A similar, slightly more recent, philosophical debate about information has taken place here too. Some attack the practice of attributing information (or ‘content’) to animal signals (Rendall, Owren & Ryan 2009; Owren, Rendall & Ryan 2010), while others defend it (Seyfarth et al 2010; Carazo & Font 2010). Sceptics argue that we should conceive of animalcommunication in terms of influence as opposed to information. Their motivations are both mechanistic and evolutionary (Stegmann 2013). On mechanisms, sceptics argue that declaring a receiver to have ‘derived information’ from a signal inflates the cognitive sophistication of response behaviours if all that happens is that a phylogenetically or ontogenetically-fixed response is triggered by the signal. Animalcommunication is not proximately akin to human communication. As a result, we should not impose concepts drawn from the study of semantics (‘content’) and pragmatics (‘meaning’) onto explanations of animalcommunication. When it comes to evolution, sceptics argue that an informational methodology gets the game theory backwards. Attributing content to signals ignores the degree to which we should expect communication to be sender driven and exploitative. Signals, they insist, are phenotypes of senders not receivers. Again, the alleged result of an informational methodology is that we fail to pay enough attention to how animalcommunication differs from human communication. Instead of focusing on the exquisite ways evolution tinkers with the physical form of signals to influence receivers in ways favourable to senders, we instead focus on the vaguely-defined ‘content’ that signals ‘carry’. What is this content and how does a signal carry it? Why focus on it instead of the intrinsic physical properties of signals that have actual causal influence?
Recent research in animalcommunication focuses on understanding the evolution and function of communication displays that incorporate numerous signals within and between sensory modalities – multimodal signaling (Higham and Hebets, 1999; Hölldobler, 1999; Partan and Marler, 1999; Partan and Marler, 2005; Rowe and Guilford, 1999) (Fig. 2A). Scientists ask why some species have complex, multimodal displays (see Glossary; e.g. visual pigmentation, dynamic visual movements and vibratory song) while closely related taxa do not (e.g. only vibratory song) (Hebets et al., 2013). Explanations for complex animal displays include the following: distinct signals contain different messages (e.g. species identity plus parasite load) (Candolin, 2003; Johnstone, 1996; Møller and Pomiankowski, 1993); signals with distinct physical form travel through the environment differently, thereby increasing the likelihood of transmission across a heterogeneous environment (Hebets and Papaj, 2005; Candolin, 2003); and/or different display components target different receivers (Hebets and Papaj, 2005), among others (reviewed in Hebets and McGinley, in press). Display components are also known to have non-additive, or interactive, effects on receivers (Hebets, 2005; Taylor et al., 2011; Leonard et al., 2011), potentially providing additional signaling benefits. The vibratory song of a courting male wolf spider, for example, appears to focus a female ’ s visual attention on his ornamentation (Hebets, 2005).
The lineages leading to Homo and Pan began to split some 6-8 million years ago , which led to differences in morphology, behaviour and cognition between the three surviving species. A striking example is human language, with nothing comparable in the communication systems of chimpanzees, bonobos and other animals. While all primates communicate with species-specific vocal repertoires, only humans have evolved a secondary communication system that is based on sophisticated, socially learned motor control of the vocal apparatus, unlike any other primate  . This difference is already visible in human infants before language: from about 4 months of age, humans begin to control their vocal apparatus, first by engaging in playful babbling, then followed by the production of simple word-like structures. At the same time, human infants produce non-linguistic vocalisations for social communication , very similar to what has been reported in non-human primates . Human babbling has a social bonding function, possibly evolved in response to cooperative breeding , but it also provides the scaffolding for increasing vocal control and competence for subsequent speech production. At around two years of age, infants go beyond labelling simple referents ( “dada”, “duck”) and start producing word combinations , a developmental process that ends with the capacity to produce complex utterances with complex syntactic structures, such as “Neither did the linguist we consulted object nor was she interested” (Fig. 1). Such communication behaviour requires considerable computational power, for both signallers and receivers. One particular challenge is the conversion of hierarchically structured social events into linearly structured speech streams. How and why did humans evolve this capacity?
