The generation of new scientific knowledge ensures Brazil’s active role in the decision making process on environmental conservation procedures and the future of the Antarctic continent and the Southern Ocean, in accordance with article IX of the Antarctic Treaty. The implementation of the features contained in the document “AntarcticScience for Brazil - an Action Plan for 2013 – 2022” will promote Brazil as a country to become inter- nationally recognized for its high scientific performance in Antarctic research in that region and in the Southern Ocean. The five programs will be implemented in a sustainable manner, so as to investigate past, present and future environmental processes of impact to the polar region and its implications to South America. These programs can also contribute to an increased role of Brazil in the “Antarctic Treaty System”, in particular, in the context of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), together with ongoing international cooperation within South American nations.
The most popular news value employed in regards to Antarcticscience and research news was ‘drama/sensationalism’ at 36%. This was done by dramatising the headline, examples include “Human extinction ‘imminent’”, “Oil-soaked chicks found” and “Sea level threat from melting ice”. This can be associated with the pressures on news to be entertaining as well as informative. In Galtung and Ruges 1965 study of foreign news factors predicting coverage, drama and action in the account of events was a large factor of influence (McQuail, 2010). McQuail (2010) gives the example of the media dramatising news, in which the media planned for the coverage of London demonstrations against the Vietnam War, to be violent and dramatic, characteristics which did not match the event whatsoever. Research showed that audience perception of the event, matched how the media portrayed it rather than what had actually occurred. This aspect of news values runs the risk of disregarding information significant for public knowledge, if it isn’t dramatic enough.
The organisms that have been adapted to live in Antarctica have followed evolutionary ways diﬀerent to the biota of the rest of the planet, generating unique genomes largely unknown for the scientiﬁc eyes. Then, an extreme climate has lead the evolution of new biochemical adaptations to face the extremely low temperatures, elevated levels of ultraviolet radiation, high levels of hydric stress, modiﬁcation of the salinity, etc. In the photo, Dr. Freddy Boehmwald of the project ANTARCTICA: SOURCE OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR NATIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY collecting samples during the last Antarctic expedition.
Lilia M. Cortina, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology, Women’s Studies, and Management & Organizations at the University of Michigan. An
organizational psychologist, she investigates the many ways in which people are subordinated, violated, and relegated to the margins of organizational life. These interpersonal indignities range from subtle social slights to general incivility to blatant harassment and violence. Professor Cortina’s scholarship spans the full spectrum, with a particular focus on incivility and harassment based on gender/sex. To date, she has published over 80 scientific articles and chapters on these topics. In recognition of unusual and outstanding contributions to the field, Professor Cortina has been named Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Professor Cortina’s research on workplace harassment has won awards, but its impact stretches beyond academia and into other professional spheres. She has served as an expert witness in a range of venues, translating findings from social science to inform policy and legal decision-making. For example, she provided expert testimony to the U.S. Department of Defense Judicial Proceedings Panel; commissioned by Congress, this Panel conducted an independent review of American military judicial procedures surrounding sexual assault. She also testified to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's (EEOC) Select Task Force on the Study of Harassment in the Workplace. In addition, Professor Cortina recently joined colleagues in co-authoring a landmark report on sexual harassment for the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
commentary from the realm of private, novelistic speculation where it had been languishing, and introducing new empirical evidence. The authors showed that fifteen years of data from automated weather stations vindicated Scott’s claim that the weather conditions which confronted the polar party were exceptional. Solomon and Stearns noted that statements by the expedition leader and his meteorologist about these extraordinarily low temperatures in March 1912 had been “largely ignored” or “explicitly dismissed” (13012), but attested that “Scott was correct rather than petulant when in his final message to the public he wrote, ‘... no one in the world would have expected the temperatures ... which we encountered at this time of the year’” (13015). Solomon followed up the article with a book-length study, The Coldest March, in 2001. Here she interweaves the story of Scott’s expeditions with personal experience of Antarctica and the evidence of modern Antarcticscience to critique Huntford’s depiction of “Scott and his men not as stoic pioneers but as inept bumblers” (xv). As Solomon examined data from “reliable automated weather stations” that “furnish the first detailed insight in seventy years into the weather conditions along Scott’s via dolorosa,” and compared them with the diaries of the expeditionists, she found to her surprise that “Scott and his team had analyzed the meteorology in exquisite detail, in a manner that can only inspire the greatest admiration by scientist and nonscientist alike” (xvii). Furthermore, she argues that “more than one myth of Scott as a bungler crumbles” in the light of the knowledge supplied by the modern disciplines of “sea ice dynamics, nutrition, snow physics, materials science and human physiology.” Her thesis, in short, is that “Scott and his men did everything right regarding the weather but were exceedingly unlucky” (xvii). In Coldest March Scott is once again regarded as an admirable figure. The single aspect of his record Solomon disputes is the final blizzard which prevented Wilson and Bowers from making the 11-mile trip to One Ton Depot. She argues that a blizzard of such duration could not have occurred in that location (309-27), a point which was overlooked by reviewers, who mostly welcomed the book (Walton; Wheeler; Chang). The blizzard appears from Scott’s diary to have lasted for ten days. His entry for “March 21 st ” (this date is written over another) states: “had to
The Environmental Domains Analysis is based on physical characteristics of areas in Antarctica. In order to properly use this tool to systematically identify unique ecosystems in the Antarctic environment, biological information should be incorporated within the model used to define ecological domains. The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), a group of experts on Antarcticscience, can complete the biological equivalent of the work done by the Environmental Domains Analysis and combine this information in a new model that can denote all types of ecosystems based on both physical and biological characteristics within Antarctica so a network of representative samples of each type of ecosystem can be protected.
