The microcontroller of the transmitter section receives data from user's computer through the USB port and sends data out using RS-232 serial communication interface. The byte data type is converted into light signal data type by using the on-off keying modulation (OOK) technique and is transmitted via LED. Then phototransistor at the receiver section receives light from the LED of the transmitter through air and send light signal to the microcontroller. The micro controller then converts this signal into byte data and sends it to user's computer through USB port. Software at the receiver side receives byte data and combines each set of bytes together then the file can be saved.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been defined variously by different scholars. According to Slaymaker and Chapman (2002), ICTs include an array of communication equipment or technologies used in processing and communicating information. It encompasses computer technology, multi-media and network hardware and software, telecommunications and opto-electronics [semi-conductors and fibreoptics]. It covers any technological products and processes that store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive unprecedented amounts of information and communicate electronically in a digital form. They are satellites, mobile telephones, wireless local loops and also, a range of applications such as internet, email, distance or open learning, teleworking, digital radio and video. With the invention of wireless technology, ICT can be accessed almost anywhere. Physical access to ICT occurs in public spaces such as workplaces, libraries, schools as well as community information centres. In Migori County, for instance, ICT can be accessed through mobile phones, privately owned cyber-cafes as well as satellite systems famously known as ZUKU. Even so, not everyone can afford to pay for these services as result of their cost. ICT, as addressed in this paper, refers to access and use of the internet enabled computers and mobile phones, cybercafés and satellite systems. Additionally, the term urban refers to proliferation of shops, supermarkets and markets into a town or city. Gender as a strategy recognises that development initiatives such as policies, programmes, projects or activities are never neutral and that they can actually widen the gaps between individuals and groups (Morgan, 2012). Hence, every initiative, regardless of the sector of intervention or discipline involved, has different effects and impacts on men and women, young people and older people, rural and urban populations. It is for this reason that, as a developmental approach, gender is understood to mean men and women’s needs for empowerment and equality, that is, the Gender and Development (GAD) approach (Reeves & Baden, 2000).
advantage whether development or education. In this respect, it seems that communication technology has, in no way has helped the poor for improving their socio-economic condition. These rural development projects broadly followed an “extension model” in which broadcast media were used to reach the large rural population or target groups. In the post economic liberalisation period, rural development projects added information and communication technology (ICT) to provide individual need-based information in broad development areas through Internet. In the post economic liberalization phase without abandoning the extension model “social marketing approach” to rural development has been adopted. We are sure, that if the human resources at Panchayat level are enriched with the knowledge of using space based inputs, many issues related to land use or reclamation of wastelands, agriculture, horticulture, infrastructure development, water harvesting, etc., specific to the local environment can be solved.
The increasing new technologies in our daily lives have affected most of socio-economic activities. In Nigeria, the educational system and standards at almost all levels were comparable to others within the developed World between 1970 to early 1990. However the decline in standard became obvious from late 1990. This is partly because over the past decades information and communication technology (ICT) system had drastically changed the techniques for teaching and learning, beliefs, values, culture, religion and entire way of life Agba (2001). The most relatively affected areas include education systems, commerce and industry, manufacturing process, and social system.
The importance of communication satellites in our day-to-day life become more prominent and as evidence increase in the usage of mobile networks, Global Positioning System (GPS), homes equipped with antenna used for reception of satellite dios. Satellite communications began in October 1957. The first artificial Earth satellite was launched by USSR named Sputnik I. it does not have a communication capability because it carried only a beacon transmitter but it could be placed in orbit by powerful rockets. Telstar I and II, the true communication satellites were launched in July 1962 and May 1963(M. Richharia, 1999). It has been launched into medium Earth orbit with periods of 158 and 225 min. but the orbit chosen for the satellite took them through several bands of high energy radiation which causes early failure in the electronics on- board. However the work has begun to develop launch vehicles that could deliver a payload to geostationary orbit and the communication satellite to provide useful communication capacity. 99% of satellites been launched in 1963 because LEO and MEO were much easier to reach than GEO with small launch vehicles available at that ayload capabilities, the intense debate was eventually settled on launcher reliability. At
Laser communications offer a viable alternative to RF communications for intersatellite links and other applications where high-performance links are necessary. High data rate, small antenna size, narrow beam divergence, and a narrow field of view are characteristics of laser communication that offer a number of potential advantages for system design. The high data rate and large information throughput available with laser communications are many times greater than in radio frequency (RF) systems. The small antenna size requires only a small increase in the weight and volume of host vehicle. In addition, this feature substantially reduces blockage of fields of view of the most desirable areas on satellites. The smaller antennas, with diameters typically less than 30cm, create less momentum disturbance to any sensitive satellite sensors. The narrow beam divergence of affords interference-free and secure operation.
