Animal feed and nutrition

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The Nutrition Waste Vegetables with Invitro Using Rumen Liquids for Feed

The Nutrition Waste Vegetables with Invitro Using Rumen Liquids for Feed

The vegetable waste contains water that is high enough that easily damaged and pollute the environment. So far, vegetable waste is only used as raw material for animal feed, while for aquatic organisms feed has not been utilized. Seeing the potential of vegetable waste is so great, it is necessary to further examine its utilization opportunities as vannamei shrimp feed ingredients. The vegetable waste contains crude protein 22.63%, crude fiber 30.71%.

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Kudzu Forage Quality Evaluation as an Animal Feed Source

Kudzu Forage Quality Evaluation as an Animal Feed Source

a leguminous, weedy vine with pubescent stems, trifoliate leaves, and a perennial deep root system [2]. Kudzu has the potential to grow at a rate of 29 to 30 meters per growing season [3]. The dense packing of kudzu can result in tens of thousands of plants occupying a single acre of land. Furthermore, the extensive root biomass provides high potential of exploiting deeper sources of water [4]. Kudzu is a hardy plant with potential to grow even under adverse conditions such as eroded soil, low fertility, low pH and poor water holding capacity [5]. Moreover, kudzu can control soil erosion and enhance soil fertility through nitrogen fixation [6]. It was origi- nally established in the southern states of the US to prevent soil erosion [7]. Kudzu may have the potential to be a low-input forage crop in the south-eastern United States, particularly for use as supplement during periods of drought or in late summer and early autumn when the quality of warm-season grasses is reduced [8]. Kudzu is palatable, and has given first-rate results as a pasture for beef and dairy cattle; and results showed no difference in the color or flavor of milk produced from cows consuming it [9]. Kudzu can be grazed, cut for cut-and-carry feeding systems or mixed with grass to make good quality silage. It was estimated that kudzu which stands in Alabama has the potential to yield about 5 t/ha/year of carbohydrates [10]. The relatively high carbohydrate concentration in kudzu can be viewed as an additional economic benefit as a potential source of biofuel and as a source of starch for consumption. The overall characteristics of the kudzu especially as an easy crop to be estab- lished in different areas with different soil quality and low maintenance upkeep make this crop an attractive al- ternative to other common forage crops. Additionally, kudzu may be well suited for use as a protein bank or as an emergency feed supply during periods of drought [8]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrition value of kudzu as an animal feed.
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Fenugreek - a Dietary Alternative Component in Animal Feed

Fenugreek - a Dietary Alternative Component in Animal Feed

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds are used in animal and human nutrition because of its therapeutic properties. More often the seeds are used as powder, oils or extracts, as food or medicine ingredients. Fenugreek leaves contains carbohydrates, proteins and minerals – especial calcium, being low in lipids; while the seeds are rich in proteins, dietary fibres and gums, vitamins and minerals – especially iron. Traditional medicine demonstrated fenugreek efficiency in medical prevention and some diseases treatments, the oils or extracts having antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Also, fenugreek has very good action on lymphatic system, favouring the circulation of nutrients into the cells and removing the toxic or residual components from the cells. Due to some hormone precursors, fenugreek seeds are used successfully for increasing milk secretion and excretion, both in humans and animals. The seeds are used in fish, domestic rabbits and ruminants’ diet, and could be an alternative component of feed for different farm animals due to digestion benefice and texture of feed. Leaves and seeds are used in production of extruded products, or as feed stabilizer, emulsifying and adhesive agent, flavouring (artificial maple syrup, condiment), colouring (yellow), texture (due to fibres, galactomannans and gums) and other organoleptic properties of feed.
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An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture

An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture

market tends to reach US$1.3 billion by 2017 (http:// www.prweb.com/pdfdownload/8849957.pdf ). The nutra- ceuticals boom has also integrated carotenoid mainly on the claim of their proven antioxidant properties; caroten- oids are usually considered important for industrial use in food products, cosmetics as vitamin supplements, health food products, and as feed additives for poultry, livestock, fish, and crustaceans [3]. In contrast, carotenoid in fish oil comes from microalgae, therefore it is logical to cultivate microalgae for carotenoids production [4]. Del Campo et al. [3] have reported that structure of more than 600 dif- ferent carotenoids have been derived from a 40-carbon polyene chain. This paper will focus on carotenoids such as astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene and other high- valued molecules which are produced by microalgae (or in some case by macro algae) and Cyanobacteria and can be industrialized. Moreover, microalgae play a key role in high grade animal nutrition food from aquaculture to farm animals. Comprehensive nutritional and toxico- logical evaluations have demonstrated suitability of algal biomass as a valuable feed supplement or substitute for conventional animal feed sources [5]. Therefore, the usage of microalgae biomass for feed productions will be dis- cussed in this review which might be helpful to encourage the trends of mass cultivation of microalgae for commer- cial and beneficial purposes.
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STATUS OF ORGANIC COTTON PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

