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Construction Of The Subjective Well-Being Scale

Construction Of The Subjective Well-Being Scale

are evaluation of global life satisfaction and evaluation of satisfaction in domains such as physical and mental health, work, and recreation, social and family relationships. Global life satisfaction is intended to present an individual's overall and reflective assessment of his life. More specifically, individual life satisfaction involves individual perceptions of the comparison of their living conditions with their unique standards. Evaluation of satisfaction in certain domains is an assessment made by individuals in evaluating domains in their lives, such as physical and mental health, recreation, and work, social and family relationships. Evaluation of life satisfaction globally is a reflection of individual perceptions of things that individuals experience in their lives. Individuals with high levels of life satisfaction have good acceptance, positive relationships with others, and life and personal goals that develop. Life satisfaction makes individuals want to continue to live and work, even to produce something and indirectly can make individuals live long. The lowest component that reflects subjective well-being is the negative affect component with a loading factor of 0.664. The main indicator of negative affect is guilty. The emergence of negative affect in the self indicates that the individual experiences negative emotions in carrying out his profession. Negative affect is the prevalence of unpleasant emotions and reflects negative responses experienced by individuals as a reaction to life, health, circumstances, and events experienced. The findings of this study are in line with research conducted by research conducted by Akhtar [29] which proves that subjective well- being meets the reliability requirements of 0.80 with the highest component being cognitive or life satisfaction with a loading factor of 0.826 and the lowest component is affection with loading factors of 0.853 while the reliability in this study was 0.679 with a cognitive component or life satisfaction with a loading factor of 0.910 and the lowest component was an affection with a loading factor of 0.664. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of the validity and reliability of the construct of subjective well-being on online motorcycle taxi drivers in Yogyakarta so that it can be used as a reference in subsequent studies related to subjective well- being, especially relating to subjective well-being of public transportation drivers.
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Redefining prosperity : delivering well being

Redefining prosperity : delivering well being

Despite problems of scale, there are many existing initiatives in the voluntary/charity sectors that can usefully inform policy makers. Economists need to develop a better understanding of the diverse but interrelated disciplines informing welfare economics. Policy-makers also need to develop a better understanding of how choice impacts on happiness and well-being. The Government needs better structures for incentivising departments to prioritise well-being. PSA targets, for example, could both push and pull departments by changing peoples aspirations and demands. Some progress on well-being is already being made by Government departments. The Treasury shares a joint PSA to reduce child poverty and are keen to follow through the success of SureStart and early years education. Healthcare should aim to support well-ness as well as treating illness. Better treatment for mental health problems is key to this objective.
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SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP AND WELL BEING

SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP AND WELL BEING

This paper presents an overview of relation of well-being and social relationship. Strong social relationship is an important contributes of well-being. Our need to form and maintain strong social relationship is a basic source of human motivation. This motivation significantly influences our well-being. Earlier researches suggest that social relationship enhance our happiness level and psychological well-being. It makes us happier and adds meaning to our life. Thus relationship has the most significant impact on human flourishing. People who have more friends are happier. Friends advise and support us to cope with difficult life situations. Having else and strong relationship also enhance physical well-being and longevity. Many studies report that individuals who had high levels of social support had lower level of stress and anxiety. They stayed healthier and lived longer lives. We should always try to make strong social relationship in our lives. We make else friends at society and at our workplace too. We spend a significant amount of time at our workplace. So, we must develop good relationship with people at our work place.
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Interpersonal comparisons of well being

Interpersonal comparisons of well being

Arrow’s (1951, 1963) fundamental theorem states that there do not exist satisfactory welfarist principles if the only information that can be used in social evaluation is ordinally measurable and interpersonally non-comparable utility information. Sen (1970) shows that the conclusion of Arrow’s theorem remains true if Arrow’s ordinal interpretation of individual utility is replaced by a cardinal interpretation and no interpersonal comparisons of well-being are permitted. Taking these results as our starting point, we illustrate how the Arrow-Sen impossibility can be avoided if various forms of interpersonal utility comparisons are possible.
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The scales of general well being (SGWB)