a wide range of ecological contexts. All of the “four F’s” of animal behaviour—feeding, fighting, fleeing and reproduction—are represented. Thus, in chapter 7 we will look at situations such as food calls and alarm calls, in which one animal can potentially inform another about some state of the world, but perhaps at some cost to itself. That such calls have evolved in many species is not in dispute, but this basic signalling scenario allows us to investigate the claim by Krebs and Dawkins (1984) that signals will be costly in situations where a conflict of interests exists, and cheap when the situation is truly co-operative. In chapter 8 we will consider signals exchanged during contests over a resource. Building a simulation allows us to deal with a somewhat more realistic model than would be tractable given a game-theoretic approach. We will look at the success of the standard game-theoretic prediction that competitors will maximize ambiguity concerning their strength and intentions rather than signalling honestly. There exist some game-theoretic accounts that make the opposite prediction: that cost-free signals of strength and intent can be evolutionarily stable. The results of the simulation should help direct us towards one or the other of these two views. Fi- nally, in chapter 9 we will look at sexual signalling. Several recent models have shown that, given certain assumptions, it can be evolutionarily stable for males to signal their underlying quality to females. However, these models have almost all assumed that male quality was environmentally determined; the simulation will deal with the more complicated case in which a male’s quality level is a heritable trait. Furthermore, whether or not sexual ornaments have a communicative function has been the subject of a long-running debate, because Fisher’s process of runaway sex- ual selection provides a compelling alternative explanation for their existence. The effects of the Fisher process will therefore also be considered in the simulation.
Therefore, in this enquiry, we are to look at zoo semiotics which is the study of animalcommunication. In order not to offend the grammatical purist who must associate the words “speak” and “talk” with a series of activities peculiar to humans with which they convey meaningful information, we are henceforth adopting the word communication instead of using “talking” or “speaking” which the raconteur uses for lack of a more suitable word in her language. In defining this our chosen word, communication, Wikipedia free encyclopedia has it that “it is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures”. It further states that the “possible purpose might be to elicit change, generate action, create understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view”. These are what speaking and talking do among humans and animals.
Complex patterns of animalcommunication require appropriate models to resolve the communication process and underlying motivational states. For example, social toothed whales, such as long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), have a complex communi- cation system: individuals typically are highly vocal across the behavioral spectrum and produce a wide variety of call types (Taruski 1979, Sayigh et al. 2013). With the advent of high-resolution on-animal acoustic data recording tags, the potential to study complex communication patterns has strongly increased [Johnson and Tyack 2003]. This is especially true for whales and dolphins, which are otherwise difficult to observe underwater. In turn, increased data availability has raised the question of appropriate models. Methods for mod- eling call rates, particularly in relation to behavior, are not always consistent, and to date the field has not accepted a standard statistical methodology to analyze whale and dolphin sound production rates as a function of behavior state or social respectively environmental context. Methods in most common use range from t-tests, ANOVA and Chi-square tests or non-parametric equivalents to regression models (Deecke et al. 2005, Filatova et al. 2009, Foote et al. 2004, Lemon et al. 2006, Lu´ıs et al. 2014, Oleson et al. 2007, Sjare and Smith 1986), from simple linear models to those incorporating smooth terms, random effects and generalized estimating equations (Quick and Janik 2008, DeRuiter et al. 2013, Di Iorio and Clark 2010, Stimpert et al. 2015, Visser et al. 2016). Other authors use randomization-based methods (DeRuiter and Solow 2008, Miller et al. 2009) or machine-learning classification methods such as random forest decision trees [Henderson et al. 2012]. While some authors have suggested the use of state-switching models for animal call rate data (e.g. Kershen- baum et al. 2014) few studies have pursued this approach to demonstrate its strengths: it deals naturally with the time-series nature of the call rate data, and does not require pre-classification of behavioral states. State-switching models, including the hidden Markov models (HMMs) described here, can in fact provide a comprehensible modern approach to handle the complex biological problem of describing animal vocalization patterns.