STATUS OF ORGANIC COTTON PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

addition, the cotton seed, used as an organic animal feed, is an important source of nutrition for organic livestock farming with its significant protein content.... Conventional cotton [r]

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The effect of New Bacillus Isolate Va1-29 with Producing Carboxymethyl Cellulase (CMCase) Enzymes in Animal Nutrition

The effect of New Bacillus Isolate Va1-29 with Producing Carboxymethyl Cellulase (CMCase) Enzymes in Animal Nutrition

Applying enzymes in feeds to enhance feed utilization is an idea that has been well explored in terrestrial animal feeding and to some extent in aquatic animal feeding. The primary aim of enzyme application in feeds is to improve of food digestion. It is proposed that by providing an extra dose of enzymes, the digestive processes will work better and lead to increase of feed efficiency. First related embodiment with adding of enzymes in animal feed was conducted in Finland in 1980 (21).

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The role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in animal nutrition

The role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in animal nutrition

animals. The experiment was conducted on 96 broiler chickens, for 6  weeks. An improved body weight gain, feed turnover and reduced serum cholesterol were found. Moreover, feed supplementation with fructanes caused increase of Lactobacillus genus bacteria count and reduc- tion of counts of potential pathogens, such as Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler chicken gastrointesti- nal tract [114]. In their study, Kleessen et al. [115] bred 380 chickens for 35  days, giving them drinking water with an addition of artichoke-based fructane-containing (0.5%) syrup. The effect of fructane supplementation on the animals’ intestinal microbiota was studied. It was observed that the addition of fructanes to drinking water caused a reduction of Clostridium perfringens count, and a decrease in the level of bacterial endotoxin. Stanczuk et al. [116] analysed the effect of addition of inulin and MOS administered to turkeys ad  libitum in two differ- ent concentrations (0.1 and 0.4%) as a feed supplement, during the period of 8  weeks of rearing. No increased feed consumption or higher body weight of turkeys were observed. However, in prebiotic-fed groups a higher concentration of SCFA was observed compared to the control group. In other studies conducted by Sims et al. [117] on 180 turkeys bred for 18 weeks, a supplementa- tion of feed with MOS resulted in better growth of study animals. Spring et al. [118] studied the effect of admin- istration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast containing MOS in their cellular wall on reduction of count of vari- ous intestinal pathogens in chickens. It was observed that the administration of MOS-containing yeast resulted in a reduced count of Salmonella in chicks’ intestines by 26%, compared to control animal receiving a non-modified diet. Studies completed by Thitaram et al. [119] verified the effect of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) admin- istered in the following concentrations: 1, 2 and 4% (by weight) on intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Supplementa- tion of animal feed with IMO caused a significant reduc- tion of Salmonella Typhimurium count. While chewing, digestion and effectiveness of the administered feed were not significantly different from the control group. It was also observed that the addition of IMO to feed caused an increase in Bifidobacterium genus bacteria count. More- over a significant loss of weight was observed in the case of birds fed with 1% IMO compared to control animals fed with the non-modified feed [119]. In other studies, Biggs et al. [121] focused on the effect of feeding chicks with feed with addition of 5 different oligosaccharides (inulin, oligofructose, MOS, short-chain oligosaccharide and TOS) [120]. No significant increase in body weight was observed in any case. Moreover, the study demon- strated that excessively high prebiotic dose may have a negative impact on the gastrointestinal system and delay
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Effects of protein free energy supplementation on blood metabolites, insulin and hepatic PEPCK gene expression in growing lambs offered rice straw based diet

Effects of protein free energy supplementation on blood metabolites, insulin and hepatic PEPCK gene expression in growing lambs offered rice straw based diet

Animals, diets and experimental designs This experiment was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Zhejiang University and conducted in accordance with the “Regulations for Administration of Affairs Concerning Experimental Animals” (State Coun- cil of China, 1988). Thirty-six male Hu lambs (3.5 months old), with an average live weight of 21 ± 1.5 kg, were divided into four equal groups of nine each according to body weight. Lambs in each group were kept in 3 pens (three lambs in each pen) and given free access to rice straw (DM, 880 g/kg; OM, 855 g/kg; CP, 48 g per kg; NDF, 686 g/kg) and water. Supplements were designed to contain four levels of cornstarch: 0 (control), 60, 120, and 180 g/ day. Each lamb was offered 160 g rapeseed meal (DM, 899 g/kg; OM, 905 g/kg; CP, 408 g/kg; NDF, 409 g per kg) together with 15 g of mineral mixture per day. The level of supplemental rapeseed was presumed, together with the protein ingestion from
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Comparison of the content of crude protein and amino acids in the whole bodies of cocks and hens of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 hybrids at the end of fattening

