A prospective study design was used. At the start of the academic year all subjects were informed about the study design and procedures during a plenary presentation and were asked to complete an informed consent. A baseline questionnaire, which was completed by the subjects after the plenary presentation, was used to obtain data regarding sport participation, gender, age and ankle injury history in the past 12 months (yes/no). During the first week of the study subjects underwent a preparticipation examina- tion by a sport physician, including measures of length and body weight, and a physical screening including the SEBT- ANT as a measure for dynamic balance of the ankle (ANT relative to leg length). An injury surveillance procedure was conducted during the following academic year to obtain data regarding sport participation (average hours/week) and subsequent injuries.
Principal component analysis of basketball player’s ankle injury causes: In the research process of basketball players injury root cause analysis, our first work is confirm the major variable that caused ankle joint injury, but we can only find some variables with high correlativity out of these uncountable variables to replace other uncountable variables, these variables should reflect some information of other variables and be independent, uncorrelated. Through acknowledging of relative information, it can be seen that principal component analysis is a data handling process that enable to compress multiple correlation variables into some independent uncorrelated variables, use few data variables to replace multiple test data and utilize these variable indexes to reflect original data own information. Select attending competition or training, insufficient warm-up ,untimely injury cured in training or competition ,technical motion mistakes, poor prevention awareness and excessive partial weight as linear combination x x x x x x 1 2 3 4 5 6 , linear combination selection is expressed as injury Y , use
Methods: A feasibility randomised controlled trial was undertaken in a UK trauma hospital in adults with an ankle fracture for which the treating clinician would consider plaster cast a reasonable management option. Exclusions included open or pathological fracture, unable to adhere to trial procedures, had other lower limb injury or required close contact casting. Participants were randomised using an independent telephone service to receive either plaster cast or removable orthotic. The primary outcome was to determine the recruitment and follow-up rates at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months to assess the feasibility of a full RCT.
Recall bias regarding correct reporting of first injury was also likely to be present during the follow up period. Also, the grading of severity of the two injuries is not homogeneous, so, for example, a grade II ankle injury is not comparable, in terms of severity and recovery time, to a grade II hamstring injury. Another potential con- founder was the heterogeneity of the study population. Although all included subjects were elite track and field athletes, they were divided in different sport disciplines with different load demands to the lower extremities.
A modified casting technique has been developed, close contact casting, which uses minimal padding compared with tra- ditional casting and achieves fracture reduction by distribut- ing contact pressure by close anatomic fit. The clinical strategy of close contact casting was to use this as the first-line treat- ment, recognizing that if reduction were not possible during the procedure or could not be retained in the immediate postop- erative phase (up to 3 weeks), the treatment protocol allowed surgery. The intention of the Ankle Injury Management Trial was to investigate in older adults with unstable ankle fractures whether initial fracture management with close contact cast- ing resulted in an outcome equivalent to that with immediate surgery, with fewer complications and less resource use.
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The Lauge-Hansen classification is a commonly used system of ankle injury classification . It is widely used in clinical applications because it classifies injuries based on the position of the ankle during the injury, as well as the magni- tude and direction of the force. In pronation- abduction ankle injuries, the injury is classified according to degree of seriousness: first degree (i.e., injury of the interior deltoid ligament or malleolus medialis); second degree (i.e., injury of the tibiofibular syndesmosis structure and/or avulsion facture of the posterior malleolus); or third degree (i.e., fibular facture above the ankle joint and/or dislocation of talus). Finite element (FE) software can simulate the injury process, but there is still no research concern- ing the biomechanics of pronation-abduction ankle joint injuries based on FE models. This paper aims to simulate the injury process of pronation-abduction movements by establish- ing an FE model of the ankle joint. Furthermore, the biomechanical mechanism is also validated
Risk factors were commonly classified as extrinsic or intrinsic . Extrinsic risk factors are those that come from outside of the body, while intrinsic factors are those from within the body. In 1997, Barker, Beynnon and Ren- strom  did a comprehensive review on the ankle injury risk factors in sports as reported by about 20 pro- spective studies. For extrinsic factors, although they found some discrepancies among the included studies, they gen- erally reported that the prescription of orthosis, but not high-top shoes, could help decreasing the risk of sustain- ing ankle sprain injury in players with previous sprain his- tory. Increased exercise intensity in soccer raised the injury risk, but the player positions in soccer and basketball did not cause any difference. For intrinsic factors, they reported that a previous sprain history, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsi- flexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. The foot type, indication of ankle instability, and high general joint lax- ity were identified not to be risk factors. In 2002, Beyn- non, Murphy and Alosa  conducted another comprehensive literature review and reported a consensus that gender, general joint laxity and foot type were not risk factors for ankle sprain injury. In 2007, Morrison and Kaminski  suggested that the cavovarus deformity, increased foot width, and increased calcaneal eversion range of motion were related to the occurrence of lateral ankle sprain injury. However, significant discrepancies were found with regard to whether or not height, weight, limb dominance, ankle joint laxity, anatomical align- ment, muscle strength, muscle reaction time, and postural sway are risk factors for ankle sprain injury.