From Table - 9, it is observed that correlation coefficients are significant for more than half of the goal orientation constructs. Hence, the hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded that goal orientation constructs have a significant relationship with the communication of executives. It is observed from the table that performance-approach has a positive relationship with neutrality, whereas negative relationship exists with provisionalism and supportive communication. Positive relationship with neutrality may be due to the executives’ mental framework to interpret and respond to situations, circumstances, and events achievement that make them to have positive relationship. The negative relationship of performance- approach with provisionalism and supportive communication may be due to the failures in the conceptualization of mental framework to communicate and interact with others. Performance-avoidance has a positive relationship with evaluation, neutrality, provisionalism, and defensive communication. The performance-avoidance orientation may be due to grounding in self-regulation. This evokes the self protective attitudes that interfere with or preclude optimal task engagement. Finally, learning orientation has a positive relationship with spontaneity whereas negative relationship persists with neutrality. It may be due to the organizational environment which communicates beliefs about the learning opportunities in the organization which have the potential to impact executives’ achievement, whereas negative relationship is due to the communication system or the perception of communication leads to negative beliefs. It is concluded that the goal orientation constructs of executives have relationship with the communication of executives.
At some point in the disease progression, 80% to 95% of people with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. In time, most become unable to speak at all. As speech becomes difficult to understand, many supplement their speech by identifying the first letter of each word on an alphabet board, pictures or by identifying the topic on a communication board. Communication booklet is a cost effective and handy aid, which provides caregivers with an overall roadmap of the care needed by those diagnosed with acquired neurological communication disorder, especially with a focus on Alzheimer's disease, dementia, stroke and traumatic injuries. The booklet helps the caregivers to communicate with the patients who have neurogenic communication disorder, since it outlines the daily activities, emotions, caring behaviours and all other needed materials of day-to- day life in pictorial form.
Education is one of the main keys to economic development and improvements in human welfare. ICTs stand for information and communication technologies. Globalization and technological change—processes that have accelerated over the past fifteen years—have created a new global economy “powered by technology, fuelled by information and driven by knowledge.” Information and communication technologies (ICTs)—which include radio and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the Internet—have been touted as potentially powerful enabling tools for educational change and reform. The main purpose of ICT in Education means implementing of ICT Equipments and Tools in Teaching-Learning process as a media and methodology.
In contrast to manufacturing, the result of customer service is not a tangible product, but an intangible relationship between the customer service representative and the customer. To be of value to the firm employing the customer service representative, this relationship should rest upon a foundation of mutuality, a communication commonplace that enacts the common as a site for obligation and ethical reciprocity. For several reasons, though, this foundation presents problems for the capture of the common by capitalism. Mutuality precedes the customer-customer service representative relationship, establishing at least part of the context for this relationship. Second, once invoked, mutuality becomes the primary resource for practicing customer service and creating surplus value. Finally, mutuality also exists as an outcome of good customer service. At each ‘stage’ of customer service, mutuality conditions the capitalist production of surplus value and infects this production with the social value of the common good 7 . For these reasons I disagree with claims that capital has captured the common (Casarino, 2008). With respect to customer service work, the common does appear at the beginning, middle, and end of capitalist production (Hardt and Negri, 2004). CSR learners remain keen to the distinction between ‘living and producing’ (Hardt and Negri, 2004: 148), however, using the values of living to assess the values of producing.
