Abstract: The paper aims at creating a browser based IDE (Integrated Development Environment) for execution of programming languages on the cloud and an application in which multiple users can work online on same document. In the future researchers and developers will be able to install this framework on their own cloud infrastructures for programming and execution of codes. Because the advantage of cloud computing, many desktop application programs have been migrated into the cloud. This work deals with a web-based application that can be used remotely throughout any network connection. We can use any operating system to access it and making it platform independent. We can neglect installation on individual local system or maintenance work. The paper aims at creating a browser based Integrated Development Environment for execution of programming languages on the cloud and an application in which multiple numbers of users can work online(i.e. on cloud) on same document.
The root of misconception according to him was the fact that programmers began to associate LISP’s procedures with functions, disregarding the mathematical definition of a function which states that a function is a map from input values to output values. Being one of the earliest programming languages to implement procedures which looked like functions, LISP was taken to be a programming language that is functional. A LISP procedure can return different values for each call to the procedure with the same value for its arguments. This breaks away from the characteristic of functional languages that is to be free of side effects.
Programming languages are ordinarily presented as mechanisms that simplify the use of computers’ central processing unit (CPU). These electronic devices behave according to electrical charges that can be understood as bits. These can be seen as an incomprehensible list of numbers that are, at the bottom line, the instructions that the CPU is forced to obey. Programming languages exist in or- der to make these lists of numbers easier to create and modify. Programmers use programming languages in order to write simple instructions in English-like words that will then be translated into a bunch of numbers somewhere in the memory of the computer. The most distant from a technical specification and more user-friendly the language, the higher is its level. There are many styles of high-level languages, each aiming at a different kind of use: gaming, business, statistics, etc.
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Type systems serve three related purposes in programming languages: to classify values, to determine their applicable operations, and to inform the compiler how much memory to allocate to store a value of the given type. In the ﬁrst view, a type is “a constraint which deﬁnes the set of valid values which conform to it” [ 48 ] . In the second, types are abstract “speciﬁcations of functionality” [ 45, p.723 ] , which deﬁne “legal usage contexts for the values they describe” [ 45, p.620 ] . An attempt to perform an illegal operation on a value is known as a type error, which may be detected either at compile time or runtime. In a typeless language, “it must be the case that every value can be used in every context” [ 45, p.622 ] .
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In this work, a Multi-paradigm Complexity Metric (MCM) for measuring software complexity was developed for multi-paradigm codes. Multi-paradigm languages that were used in this work combine the features of procedural and object oriented paradigms, therefore this research began with investigation of factors that affect the complexity of procedural code, thereafter with a more modern approach, the research was further extended by adding object oriented features, so that the developed metric could be used not only for procedural code, but also either object oriented codes or in more general meaning for multi-paradigm codes. The developed metric was then applied on sample programs written in most popular programming languages such as Python, Java and C++, and was further evaluated with other existing complexity metrics like effective line of code (eLOC), cyclomatic complexity metric and Halstead complexity measures.
The complexioness of integrated circuits increases every year, so reduce complexities invent Hardware Description Lanauages in1984 by Phil Moorby and Prabhu Goel around 1984. Implementing algorithms using hardware languages like VHDL or Verilog. The first level programming language was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945. The main and important comparison between HDL and Programming Language is that HDL describes the behavior of digital systems while Software Language provides a set of instructions for the CPU to perform a particular task. Programming languages are extremely interesting. Computer scientists tend to invent new programming languages. Thousand different languages have been created within previous few years. Some languages have large popularity and most commonly used in software world. and others creating new features and varieties in their languages. Each language has its pros and cons. At a recent time, the applications of software have influences in daily use.Otherhand hardware engineers this has resulted in a higher degree of design automation and increase in the number of tools available to an IC designer. Recently there has been an willingly toward the usage of Hardware Description Languages. These above all languages are compared under the characteristics of reliability, portability of tools, readability, efficiency, familiarity and expressiveness with terms differentiation with giving simple program code and syntax.