indirectly through the environment. The parallels between Afar and biomedical concepts provide common ground for communication be- tween livestock keepers and veterinary personnel and the development of interventions to mitigate disease that ﬁt with local disease under- standings and can be explained in local terms. Green (1998) asserts that, in general, infectious diseases of humans and animals in African cultures are understood naturalistically, and the concept of disease transmission through contact has also been observed in other African cultures and correlates well with biomedical concepts of contagious disease (Green, 1998). Predominantly naturalistic animal health knowledge systems have been described in other pastoralist and agro- pastoralist communities in East Africa, such as the Issa Somali pastor- alists (Gebreyesus et al., 2014), the Nilotic Dinka and Nuer in South Sudan (Schwabe and Kuojok, 1981; Adolph et al., 1996), Samburu in northern Kenya (Heﬀernan et al., 1996), and Maasai in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania (Waller and Homewood, 1997). For the Nilotic groups, there was also a personalistic element; some disease syndromes were associated with god, usually those characterised by sudden death or those with few clinical or post mortem signs (Adolph et al., 1996), or new diseases suddenly occurring in an area (Heﬀernan et al., 1996). The Nuer, Dinka and Samburu also recognised that some diseases were contagious and practised isolation of sick animals and quarantine of a ﬀ ected herds (Evans-Pritchard, 1940; Adolph et al., 1996; He ﬀ ernan et al., 1996; Majok and Schwabe, 1996). In West Africa, Bonﬁglioli et al. (1996) reported that the FulBe (Fulani) in northern Senegal de- scribed some diseases to be contagious, being spread through contact between sick and healthy animals, from wild animals, birds and insects, the wind, or by handling a sick animal and then a healthy animal. They took action to limit spread by isolation and quarantine. Other diseases were associated with vegetation, water or soil, seasonal change, or malnutrition, but some individual animals or herds were fated to be inherently vulnerable, and otherwise unexplainable animal health problems were attributed to sorcery. In South Africa, Beinart and Brown (2013) explored local animal health knowledge in several rural areas and found that the farmers ’ knowledge of disease causation was mainly naturalistic, associated with pasture, water, nutrition, weather and the seasons, but there was limited awareness of contagious spread. A few diseases in each area were ascribed to witchcraft, the supernatural or o ﬀ ending the ancestors, usually those related to sudden death or dis- eases aﬀecting only the animals of a single person.
Copyright to IJIRSET www.ijirset.com 13196 quickly and timely decision making while 80% of the organizations agreed that ICTs are mostly used for report submission and its effective utilization is possible and 60% agreed that the employees are more dependant on ICT tools and without the same it is difficult to work. Present trend clearly indicated that the service providing organizations had perceived the benefits of ICT in their day to day activities and to improve their professional competencies. Now-a-days the service providing organizations such as Animal Husbandry departments are more involved in various developmental programmes leading to non availability of time for professional development and there by increasing the utility of ICT tools.