The scales of general well being (SGWB)

All items were phrased as declarative statements. Theoretically, reversed well- being items were expected to tap into ill-being constructs (Huppert & So, 2013). From a psychometric perspective, reversed items can be confusing to respondents, particularly in long questionnaires (DeVellis, 2012; van Sonderen et al., 2013); they can produce factor structure problems (Schmitt & Stults, 1985; Woods, 2006); they were less effective in measuring well-being constructs like flow (Jackson & Eklund, 2004) and vitality (Bostic, Rubio & Hood, 2000); and, while they are normally included to prevent acquiescent responding, they have been found to be ineffective in doing so (van Sonderen et al., 2013).
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Well being across America

Well being across America

Use of American data on this issue has not been com- mon. But one approach is that of researchers such as Mroc- zek and Kolarz (1998) and Easterlin (2006), who hold con- stant few or no other influences on well-being and instead look at the uncorrected relationship between happiness and age. In a sense, these authors focus on a reduced-form issue. That issue is a descriptive question: How does observed happiness vary over the life cycle? Further analysis includes that of Mroczek and Spiro (2005). The authors conclude in a data set on U.S. veterans that happiness rises into the per- son’s approximately early 60s and then tends to fall away. New work by Glenn (2009) also argues, in his criticism of the multicountry study by Blanchflower and Oswald (2008), that there is no U shape in American data.
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Lean and employee well being

Lean and employee well being

This mixed-method study researches the relationships between Perceived Lean Adoption and Employee wellbeing and Job Performance. A positive relationship, mediated by Relational Coordination (Gittell & Waltham, 2011) and moderated by effective Leadership Behaviour (Van Dun, Hicks, & Wilderom, 2017) was predicted. Study 1, video observation of lean teams performing week and day start events, focussing on the leader’s display of supportive behaviours. Study 2, questionnaires distributed among operational team members assessed: Perceived Lean Adoption, Relational Coordination, Leadership Behaviour of their team leader, Employee Well-being and Job Performance. We have utilised three main hypotheses: direct relations; independent and dependent, mediating variables and direct and moderating relationships of Leadership Behaviours. Study 3, team leaders and team members were interviewed using the critical incidence technique (CIT) (Flanagan, 1954). We found behavioural determinants of actors in good and bad lean practices. Study 1 showed observed behaviours to be Relationship-Oriented Leadership. Study 2 found a significant positive correlation between Perceived Lean Adoption and Relational Coordination (shared communication dimension; t=2.94, p=.003, shared relationships dimension of Relational Coordination (t=1.99, p=.047). Moreover, Perceived Lean Adoption and Task- and Relation- Oriented Leadership Behaviour show a significant positive relations (t=3.26, p=.001; t=2.32, p=.021). The data do not support all other posed assumptions and paths. Furthermore, no moderation effect was found. Study 3 found the underlying determinants of employee behaviour in good and bad lean practices.
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How to design for well being? :
a methodology on design for well being to embody well being in ViSi Mobile

How to design for well being? : a methodology on design for well being to embody well being in ViSi Mobile

The hereby proposed design approach meets the three heuristics defined. First, the approach provides tangible guidelines for anticipating on the relation between technology and well-being via mediation analysis. Thereby it can prevent better undesired and unintended consequences of technology. Second, the approach, inspired by value sensitive design, does justice to the circumstances in which well- being becomes defined. It starts each design problem by defining well-being in context as a set of values. In that, Values that Matter tries to tackle the methodological issue, as pointed to before, that design for value approaches up until now could not deal with. This methodological issue concerned identification of values, embodiment of values and anticipation on unintended consequences. First, Values that Matter tries to provide tools for identifying the right values in the design context. By involving actors, value cards and mediation analysis, the designer should be able to target the important values. Consequently, by linking values to the causing aspects of technology, the designer gains insight into how to embody values in design. Finally, as shown, the interwoven mediation framework helps in anticipating on technology’s effect and concurrently its unintended consequences. Finally, Values that Matter meets heuristic three. The approach takes into consideration that well-being cannot solely become defined by users alone, as users are biased by, amongst others, their short- term desires. Therefore, the methodology grants an important role to designers in embodying in design an objective well- being. This objective well-being takes into account the values of well-being users would not consider themselves. The methodology proceeds with understanding users’ subjective evaluations of the design as an input for the redesign. This way, the approach tries to bring about best well-being by balancing its objective and subjective components.
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Well-Being, Authority, and Worth

