NMR and GC-MS, the identity of this unknown marker was confirmed as the benzochromenone, urolithin C. Structural identification provides a reliable reference compound for use across a range of analytical techniques employed in the cultural heritage sector and will enable the future development of non-destructive techniques for its identification on high-status objects.
7 www.who.int/ (accessed May 30, 2019).
8 www.earthmicrobiome.org (accessed May 30, 2019)
9 www.oceanarms.org (accessed May 30, 2019)
To tap the full potential of biomonitoring data, it will be necessary to improve curation and access to the rich reference datasets that have already been generated. Due in part to specific institutional regulations, there is a lot of genetic reference material that is only available to researchers within certain institutions. Since molecular-based identifications are heavily dependent on the quality and completeness of the reference databases, this research field will collectively benefit from incentives to curate and upload reference sequences to publicly available databases. Ensuring that these datasets are available in a usable format to interested researchers across the globe represents a major challenge to the field, but one which must be met in order to address global changes in biodiversity and species distribution (Poisot et al., 2016, 2019; Desjardins-Proulx et al., 2019). The definition of the ontologies that will allow NGB data to be machine-read and automated, assuring quality control and the integration of metadata from biomonitoring and associated disciplines, has begun but requires large-scale adoption across fields to be useful.
105) C - the nurse is a provider of nursing care when she develops the capability of the family to take care of a sick member. The nurse assumes the role of a planner or
programmer when she identifies needs, priorities and problems of individuals, families and community. The nurse works as a researcher when she coordinates with government and nongovernment organization in the implementation of research and studies.
Before investing you should thoroughly research the company. Also, you should try to verify information independently and not simply rely on the information provided by the company. If investing in a company’s business, investors should research that company’s market, its
competition, and business plan. If investing in a company that will manage your money or make investments with your money, you should research the background of the company and its management. For background research, the first step may be a simple search on google.com or bing.com to find any information about the company or its managers. You should contact the Utah Division of Securities to determine if the Division has any negative information on the company or its management. You may also search with other regulators, such as real estate or insurance. Greater due diligence may require looking for any court records for criminal or civil matters.
and Refugees) was mostly substantiating rather than instrumental or legitimising (see also Chap. 11 in this volume for a slightly different perspective on the BAMF’s role in the German case).
Interestingly, Boswell’s case studies suggest that we should study knowledge utilisation and policy-research structures at two different levels. On the one hand, there is the more generic level of national cultures of knowledge utilisation, with different traditions in the UK and Germany for example, that may explain the frequent incidence of certain forms of policy-research dialogues. On the other hand, the particular culture and practices in a specific domain and a specific institution may in reality turn out to be quite different from what one may expect on the basis of national cultures and traditions. For instance, whereas the specific British case revealed a great interest in policymaking based on knowledge and evidence, in reality research mostly served substantiating purposes rather than having a legitimising or instrumental role. Boswell’s exploration of these contextual factors further underlines the necessity of more conceptual and empirical work that connects knowledge utilisation to the issue of how research-policy relations are structured in the first place.