benefit. Evidentiary support for the human-animal bond conception for AAI in oncology is mixed: some investigated endpoints displayed post-treatment effects 8,11,28,29,31,39,58,76,77 while others have not. 8,11,25,31,54,58,77,78 Complicating things further, methodological design is not consistent across studies and studies are not yet directly geared towards elucidating the existence or effects of the human-animal bond. To date, the sole study to maintain the same animal-handler team throughout—a true test of the bond idea—observed mediocre effects: no significant changes in the intervention group after the study period. 31 Other studies that asked questions concerning patient attitudes towards pets largely found no significant correlation between these measures and the treatment outcomes of interest. 31,58,59,65,67,70,71,78,79 For prospective researchers, one troublesome aspect of this particular AAI conception is its necessitation of longitudinal studies that can allow a bond to fully develop, though tools like the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale 80 and the Lexington Attachment Scale can provide some indication of a bond’s strength. 81,82 Additionally, the bond in question is a metaphysical phenomenon that cannot be interrogated directly and must be studied proximally through its effects. Fortunately, the human- animal bond is defined very broadly and in such a way as to account for most all of the aforementioned mechanisms implicated in causing cancer-related AAI’s effects. Similar to the social support theory, this still diminishes the predictive capacity of the bond framework. Both Rehn et al. 83 and Hosey et al. 21 also raise an interesting point in their review of human-animal interactions work from AAI to working agricultural animals: there should be a fundamental, definitional distinction between human-animal bonds and human-animal
The campaign “Stop Dolphin Circus” by JAAN is performed with the advantageous of social media, school visit, and forum discussion that will provide education to shape public awareness. In the process of conveying the message, there is persuasive communication element that tries to persuade the audience to aware on animals’ exploitation. The persuasive elements are also put in social media in a form of video. The video is shows result identification from society who is supporting “Stop Dolphin Circus” campaign. The campaign is performed in a form of verbal communication to increase public awareness and provide information on how the traveling circus treats dolphins in a circus, especially when the dolphin is moved to another place using cargo.
Abstract: Data was collected from 33 organizations which were actively involved in Animal Husbandry activities and elicited through a questionnaire following an exploratory research design on “Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools by various organizations in Animal Husbandry – A study in Andhra Pradesh.” The findings on the areas of Animal Husbandry where ICT tools were regularly used revealed that Information dissemination, Administration and Planning were found to be the major areas. 100% of Private Organizations regularly use ICT tools for marketing because their primary motive is the marketing of their products. In the area of project proposal writing, 75% of Educational and Research Organizations were found to use ICT tools regularly. 62.5% of Educational and Research Organizations reported regular use of ICT tools in the area of development programmes. 60% of Service Providers and Private Organizations were found to be regularly using ICT tools for animal management. Regarding the area of animal health care, 60% of Private Organizations reported regular use of ICT tools. In the area of animal feeding, 50% of Private Organizations reported regular use of ICT tools. 40% of the Service Providers and Private Organizations regularly use ICT tools for breeding. Regarding the area of disaster management, 25% of the Educational and Research Organizations were found to be regularly using ICT tools. 50% of Financial Organizations were found to be involved in other areas of A.H. that is providing credit facilities to beneficiaries.
CD 2004/882/EC: according to the recent amendment to Regulation (EC) 999/2001, laying down rules for the prevention, control and eradication of certain TSEs, the current restrictions on imports of ‘other ruminants’ from Canada have been reviewed by this Decision, in order to allow import of live ruminants with the exception of Cervidae. In consequence, the animal health certificates models “RUW” and “RUF” (for fresh meat of wild and farmed non-domestic animals other than Equidae and Suidae) have been updated, Chile has been listed for importation into the EC of meat of farmed non- domestic suidae, the definition of the territory of Serbia and Montenegro has been reviewed, in order to fully reflect the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 of 10 June 1999.