Well-Being, Authority, and Worth

merely instrumental, and the nature of well-being with its likely sources. What nourishment, exercise, and rest have in common is not that we value them as constitutive parts of human well-being but that they enable its pursuit and are, at times, important sources of well-being. To see this, we need only consider the value of each element independently of its causes or consequences. When I consider nourishment on its own, I find that I value it instrumentally rather than intrinsically. It matters only because it allows me to pursue other things that matter intrinsically, be it pleasure, desire satisfaction, knowledge, achievement and so on. I eat because I enjoy a good meal, because it sates my appetite, because I need energy to live, work and play, but I do not eat merely for the sake of eating. We can make a similar case against accounts that equate faring well in part with securing items on a list of primary goods or with having others respect one’s human rights. 56 As Aristotle recognized, some measure of external goods
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Marriage and the Well-Being of Children

Marriage and the Well-Being of Children

It is surprising that children ’ s well- being has become the focal consider- ation in legal and public policy debates regarding same-sex marriage. Early arguments against same-sex marriage explicitly invoked natural law and re- ligious considerations, af fi rming that heterosexual marriage is rooted in human nature or divine will while also asserting that same-sex marriage is either conceptually/ontologically impos- sible or inherently immoral. Those argu- ments have largely fallen by the wayside before compelling legal arguments about equal protection, the liberty rights of consenting adults to choose their own values and life preferences, and the separation of church and state. Instead, the focus has shifted to con- cerns about the effects that same-sex marriage has on children. For exam- ple, in 1996, Hawaii argued that, “… all things being equal, it is best for a child that it be raised in a single home by its parents, or at least by a married male and female … . ” 3 Eight years later,
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Psychosocial well being of the women living in the precarious districts of Abidjan

Psychosocial well being of the women living in the precarious districts of Abidjan

vulnerabilities, risks and increased inequalities exacerbated, in particular by the development of precarious neighborhoods and shantytowns. In developing cities, the proportion of urban dwellers living in precarious neighborhoods is estimated at one-third, or a total of one billion people worldwide, a figure that is expected to double by 2030 if Current trends in urbanization continue (UN Habitat 2003). The organization of life in such an environment is aimed primarily at the development and psychosocial well-being of the population. The quest for this state grows individually and / or collectively to take actions. Although the overall situation appears to be stabilizing and even improving in some parts of the world such as North Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, it is still worrying elsewhere, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Faced with these kinds of situations, humanitarian organizations are taking action to help the affected or stricken populations to recover their psychological and social balance. These are on the one hand the structures of the united nations system: the Red Cross, UNICEF, WFP, UNFPA, UNHCR etc. And other national and international non-governmental organizations: Save the Children, CARE International, Handicap International, DRCI, IRC, etc. Indeed, the psychosocial
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The Role Of Gender In Relation Between Psychological Well Being And Emotional Intelligence Among Adolescents

The Role Of Gender In Relation Between Psychological Well Being And Emotional Intelligence Among Adolescents