Comparison of the content of crude protein and amino acids in the whole bodies of cocks and hens of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 hybrids at the end of fattening

Environment. The experiment was conducted at an accredited experimental animal facility (sta- ble) at the Department of Animal Nutrition at the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sci- ences Brno. The chickens were reared separately, according to the sex of hybrid, in four enclosures with deep-litter loose housing. Throughout the fattening, stocking density met the requirements for optimal area load, namely that of 17 individu- als per m 2 . The lighting regime was set at 23 h of

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Effect of weaning system on lamb growth and commercial milk production of Awassi dairy sheep

Effect of weaning system on lamb growth and commercial milk production of Awassi dairy sheep

Sheep milk producers are mostly located in the Mediterranean area. In this area, a dairy sheep rear- ing system relies on local sheep breeds that are well adapted to such an environment with local feed resources together. Sheep in most Mediterranean countries are kept for the production of both milk and meat (Akçapinar, 2000). Therefore, most breeding programs aimed at improvement of pro- ductivity have a twofold objective. Awassi sheep is a fat-tailed breed, found extensively in south- ern Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan

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A look at energy procurement strategy at an animal feed company

A look at energy procurement strategy at an animal feed company

 The Iberian power market has very diversified generation capacity. In descending order of importance its mix consists of gas, hydro, wind, coal, nuclear and some other renewables. Spot prices are very volatile and dependent on weather conditions. Forward prices however will be influenced by coal and CO2 prices for baseload and gas prices and CO2 for peak load. Power is traded at a premium to the rest of Europe because of limited transportation capacity with France.  The Iberian gas market currently does not allow for the animal feed company’s approach to energy procurement to be applied. Gas in Iberia is traded at the MIBGAS, this market has only started quoting prices recently. In the past many trades were gas for gas. Liquidity is still low and access to different types of maturities is limited.
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Feed [Animal feedstuffs] Balance Sheet: Resources  1976

Feed [Animal feedstuffs] Balance Sheet: Resources 1976

MEUNERIE BRASSERIE, DISTILLERIE ET AMIDONNERIE SUCRERIE TOURTEAUX dont: soja AUTRES D'ORIGINE ANIMALE ANIMAUX MARINS TRANSFORMÉS ANIMAUX TERRESTRES TRANSFORMÉS GRAISSES ET HUILES ANIMALE[r]

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Review on available feed resources and feeding practice of village chicken: Ethiopia

Review on available feed resources and feeding practice of village chicken: Ethiopia

Generally, the dominant village bird production system in Ethiopia is mainly scavenging type. There is no purposeful feeding of chickens under the village conditions in Ethiopia and scavenging is almost the only source of diet (Dessie and Oogle, 2000). This system is the major feed resource in extensive village chicken production system. Various types of locally available feed resources are reported including cereal grains dominantly maize and sorghum followed by wheat, rice, plant materials, worms, insects, grass, vegetables the amount of each being dependant on seasons of the year and the quantity and availability of the resources at the household level. However, the primary use of these cereal crops was for human consumption (Fisseha, 2009). Therefore, there is competition with human so, that made high shortage of feed for the poultry production. Village chickens are also supplemented with wheat bran and food leftovers or kitchen wastes like boiled enset and baked enset, kitchen wastes and bone meal, bread, injera, parts of vegetables and fruits, leaves of green crops/grasses. Thus, the smallholder chicken production goes eco-friendly because they can convert insects and household leftovers to valuable cheap and quality animal protein to the family.
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Current use of phytogenic feed additives in animal nutrition: a review