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Results were expressed as HRs and calculated with 95% CIs with age at baseline forced into the model. The inter- action term of company (intervention vs. control) and study period (prestudy period vs. study period) was entered into the model to analyse the differences in changes in incidence of injuries between intervention and control companies. In the data analysis, based on the published literature, conceptually compatible and logical risk factors were chosen for multivariate models. Only possibly significant explanatory variables (P < 0.20) in the initial univariate models were included for the multivari- ate conceptual models. Urbanisation level of the con- script’s home residence was included in the multivariate model as a possible confounder. Higher age, smoking sta- tus (previous or current regular smoker), high alcohol intake, poor baseline medical condition (chronic impair- ment or disability due to prior musculoskeletal injury, as well as earlier musculoskeletal symptoms or orthopaedic surgery), poor school performance (educational level and grades combined) and high waist circumference were entered into the model as known or possible risk factors. Physical activity level during the 3 months before enter- ing the military and the CPFI were considered effect modifiers and were entered into the multivariate model.
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To outline rehabilitation concepts that are applicable to acute and chronic injury of the ankle strain, to provide evidence for current techniques used in the rehabilitation of the ankle strain, and to describe a functional rehabilitation program that progresses from basic to advanced, while taking into consideration empirical data from the literature and clinical practice. Important considerations in the rehabilitation of ankle strain injuries include controlling the acute inflammatory process, regaining full ankle range of motion, increasing muscle strength and power, and improving proprioceptive abilities. These goals can be achieved through various modalities, flexibility exercises, and progressive strength- and balance-training exercises. In this article, we discuss the deleterious effects of ankle injury on ankle-strain proprioception and muscular strength and how these variables can be quantifiably measured to follow progress through a rehabilitation program. Evidence to support the effectiveness of applying orthotics and ankle braces during the acute and sub acute phases of ankle strain rehabilitation is provided, along with recommendations for functional rehabilitation of ankle strain injuries, including a structured progression of exercises.Early functional rehabilitation of the ankle should include range-of-motion exercises and isometric and isotonic strength-training exercises. In the intermediate stage of rehabilitation, a progression of proprioception- training exercises should be incorporated. Advanced rehabilitation should focus on sport-specific activities to prepare the athlete for return to competition. Although it is important to individualize each rehabilitation program, this well-structured template for ankle rehabilitation can be adapted as needed.
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According to the random number table method, the patients were divided into two groups: treat- ment group and control group with 20 patients in each. The patients in the control group were routinely taken ankle lateral incision and the restoration of fracture and other injuries, but the deltoid ligament was not repaired, mean- while, the injured ankle was fixed in plaster in the position of mild varus-internal rotation-dor- sal extension after the surgery. In the treatment group, besides the operations in the control group, patients also received deltoid ligament reconstruction. Briefly, a lateral incision was performed on fibular. The lateral malleolus frac- ture was repaired and fixed, then, an arc inci- sion was made on the medial malleolus to expose the deltoid ligament and its broken ends. Subsequently, MCS was cleaned and anchors were penetrated into the broken ends followed by suturing and knotting tightly to ensure the stability of the ankle.
When playing a sport, precautions must be made to prevent injuries. In volleyball, players usually wear ankle braces to prevent ankle sprains. There are also pads on each pole in case a player collides with a pole. Kneepads are worn to protect the skin on knees from breaking open. If there has been a previous injury, the player will wear an ace wrap or get the injury taped with athletic tape. The volleyball court is kept clean of hazards and free balls that could cause trips or falls (Seaton, 1948).There are many ways an injury can occur. If two players collide with a large force, they can injure each other. If a player has incorrect form, such as hitting the ball or setting the ball, they can injure themselves. Players could also be injured during conditioning, where they are pushing their bodies to do strenuous activities. No matter how the injury occurs, it should always be taken seriously and treated correctly.According to the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) (2010), the most volleyball injuries occur in the ankles. The NATA performed a three-year study with 87 high school players. The study took place in 1995 by certified athletic trainers throughout the country and found that 50 percent of injuries were sprains. The setting position was found to be the position with the most injuries. NATA also found that 80 percent of injuries occurred during practices. Only less than two percent required surgery (National Athletic Trainers Association, 2010).
Background: Fractures of the extremities are often complicated by a variable degree of swelling secondary to hemorrhage and soft tissue injury. Patients typically require up to 7 days of inpatient bed rest and elevation to reduce swelling to an acceptable level for operative treatment with internal fixation. Alternatively, an intermittent pneumatic compression device, such as the Vascular Impulse Technology (VIT) system, can be used at the injured extremity to reduce the posttraumatic swelling. The VIT system consists of a pneumatic compressor that intermittently rapidly inflates a bladder positioned under the arch of the hand or the foot, which results in compression of the venous hand or foot plexus. That intermittent compression induces an increased venous velocity and aims to reduce the soft tissue swelling of the affected extremity.