Learning is a continuous process which people can’t only find in school but everywhere. As computers and the internet become essential educational tools, the technologies become more portable, affordable, effective and easy to use. E- learning requires computer and internet but most people know that not everyone have this kind of resources at home or at school. Without these resources, a learner could not succeed in learning. The proposed Mobile E-learning system contains computer programming languages that will be great of help for IT students due to mobile phones ubiquity. It is a system that can be accessed anytime and anywhere even without the use of internet.
applied or not. This is the reason why inheritance is a controversial feature. For example, let us consider a draw() method inherited from a shape object into a rectangle object. The rectangle’s draw() could be coded to draw itself. But while doing , it could change some of the semantics of the inherited draw(). The programming language cannot ensure that rectangle’s draw() conforms to certain semantics that Shape’s draw defines. Eiffel programming language associates some conditions with each class method, and these are inherited by the sub classes. This can be used to control the amount by which a subclass method conforms to the base method specification. When a subclass chooses to redefine a method,only the in variants from the inherited class are applied to the new definition. This could potentially weaken the ability of a super class designer to ensure that subclass methods follow semantics, but it still leaves some scope for restricting what a subclass method can change. Other languages like C++ and Java leave this upto the programmer’s discretion.
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When a developer invokes a Java class’s constructor, it in effect constructs objects all the way up the inheritance chain (in practice, a compiler might optimize this to require only one constructor invocation and one object allocation). These are private copies of the objects corresponding to the parent classes (private, that is, up to the presence of static members). There is, however, a question of how much of these objects is visible. Java chooses that—unlike in our implementation above—only one method of a given name (and signature) remains, no matter how many there might have been on the inheritance chain, whereas every field remains in the result, and can be accessed by casting. The latter makes some sense because each field presumably has invariants governing it, so keeping them separate (and hence all present) is wise. In contrast, it is easy to imagine an implementation that also makes all the methods available, not only the ones lowest (i.e., most refined) in the inheritance hierarchy. Many scripting languages take the latter approach.
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OpenSHMEM [OpenSHMEM, 2017] is an effort to provide a standard programming interface for implementing the PGAS model. The execution model is based on a group of processing elements (PEs), each having a private memory space for allocating non- shared variables, and a so-called symmetric heap for allocating shared variables that can be accessed by any PE. Allocating a shared variable is performed by allocating an image of the variable in the symmetric heap of each PE. A variety of interfaces are provided for memory management, synchronization, one-sided put/get operations, and atomic operations. Different research groups have proposed fault tolerance exten- sions for OpenSHMEM. Bouteiller et al.  propose extensions to OpenSHMEM to support the same user-level fault tolerance mechanism applied in MPI-ULFM. Garg et al.  use the Distributed MultiThreaded CheckPointing (DMTCP) [Ansel et al., 2009] system to provide transparent system-level checkpointing with offline recovery. Hao et al. [2014a] support coordinated in-memory checkpointing by adding the new collective operation shmem_checkpoint_all , which stores a replica of each symmetric heap at the neighboring PE and raises an error if any of the PEs is dead. The program can respond to a reported failure by shrinking the application to the remaining PEs or create new PEs dynamically using the proposed shmem_restart_pes operation. 184.108.40.206 Global Arrays
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expressive and natural style of programming, and in allowing computationally intensive functions, such as exponential-time functions, to be written, but it is an impediment to static analysis. It is a clear consequence of the Church-Turing thesis that one cannot provide a method which, in general, will determine the running time of a function. This thesis will explore inferring running times, but will focus on a computational model which is not universally powerful and hence to which the Church-Turing thesis is not applicable. This thesis describes the programming language Pola, a programming language which is not universally powerful. Specifically, it is limited to the polynomial-time functions: it is impossible in Pola to write a function which does not halt in time polynomial with respect to the size of its input. We will then show how this restriction placed on Pola allows the practical bounds of running times of functions written in the language to be automatically inferred by a Pola interpreter or compiler.
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It may seem reasonable that in making the above mentioned comparison among different parsers, language should be a constant factor and its grammar in each case be written so as to suit the particular parser. However, no general conclusion can be drawn from such a comparison. Since, for almost any general parsing method known, there are languages (or sentence in languages) which make .it
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Despite extensive study over several decades, this problem remains largely unsolved. The main reason it has proven so challenging is that, in general, the view update u does not uniquely determine a source update t . For example, when q is not injective, certain updates to the view have many corresponding source updates. One can impose additional constraints to guide the selection of an update—e.g., requiring that the t have minimal “side effects” on the source—but when the query and schema languages are suf ciently complicated, calculating updates satisfy- ing these additional constraints is intractable (Buneman et al., 2002). Even worse, when q is not surjective, some updates to the view produce structures that lie outside of the codomain of the query! It is not hard to see that in these situations it will be impossible to propagate the view update back to a corresponding source update—i.e., there is no t that makes the above diagram commute. Systems often choose to reject these updates, but doing so breaks the abstraction boundary between the source and view. It adds hidden constraints on how the view may be updated that are only revealed when the user of the view tries to propagate an update back to the source.