Current use of phytogenic feed additives in animal nutrition: a review

(P < 0.05) ammonia N concentrations using in vitro 24 h batch culture of rumen fluid with a 55 : 45 forage : concentrate diet supplemented with a Si- berian fir needle oil, citronella oil, rosemary oil, sage oil, white thyme oil or clove oil at three doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/l), with the exception for the highest dose of white thyme oil. Cieslak et al. (2014) also achieved in their in vitro study a low- ering of methane production by 29% compared to the control group when using Saponaria officinalis saponins, without any effect on rumen fermenta- tion. However, Jayanegara et al. (2014) report that the methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent; and they noted in their study the effectiveness of saponin-rich sources in mitigating methane in the order: yucca > tea > quillaja. Hristov et al. (2013) recorded when administering dietary supplementa- tion of Origanum vulgare L. leaf material at the dose of 250–750 g/day, a decrease in rumen methane production in dairy cows within 8 h after feeding; however, the effect over a 24-h feeding cycle was not determined in their study. When using anise oil, cedar wood oil, cinnamon oil, eucalyptus oil, and tea tree oil at concentrations of 125, 250, and 500 mg/l, Gunal et al. (2014) noted in an in vitro study only moderate effects on rumen fermentation, but higher ammonia-N concentration in cultures incubated with essential oils regardless of the dose level. The authors (Gunal et al. 2014) report that it is unlikely that these moderate in vitro effects would correspond to any substantial impact on ruminal fermentation in vivo. After characterization of the substances, in vitro studies should only be the first step to identify substances with a CH 4 reduction potential. Feeding studies, especially long term stud- ies, aimed to consider animal health and welfare, adaptation of rumen microbes, efficiency of addi- tives over long feeding periods, animal performance, safety of the additive to the animals, consumer and environment, quality of animal products and CH 4 emissions, are essential prerequisites for the use of phytogenic feed additives in ruminant feeding practices (Flachowsky and Lebzien 2012).
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Dual potential of microalgae as a sustainable biofuel feedstock and animal feed

Dual potential of microalgae as a sustainable biofuel feedstock and animal feed

corn and soybean meal [38]. Factors causing this intoler- ance might include amino acid imbalances, disruption of the acid:base balance, high ash content of the algal bio- mass, and(or) an overall reduction in the buffering cap- acity within the gastrointestinal tract of the weanling pigs. Austic et al. [12] replaced 7.5% of soybean meal with the de-fatted biomass of the Staurosira sp. in the diets of broilers, and showed decreased body weight gain and feed efficiency during the first three weeks of experiment. Dur- ing the following three weeks, these differences were no longer seen. In the same study, broiler chicks fed a diet containing essential amino acids (Met, Lys, Ile, Thr, Trp, and Val) co-supplemented with 7.5% of the de-fatted bio- mass did not show growth performance differences from the control group. A diet with 10% lipid-extracted Nanno- chloropsis oculata meal was well tolerated by adolescent male rabbits, which showed similar final body weight, serum urea nitrogen, blood glucose, and organ histology in comparison with rabbits fed a control diet [39,40]. Fin- ishing wethers maintained similar growth performance and carcass characteristics (longissimus muscle area, dress- ing percentage, marbling score, hot carcass weight, and subcutaneous adipose depth) when fed up to 20% de- fatted algal biomass on a dry matter basis as a protein re- placement, in comparison with wethers fed a control diet [24]. In a study that examined effects of supplementing dietary dry matter with de-fatted Lithothamnium calcar- eum meal in Holstein cows, up to 1% algal meal in the diet mediated venous acid–base balance after acidosis induc- tion, but did not improve the tract digestibility or growth performance of the cows [41].
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Natural living – a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming

Natural living – a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming

rounding world. This interpretation of the animal welfare concept may be one reason why organic farm- ing has been criticized. For example, a pig outdoors in bad weather with a subclinical parasite infection fulfil many criteria for having a natural life, but may not be considered as having good welfare by a veterinarian, who is likely to interpret the concept of animal wel- fare in terms of physical health rather than natural living (see Fig. 1). The consumers’ understanding of animal welfare on the other hand seems to be closer to the natural living approach (Szatek, 2001; Te Velde et al., 2002): they are delighted to see outdoor pigs or calves suckling their mothers. A Dutch study of farm- ers’ and consumers’ perceptions of animal welfare found a big difference between the two groups (Te Velde et al., 2002). While farmers mainly interpreted animal welfare in terms of health and production (the biological functioning approach), consumers inter- preted it in terms of freedom to move and fulfil natural desires. Thus, the understanding of animal welfare among consumers seems to be similar to that of the organic movement, while it differs both from that of traditional animal welfare organizations and the one frequently found among those educated in conven- tional agriculture. Interestingly, the questionnaire study showed that agricultural education was conver- sely related to the attitude that natural living is impor- tant (Lund et al., 2004b).
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Supplementing Prebiotics and Probiotics in Early Animal and Infant Nutrition.