Ample researches were conducted to access the role of gender in relation between psychological well-being and emotional intelligence among adolescents. Some studies are cited here: Carmeli, Yitzhak-Halevy and Weisberg (2009) conducted a study to access the influence of emotional intelligence on psychological well-being. The results suggest that there is positive association between emotional intelligence and psychological wellbeing components – self-esteem, life satisfaction, and self-acceptance. Ahamadi, Azar, Sarchoghaei, and Nagahi, (2014) study conducted to explore the influence of emotional intelligence on psychological well-being. The results of the study show that emotional intelligence has a significant positive impact on psychological well-being of subjects. Irshad (2015) conducted a study to explore the relationship of emotional intelligence with psychological well- being among 1st year medical students of public and private college. A sample of 150 students (75 male and 75 female) collected randomly from Multan Institute of Pakistan. Author used Emotional Intelligence Scale of Pawliw (2002) and Ryff,s psychological well-being scale (1989) to measure emotional intelligence and psychological well-being respectively among the students. The findings of results showed that there is insignificant gender difference in emotional intelligence among male and female students of private and public college. Results also indicate that there is insignificant gender difference in dimensions of psychological well-being (autonomy, environmental mastery and personal growth) and has significant difference on these three dimensions of psychological well-being (positive relations, purpose in life and self-acceptance) among male and female students of private and public college. Shaheen and Shaheen (2016)
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Empirical verification of theoretical model between subjective well being, self esteem and depression in non clinical young people

Empirical verification of theoretical model between subjective well being, self esteem and depression in non clinical young people

Self-esteem refers to the self-assessment or self-judgment that the subject makes about himself, being an evaluative and affective component in the development of mental structure and functionality in the human being (Coopersmith, 1967). With this, the self-esteem construct can significantly influence studies that focus on mental health indicators and social analyzes of growth and progress (Mruk, 1995). For Sbicigo, Bandeira, Dell’Aglio (2010), in psychology, self-esteem influences the lack of psychosocial adjustment and is also considered an indicator of mental health. This construct is considered by these authors as an important factor in the process of identification, evaluation and also prevention of psychological problems. According Diener (1994), this is a construct positively correlated to satisfaction, negatively to depression (Orth, Robins & Roberts, 2008) and positively with indicators of emotional adjustment (Kernis, 2005). For Hewitt (2009), a high self-esteem is usually a translation of mental health and well-being (Hewitt, 2009) and low self-esteem is associated with negative mood, depression, and social anxiety (Heatherton & Wyland, 2003). In a similar evaluative direction, depression is contemplated, which influences most of the cognitive processes, such as: attention, perception, learning and retrieval of information (Beck, 1967; Beck & Clark, 2004). According Paradela, Lourenço and Veras (2005), depression is associated with several cormobities and increased use of health services. For Monteiro, Coutinho e Araújo (2007), a depressive picture will significantly influence daily life, specifically in social relationships and in the overall well-being of the individual. Thus, the present study aims to
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Measuring mental well being in Norway: validation of the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well being Scale (WEMWBS)

Measuring mental well being in Norway: validation of the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well being Scale (WEMWBS)

The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Health Scale (WEMWBS) was developed to meet the need for a psychometrically sound measure of positive mental health [9]. The scale was derived from the “Affectometer 2”, a mental well- being scale with several favorable psychometric proper- ties, but also with important limitations with regard to social desirability bias, item redundancy, and scale length [10]. Based on literature, validation results of the Affectometer 2, and input from focus groups, an expert panel agreed on key concepts and items that should be part of the new and improved scale. The key concepts were “positive affect and psychological functioning” (including autonomy, competence, self-acceptance, and personal growth), and “interpersonal relationships”. The final scale consisted of 14 positively worded items [9].
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Factors associated with psychological well being in middle aged adult and elderly in India

Factors associated with psychological well being in middle aged adult and elderly in India

The present study used Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) pilot survey data which was conducted in 2010 in the four states of Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, and Rajasthan. LASI is conceptually comparable to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States and is appropriately harmonized with other health and retirement studies, including its sister surveys in Asia – such as the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLOSA) – thereby allowing for cross-country comparison. It is funded by the National Institute of Aging, LASI is a partnership between the Harvard School of Public Health, the International Institute for Population Sciences in Mumbai, India, and the RAND Corporation. Also involved in LASI are two other Indian institutions, the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI) and the Indian Academy of Geriatrics (IAG), and the University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine. This pilot survey data focuses on the health, economic, and social well-being of India's elderly population. The pilot survey covered 950 households from the selected states and the total sample size is 1683 respondent, out of which of 872 middle- aged adult (45-59 years) and 614 elderly (60+) were taken for the study.
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Dreams and well being