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Abstract: The development of computer programming started with the development of the switching logic, because, the computer hardware is made up of millions of digital switches. The activation and deactivation of these switches are through codified instructions – (program) which trigger the switches to function. The computer programming languages have gone through a revolution, from the machine code language, through assembly mnemonics to the high level programming lan- guages like FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, LISP, BASIC, ADA and C/C ++ . It is a fact that, these programming languages are not the exact codes that microprocessors do understand and work with, because through compiler and interpreter pro- grams, these high level programming languages that are easily understood by people are converted to machine code lan- guages for the microprocessor to understand and do the work human knowledge has instructed it to do. The various pro- gramming languages stem from the difficulties man has in using one programming language to solve different problems on the computer. Hence, for mathematical and trigonometrically problems, FORTRAN is the best, for business problems, COBOL is the right language, whilst for computer games and designs, BASIC language is the solution. The trend of using individual programming languages to solve specific problems by single processor computers have changed drastically, from single core processors to present day dual and multi-core processors. The main target of engineers and scientists is to reach a stage that the computer can think like the human brain. The human brain contains many cognitive (thinking) mod- ules that work in parallel to produce a unique result. With the presence of multi-core processors, why should computers continue to draw summaries from stored databases, and allow us to sit hours to analyse these results to find solutions to problems
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ABSTRACT: All Handheld and IoT devices rely on batteries for power sources. But a battery can store only limited energy. Therefore, there is a necessity for continuous loop of evaluation of hardware and software that runs on these devices from energy utilization point of view. This paper studies the impact of programming languages and algorithms on power consumption. Also, this study includes the tools to measure the power consumption at operating system process level.
Abstract---Now a day the maximum percentage of the people from the world of computer programmers are using object oriented programming languages like C++, Java, Eiffel, Dot Net and etc. Why, because these languages are incorporated with some easiness, advanced, re-useful and needful features. And Inheritance is most important portion of any object oriented programming languages that plays vital role to like the language by programmers. Here I am going to discuss some basics problems and their solutions related to a situation of multiple inheritance called Diamond Effect. This problem comes in existence when we use multiple inheritance where one class is inherited by two different sub classes and again these two subclasses are inherited by any single class. Multiple inheritance in object oriented language like C++ is a powerful, but tricky tool, that often leads to problems if not handled carefully. Diamond effect occurs in most of the object oriented languages and each language has some different syntax for coding. In this paper whatever coding is used, will be in the reference of C++.
Abstract Programming languages have long impacted the development of distributed systems. While much middle- ware and distributed systems code continues to be devel- oped today using mainstream languages such as Java and C++, several forces have recently combined to drive a re- newed interest in other programming languages. The result of these forces has been an increase in the use of program- ming languages such as Erlang, Scala, Haskell, and Clojure that allow programming at a higher level of abstraction af- fording better modularity, enhanced speed of development, and added power of reasoning about systems being devel- oped. Such languages can also be used to develop embed- ded domain specific languages that can expressively and succinctly model issues inherent in distributed systems in- cluding concurrency, parallelism, and fault tolerance. In this paper, we first present a history of programming languages and distributed systems, and then explore several alternative languages along with modern systems built using them. We focus on language and application features, how problems of distribution are addressed, concurrency issues, code brevity,
The aim of the present paper is to extend the range of the game approach towards real-life programming languages, by fo- cussing on Java-style objects. To that end, we define an impera- tive object calculus, called Interface Middleweight Java (IMJ), in- tended to capture contextual interactions of code written in Mid- dleweight Java (MJ) , as specified by interfaces with inheritance. We present both equational (contextual equivalence) and inequa- tional (contextual approximation) full abstraction results for the language. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deno- tational models of this kind.
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The primary objective of introductory programming instruction must be to nurture novice programmers who can apply pro- gramming concepts equally well in any language. Yet many papers from literature argue that one language is superior for this task. Such research asserts a particular language is superior to another because, in isolation, it possesses desirable features [2, 3, 4, 9, 21] or because changing to the new language seemed to encourage better results from students [1, 11]. What is shown in literature is surely only a reflection of the innumerable de- bates that have undoubtedly taken place within teaching institu- tions.