Results: Compared to the available literature, significantly more severe injuries that necessitated surgical treatment in recreational snowboarders were documented. Most injuries accounted for wrist fractures but also many nonunions and spinal fractures were recorded. Between active professionals, distinct differences in injury distribution were found. The number of days off differed greatly with less days in speed disciplines (35.5 days) and the maximum number of days off in snowboardcross (51 days). Injury distribution varied clearly with more injuries of the upper extremity and ankle in speed disciplines compared to snowboardcross and freestyle professionals, who exhibited more injuries to the lower extremity and head. Freestyle athletes used significantly less protectors compared to speed (P=0.01) and snowboardcross athletes (P=0.00). An analysis of retired professionals revealed a higher number of impairments in daily life and a significantly higher number of days off snowboarding (P=0.018).
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As the first foot and ankle journal to fully embrace open access publishing, JFAR has been an early adopter of inno- vations in academic publishing. Consistent with BMC’s ethos of transparency, we operate an open peer review process (where authors’ and reviewers’ identities are dis- closed), and we publish all peer reviews on our website. The BMC platform also allows for non-traditional content to be uploaded to support manuscripts, including video files  and downloadable 3-dimensional models .
It is widely accepted that while engaging in sports and physical activities reduces the risk of certain diseases, it also entails a noticeable risk of injury among all levels of participation (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). Although there is no universally accepted defi nition, this study defi nes sports injury as a physical condition incurred as a result of sport participation, which requires medical attention and restriction of participation or performance (Hootman, Dick & Agel, 2007). Th e general objective of this study is to identify the common injuries incurred by collegiate tennis players using student athletes from participant schools of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines (UAAP). Specifi cally, this research aims to identify the common type of injuries and most commonly injured anatomical regions.
emergency; as for patients with poor soft tissue condi- tion and swelling, open reduction of tibial astragaloid joint was first performed, then followed by continuous traction of calcaneal tuberosity, and finally two-stage ORIF was initiated until soft tissue swelling regressed and skin condition permitted. Open fractures were all treated by emergency operation. With regard to Gustilo type II injury, ORIF was conducted after wound de- bridement; for type IIIA-contaminated wound, external fixation using supporter was adopted temporarily after debridement. If patient was accompanied by severe soft tissue loss such as open skin avulsion, the vacuum- sealed dressings (VSD) were used to cover the affected area, and then two-stage surgery was conducted until skin conditions permitted.
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In our results, MRI exhibited the pooled sensitivities of 0.83 in diagnosing chronic ATFL injury and 0.56 in diag- nosing chronic CFL injury. The pooled specificities were around 0.8 in diagnosing chronic ATFL and CFL injury. In clinical practice, MRI is highly recommended in diag- nosing ligamentous injuries . Also, MRI was reported to be effective in diagnosing intra-articular lesions of chronic ankle instability, including osteochondral lesions of talus, syndesmotic injuries, and impingement syn- dromes [55, 56]. Using MRI, Tao et al.  reported more cartilage lesions in patients with combined injuries of the ATFL and CFL, compared to patients with only ATFL injury. A study showed that 86.7% of the experts recom- mended MRI before considering surgery in chronic ankle instability patients . However, according to our results, MRI did not provide the highest sensitivity or specificity in diagnosing chronic ligament injuries. It presented different patterns in diagnosing chronic ATFL and CFL injuries. The sensitivity for diagnosing chronic ATFL injury (0.83 [0.78, 0.87]) was higher than that for diagnos- ing chronic CFL injury (0.56 [0.46, 0.66]). MRI is still
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The transfer of kinetic energy from the missile to surrounding tissue as it traverses its path creates injury in several unique fashions. Kinetic energy is directly proportional to the mass and the square of the missile velocity; impact velocity directly relates to the wounding potential of a projectile. Missiles are categorized by their velocity profile into low-, medium-, and high-velocity projectiles. The impact speed is affected by several factors, including target distance, missile velocity, missile mass, missile shape, and drag. A missile creates longitudinal and horizontal shock and shear waves as it traverses different media. These, in turn, lead to cavitation of surrounding structures. The temporary cavity formed can contuse and lacerate tissues, fracture vascular intima, and rupture large vascular conduits. Dependent upon the energy imparted by the missile, these injuries may extend a significant distance from the bullet track.
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Fogel et al described that when surgery is delayed more than a week, there is higher rate of mal reduction due to fibrous tissue consolidation . The ideal time for the surgical fixation is within the first 6-8 hours of injury. In the presence of severe edema or fracture blisters and Plaster of Paris blisters, surgery must be postponed until the skin and soft tissue condition has improved.
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Descriptive statistics (arithmetic means, averages, and ranges) were calculated using standard formulas, to deter- mine the significances of intergroup differences, univari- able analysis was used to assess whether gender, age, preoperative diagnosis, BMI, operation laterality, duration of ankle pain and preoperative AOFAS score were predis- posing factor for nerve injury. Multivariable linear regres- sion analysis was used to assess the relationship between postoperative AOFAS score and above independent vari- ables. The Paired t-test wasused to analyze AOFAS score intergroup and intragroup differences before and after sur- gery. And the Pearson’ s Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare patient satisfaction between two groups. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered to indi- cate significance, and all aspects of the statistical analysis were reviewed by a statistician.