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Parents play a vital role in nurturing and educating their children. In the process of rearing a child, parenting dimensions varies from one individual to another; and found to be different amongst nds, they are different in their belief system, mode of thinking, attitudes, childhood experiences, and perception which reflects in the child. The focus of the present study is to know the communication patterns among parents of tenth grade o identify the level of significance on negative dimensions of parenting over positive dimensions of parenting. It was hypothesized that there is no relationship between communication patterns of parents and dimensions of parenting. The sample comprises of one hundred and five adolescent parents, drawn from Bangalore city, using purposive sampling technique. The participants dimensional Parenting Scale (1985) and a self-designed survey questionnaire ts with respect to Themes and styles per se., to assesses parent- child communication. Data was analyzed using Correlation to establish the relationship between communication patterns and dimensions of parenting. The study indicates that enhancing positive dimensions of parenting is related to the capacity of the parents to communicate a variety of Themes with their children. This study would significantly contribute in understanding the dynamics of
A disoriented family makes the palliative process difficult, but the family oriented to the benefits for the individual becomes a support for the patient and staff. For this to happen, special attention must be given to the families of the patients in order to establish a bond that makes the experience less traumatic for everyone. Therefore, some factors that influence decision making in complex moments are identified, such as clarifying family and patient doubts, coherent posture of the health professionals involved, and the development of care based on bioethical principles. protecting the rights and dignity of the person (Gulini, 2017; Galvão et al., 2017; Andrade et al., 2017; Martins, 2017 and Deane, 2016).The provider is obligated to provide the user or his / her family with the most complete information in order to promote proper understanding of the problem, discussing with him / her appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic options and helping him / her to choose the most beneficial one (Gofton, 2018; Achury, 2016).Regarding the quality of the information, there are conflicts in the communication especially about the professional who must provide the information about the health situation object of a decision-making process. This is particularly important when it comes to information about bad news and the breakdown of information in the face of the right to the truth. With regard to sick people, difficulties are highlighted due to the ethical emergency, the urgency to transmit difficult diagnostic information. From the human point of view, knowledge management makes professional decision making considerably complex (Ellis, 2019; Plaza- Carmona, 2016; Silva, 2019 and Britto, 2015).It is noteworthy that these aspects underlie the care process and the ethics related to the preservation of privacy and confidentiality as inseparable attributes of the ethical-legal obligation that must be respected in verbal and nonverbal communications.
The benefits of therapeutic communication are to encourage and advocating cooperation between fellow nurses with patients through nurse relationship with patient . Meanwhile, research conducted by Rahma (2016) found that terapeutic communication between the nurse and the patient has been going well , this is reflected in the way the nurse provides a gentle direct communication and facial expression which is pleasing to the patient also with the gift of attention to the patient by gently refreshing the patient's complaints, giving feedback is easy to understand and always smiling friendly and speaks politely .
At the institutional level, ICT-assisted instruction is dependent upon the availability of proper infrastructure, i.e. installation and maintenance of electricity and telephone communication facilities, acquisition and maintenance of computers, and Internet connectivity. However, the instructional strategies and technologies employed by countries are just as influenced by national priorities and policies on the use of ICT in education, in addition to financial resources. Human resources also play an important role since teachers and other educational personnel need to use ICT effectively and impart knowledge and skills to pupils. Implementation plans need to evaluate current needs and future goals and ensure that adequate training and support are provided. The ICT-in-Education Toolkit (http://www.ictinedtoolkit.org/usere/login.php) is an online tool that can help policymakers to plan during various phases of ICT in education initiatives (Haddad et al., 2007).
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multiple channels of communication such as TV, radio and the Internet (Perry 2004). This third wave enables politicians to connect directly to their voters, reinforcing the belief that democracy functions best when it is based on the bilateral and effective flow of information (Coleman et al., 1999). Nevertheless, politicians need to ask themselves, do they want to use the new digital media and to what extent? Coleman et al. (1999) suggested that politicians pass through four stages in their adjustment to the use of the Internet as a political tool: ignorance, exaggeration, ripening, and maturation and acceptance. Electronic communication technologies have transformed the visibility of political actors, making them visible to a mass audience of citizens who are not necessarily present at the same time in the same place (Gulati 2004). The emergence of a personality-focused electorate means that effective self-projection through the media is increasingly essential for building a bond with the voters and ensuring electoral success (Corner and Pels 2003). A growing number of studies examining strategic self-presentation by politicians in various democracies revealed the growing emphasis placed on projecting the right image in the media (Schutz 1995; Pels 2003; Gulati 2004). Recent research in Europe shows that party leaders increasingly use various media outlets to emphasize the qualities that they believe their constituents see as positive (Mughan 2000; Campus 2002; Pels 2003).