It was evident from table 12 that all the categories of the A.H. organizations used mobile phones, Internet, Personal computers and Fax. 20% of the Service Providers and 16.6% of the Non Governmental and Cooperative Organizations utilize Radio for the interest of beneficiaries. TV was used by 60% of Service Providers, 25% of Financial Organizations, 87.5% of Research Organizations, 48.9% of Non Governmental Organizations for various activities like various purposes like training, teaching, institutional purpose etc. Video conferencing was used by 40% of the Service Providers, 50% of Financial Organizations, 37.5% of Educational and Research Organizations and 30% of Private Organizations for communication with officials either by hiring or if possessed by them as it saves time and can be used to communicate from the place they stay . Tele conferencing was used by 50% of Financial Organizations, 12.5% of Educational and Research Organizations, 40% of the Private Organizations for the purpose of communication. Multimedia CDs were used by 40% of Service Providers, 50% of Financial Organizations, 87.5% of the Educational and Research Organizations, 66.6% of Non Governmental and Cooperative Organizations and 40% of the Private Organizations for various purposes like teaching, training, and business purposes. Information kiosk was used by only 25% of Financial Organizations and 12.5% of Educational and Research Organizations because they were used by the organizations which installed them. Other ICT tools were used by 20% of Service Providers, 12.5% of Educational and Research Organizations and 10% of Private Organizations according to their need.(Fig.1 to Fig.5)
As well as ascribing human consciousness to animals, animals who are a part of the strong anthropomorphic tradition in children’s literature are unable to escape humanization in once they walk upright, wear clothes, or speak. Perhaps one of the finest examples of this lies in Beatrix Potter’s many works where animals perform all three modes of behaviour. In Peter Rabbit (1902), the rabbits are anthropomorphic and act as a family unit with human-like rituals. Most importantly, Peter Rabbit himself is in the most danger when he enters Mr. McGregor’s vegetable garden to do just what rabbits do best: nibble on vegetables. Other humanized and anthropomorphic animals such as those who feature in Richard Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever (1963) are human in all but species. They drive cars, brush their teeth, and deliver mail. With humanized animals in mind, it is helpful to consider Marian Scholtmeijer’s idea that the truth of nonhuman animals is that “they are the ‘blank paper’ on which human beings write messages to themselves” (as cited in Walsh, 2003, p. 159). Humanizing animal characters simultaneously socializes children and teaches them to put aside childish and thus animalistic behaviour.
where k and µ are statistical constants. In order to match the standards of the MICS band, the transmission power should not be higher than 25µW. By referring to the datasheets of antenna and CC430 radio chip , we found out that at a transmitting power of -15dBm, the EIRP of the node will not exceed 25µW . However, no hardware mea- surement is made in order to verify the EIRP. Additionally, by lowering down the power further below -15dBm, we were not able to communicate at distances larger than 5cm with a packet delivery ratio higher than 95%. Experimenting with larger distances resulted in very low signal strengths as shown in Fig. 6. Having lower RSSI values may result in higher error rates in data transmission, which is not desir- able for in-body communication.
During the process of this study, the author further realized how designers can play key roles in influencing, and perhaps even shaping, their own communities. It was challenging to prioritize one of several issues facing the Verona Street Animal Shelter. Due to required time considerations, as well as the independent nature of this study, a few aspects could not be completely investigated such as thorough design consideration of the backside of each panel, exploration of actual fabrication materials and processes, production of a 3D prototype installation of the final design and documentation of viewer responses at the actual Corn Hill Landing site. Given more time, these would have been important and worthwhile endeavors.
Internet of Things is closely related to the concept of "radio frequency identification" as a method of communication, but includes sensor technologies, wireless technologies, "quick response codes" and so on as well. Internet of Things is important because objects when they can provide digitally eventually something far beyond the generalities that in reality will become. In such circumstances, our relationship is not limited to other objects with the objects around them, as well as data from a database, etc. are connected. When objects are connected with each other, we can speak of an "intelligent environment" in general. New technologies such as RFID and smart calculation promising and interconnected world of network equipment. At that time, anything from cars to toothbrushes wheels into the dawn of a new era of communications that is news and current Internet (which contains data and people) will lead to the Internet of Things.
Abstract: Despite numerous efforts of various professional groups, the level of production dis- eases in livestock production remains on an unsatisfying high level. Barriers in the process of knowledge transfer in connection with the improvement of the animal health status have been the topic of a study taking different stakeholder perspectives into account. Using instruments of communication science, the perspectives of farmers, agricultural and veterinarian advisors as well as animal scientists were brought together and discussed in workshops. The process revealed the following barriers in the transfer of knowledge: diverging comprehension of animal health, com- plexity behind multifactorial production diseases, reluctance to assume responsibility, and role conflicts. We conclude that the current communication structure between stakeholders is highly self-referential and not appropriate to enable a target-oriented transfer of knowledge aiming to reduce prevalence rates of multifactorial production diseases on the farm level. Hence, an im- pulse from “outside” is required to irritate the deadlocked situation and provide new orientation.