Dreams and well being

their waking life. This study provided evidence of positive changes in participant’s well-being, particularly in normalisation of participant’s own dreams, better insight and understanding of their own life, and increased awareness and acceptance of their own emotions. Together these studies provide support for the premise that dreams are

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Institutions & Well being

Institutions & Well being

The fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in the early 1990s brought with it a rapid change in economic and political institutions such as switching from planned to market economies, restoring private property rights, liberalizing prices and foreign exchange and building new (democratic) political institutions. An important lesson from this transitioning experience is that while Western style political institutions can rapidly be introduced in society, achieving well-functioning institutional environment that supports modern democracy requires much more. In fact, in the short-run, such rapid transition can lead to many negative outcomes including high levels of income inequality, deteriorating interpersonal trust, increases in corruption, and, overall, lower levels of social capital. In this respect, one of the most robust findings in the well-being literature is the large (un)happiness gap that has been documented between people in post-communist and advanced societies, which, more than two decades after the transition, still persists (Guriev and Zhuravskaya, 2009).
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Refugee well being and mental health

Refugee well being and mental health

The importance of employment as a factor in integration is accepted by both academics and policymakers (cf. Home Office 2005; Bloch 2000). Numerous studies have demonstrated that unemployment levels among refugees are extremely high both nationally (Sargeant & Forna 2001; Feeney 2000) and in Birmingham (Phillimore & Goodson et al. 2003). Indeed the cohort of refugees interviewed for this study was predominantly unemployed. Unsurprisingly the refugees participating in this study mentioned that unemployment and underemployment were factors that affected their well being. Refugees wanted to be active, self-sufficient and to use the skills and abilities they brought with them. This is something that is echoed in several other studies focusing on refugees and employment issues (Phillimore & Goodson 2006). For many refugees the only thing of any value they have been able to bring with them is their skills and qualifications. Not to have those skills and qualifications recognised impacts on their individual identity and has a considerable effect on their confidence and self-esteem. Furthermore, being unemployed reinforces feelings of segregation and reinforces the image of refugees coming to the UK looking for support through state benefits. Several respondents spoke of how keen they were to make “a contribution”:
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Inequality and Well Being

Inequality and Well Being

In order to capture more fully the well-being of households, and of the social groups to which they belonged, two further dimensions were added. The first of these was the households’ living conditions. The IHDS-2011 reported on the living conditions of the households with respect to a number of items from which this study chose seven, scoring as 1 if the household possessed that item and 0 if it did not: (i) a toilet in their dwelling; (ii) a separate kitchen; (iii) a vent in the cooking place; (iv) a pucca roof; (v) a pucca floor; (vi) electricity; (vii) water supply in the dwelling or its
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Dreams and well being

Dreams and well being

shameful ones, which social conventions of that time forbad the dreamer to express openly (Freud, 1910). A contemporary belief is that the imagery experienced during dreaming is the brain replaying and analysing waking events to decide which of the multiplicity of information processed during the day needs to be stored and which can be discarded. Some scientists have refined this to view dreams as part of a multilevel system of sleep-dependent learning and memory reprocessing, wherein dreams would be the conscious manifestation of these processes (Stickgold, Hobson, Fosse, & Fosse, 2001, p. 1056). The idea that dreams are connected to events of the day is not new. For example, Freud proposed in 1910 that “…the material which finds its way into the dream content …is for the most part common both to dream-life and waking-life (Freud, 1910, p. 28). This theory has been confirmed many times by dream researchers during the last hundred years and the studies reported in chapters 2 and 5 will further examine this as a precursor to exploring the link between dream understanding and improved well-being.
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