Supplementing Prebiotics and Probiotics in Early Animal and Infant Nutrition.

sufficient numbers, exert health benefits beyond basic nutrition” (6). In pediatric populations, the administration of specific probiotic bacteria have been shown to reduce the incidence and duration of diarrhea (7), shorten the duration of rotavirus diarrhea (8), reduce the incidence of atopic eczema (in children at high risk) (9) and reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and overall mortality (in preterm infants with very low birth weight) (10). Probiotics are typically food-grade microorganisms that are isolated from food materials and the digestive tract of humans and other animals. Species and strains derived from two bacterial genera (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) comprise the largest groups of commercially available probiotic bacteria. Bifidobacterium strains are considered particularly important in pediatric applications as members of this genus reportedly dominate the GI microbiota of breastfed infants (11). The introduction of novel ingredients to infant formula, including probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium isolates depends in part on the establishment of a thorough safety profile (12). As the GI tract is the target site of probiotic activity, and the process of GI maturation in neonatal piglets is closer than other animals to that of human infants, neonatal piglets were selected as a favored model in which to evaluate the safety and immunological impact of a new probiotic Bifidobacterium strain intended for possible use in infant formula.
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Review On Probiotic Potential In Human Health, Aquaculture And Animal Feed

Review On Probiotic Potential In Human Health, Aquaculture And Animal Feed

The aquaculture sector has been growing tremendously to cater to the increasing seafood demand from consumers. The increased demand has urged a fast production of aquaculture. With the rapidly developed aquaculture but poor sanitary management, many disease outbreaks occurred within the industry causing severe annual economic losses (Bondad- Reantaso et al., 2005). Extensively using antibiotics in the aquaculture disease control has raised up another problem which is the emergence of the antibiotic resistance bacteria populations causing lots of infected diseases incurable (Huang et al., 2015). The residual antibiotics found in the aquacultures also pose a potential health risk to humans upon consumption of those cultured animals (Chen et al., 2015). The application of probiotics in aquaculture had proven that it is not only effective to fight against pathogens but also improve the growth and health of aquatic livestock. This summarized in Table 1.Streptomyces sp. is one of the bacteria species that potentially used as a probiotic for aquaculture (Tan et al., 2016). Das et al. (2010) reported that the supplementation of Streptomyces sp. in the feed improved the growth performance of various shrimps and fishes species. Streptomyces sp. produced various hydrolytic enzymes like amylase and protease to improve the digestion of feed in the aquatic livestock digestive tract. In addition, work done by Dharmaraj and Dhevendaran (2010) had reported that microbial production of indoleacetic acid, which is a growth- promoting hormone, was responsible for better growth of Xiphophorus hellerifed. Bacillus sp. is a well-known genus of probiotic that is commercially used for humans. Probiotic effects on aquaculture were evident as the application of B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus in water and feed has promoted expression of salinity stress resistance and immune responses of cobia larvae (Rachycentron canadum) (Garrido Pereira et al., 2014). B. subtilis applied in sea cucumber farming as probiotics (Liu et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2012).Other potential microorganisms that showed probiotic effects were reported such as Rhodotorula benthica D30 that accelerated the growth rate of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) as well as enhancing its digestion, immunity and disease resistance when supplemented with the feed (Wang et al., 2015). Intestinal microorganisms isolated from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) which are Shewanella xiamenensis A-1, S. xiamenensis A-2, and Aeromonas veronii A-7, exhibited probiotic effects such as resistance toward A. hydrophila infection as well as enhancing the immune system of the fish when supplemented in the feed (Wu et al., 2015).
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Comparison of Nutrition Compositions of Juvenile Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) Fed with Live Feed and Formula Feed

Comparison of Nutrition Compositions of Juvenile Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) Fed with Live Feed and Formula Feed

(EAA) (Thr, Val, Met, Phe, Ile, Leu and Lys), two kinds of human body half essential amino acids (HEAA) (His and Arg), and eight kinds of the human body non-essential amino acids (NEAA) (Asp, Glu, Ser, Gly, Ala, Tyr, Cys and Pro). In both groups, the sequence of the amino acids content from highest to lowest was: Glu (10.67 w/% and 11.93 w/%), Asp, Lys, Leu, Ala and Cys (0.32 w/% and 0.25 w/%). This characteristic of component was consistent with the amino acid composition rule of Huso dauricus (Yin et al. 2004), Acipenser schrencki (Yin et al. 2004) and Xenocypris davidi Bleeker (Zhang et al. 2002). Except Cys, other amino acid contents of formula feed group were lower than those of the live feed group. The contents of Asp, Ser, Glu, Pro, His and Arg were significantly different (P<0.05), and the contents of Leu and Lys showed extremely significant difference (P<0.01) while the others showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the two groups.
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