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), which is the United Nation’s repository for statistics on education, science and technology, and culture and communication, is mandated to administer international data collections on the availability, use and impact of ICT in education. Through the establishment of internationally-comparable and policy-relevant indicators, the UIS contributes significantly towards international benchmarking and monitoring of the integration of and access to ICT in education, which are fundamental for policymakers to select priorities and adopt and develop policies. For instance, policymakers may use UIS data to inform decisions related to: i) national capacity and/or infrastructure levels (e.g. electricity, Internet, broadband) for integrating new ICT tools in schools; ii) the types of ICT currently being neglected and/or emphasised in relation to concerns of usability and affordability (e.g. radio- versus computer- assisted instruction); iii) whether ICT-assisted strategies are evenly distributed nationwide; iv) whether girls and boys have equal access; v) the types of support mechanisms currently in place or the lack thereof; and vi) the relative level of teacher training provided in relation to the demands placed on them to teach and/or use ICT in the classroom.
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Apulu and Lathan (2009) stated that majority of Nigerian SMEs are not utilizing ICT which is the foundation of e- business, due to some major barriers, electricity infrastructure, poor service from internet service provider (ISP), lack of education, cost of training and maintenance and lack of support from government and banks. But with the use of ICT, weak players in the economy can be empowered by providing them with information, communication and knowledge they could not access before. This enhances the competitiveness of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and can enable them establish their presence on the internet and use it to communicate with suppliers and customers to search for
The result of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between staffing and the adoption of ICT in University libraries in Akwa-Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria. The finding is in line with the view of Weihrich and Kootz (2005) who said that an organization workforce is its lifeblood, which needs to be managed appropriately. They also reported that staffing is the function of acquiring employees, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the end so as to attain the organizational objectives. In addition to this report, without human being (staff) machine on his own cannot work nor operate itself, this makes staffing so important in an organization especially in the library where we have different unit/divisions. The findings also show that training of library personnel and increasing their knowledge of tasks can lead to higher performance. The findings of this study is in line with the finding of a similar study conducted by Adeyoyin (2006) who reported that out of 370 professional librarians, only 179 of them were ICT literate while the 191 professional were ICT non-literate, and some of the finding were that there was a need for knowledge acquisition among the librarians in Nigerian University to be able to offer efficient services in the emerging Information and Communication Technology era and that the ICT literacy among the librarians was low and hands-on practical experience was lacking among the librarian in some cases. He therefore recommended that the application of information and communication technology in West African university libraries and their subsequent use require that these technologies should become part of library staff training. The findings also is in accordance with a similar study that was carried out by Ondari-Okemwa (2000) who revealed that there is a need for continuous training of library staff because of the rapid changes in information technology.
. The corporate communicators should also be encouraged to gain the benefit of specialization in various branches of corporate communication management in modern society. The corporate communication activities need management support and active involvement of various branches of organizational management. The study emphasizes that inter-departmental coordination would enrich the status of corporate communication in select corporate houses. The modern corporate houses should also formulate a set of sound ethical considerations and practices in order to prevent unlawful and unhealthy corporate communication practices. The corporate communicators also required proper training and orientation in the art of image building and demonstrating the socially beneficial programmes of the corporate houses through adequate communication campaigns. The practice of corporate communication demands integrated approaches in general and application of multimedia in particular. The future agenda for corporate communication management in select corporate houses must deal with the process of corporate social responsibility and adoption of sound ethical practices. The corporate communication services have to be rendered with due respect to professional ethics and corporate social responsibility.
Organizational culture is a set of beliefs and values shared by members of the same organization that influences their behaviors (O'Reilly III, et al., 1991; Schein, 1990, 1996). The culture reflects common ways of thinking and behaving. According to O'Reilly III et al. (1991) an innovative orientation in the organizational culture is related to stronger innovation capabilities, which is consistent with the idea that employees in innovation-oriented companies are faced with conditions that support and motivate them to perform innovative activities and to develop relational power sources (Lau and Ngo, 2004). A high communication-oriented culture is one type of culture that the information is in the communication while very little is in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message. A low communication- oriented culture is just the opposite(O'Reilly III, et al., 1991). Hofstede (1993) noted that individual cultural orientation affects learning outcomes through learning interactions.