Abstract. In stark contrast to the sharp decline in Arctic sea ice, there has been a steady increase in ice extent around Antarctica during the last three decades, especially in the Weddell and Ross seas. In general, climate models do not to capture this trend and a lack of information about sea ice cov- erage in the pre-satellite period limits our ability to quantify the sensitivity of sea ice to climate change and robustly vali- date climate models. However, evidence of the presence and nature of sea ice was often recorded during early Antarctic exploration, though these sources have not previously been explored or exploited until now. We have analysed observa- tions of the summer sea ice edge from the ship logbooks of explorers such as Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton and their contemporaries during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Ex- ploration (1897–1917), and in this study we compare these to satellite observations from the period 1989–2014, offering insight into the ice conditions of this period, from direct ob- servations, for the first time. This comparison shows that the summer sea ice edge was between 1.0 and 1.7 ◦ further north in the Weddell Sea during this period but that ice conditions were surprisingly comparable to the present day in other sec- tors.
politics expressed through ticking mechanisms, the time-bombs of the future Cold War. ‘ How pitilessly resolute and faithful [the instruments] are. In the cold and darkness of this polar silence they steadfastly do their appointed jobs, cli cking day and night’ . 94 As his syntax is suspended in sequences of ruptures, he can only distinguish nothingness, the zeroes displayed on the dials of his gadgets. What they indicate is both a moment of emergence and impact: imperial schemes adjust into a Cold War space race, beginning and already at its end, or at the beginning of the end. Technology, though — cyborgic systems that unleash, not merely observe, ‘ ruinous storms ’— keeps operating, ‘ tick- tick, tick-tick, tick- tick’ , 95 with unbroken regularity, as if indicative of an eternal, self-evolving techno-pulse. This process of half-life, however, suggests a research agenda and fantasy of preparedness in the service of a superpower imaginary that is not technologically determined but propelled onwards through machines, the servomechanisms of world-conquering and world-ending fictions. Against the blinding, glacial films of the South Pole flash intimations of light-death: the Antarctic, site of Cold War hauntings, prefigures the terminations of the atom bomb and of a trance-like, death-like culture dreaming of annihilation.
Many Antarctic fishes use a labriform type of sustained swimming, making use of well-developed pectoral fins and associated muscles (Archer and Johnston, 1987). Resting metabolic rates are low compared with temperate species, and the factorial scopes for aerobic activity are modest (Wells, 1987; Forster et al., 1987; Johnston et al., 1991). Johnston et al. (1998) found that the temperature-dependence of state 3 respiration of isolated mitochondria in perciform species fitted a single quadratic relationship irrespective of habitat temperature. This indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption per unit mitochondrion volume was relatively fixed and that increasing the volume of mitochondrial clusters was the primary mechanism for enhancing the muscle aerobic capacity in cold-water fish. Indeed, ultrastructural studies have found high densities of mitochondria in the slow muscle of Antarctic fish [35.6 % in juvenile Notothenia neglecta (Johnston and Camm, 1987), 50.1 % in adult Chaenocephalus aceratus (Johnston, 1987) and 45 % in Psilodraco breviceps (Archer and Johnston, 1991)] approaching or even exceeding those for myocardium of active endotherms (finch 34 %, mouse 37 %) (Bossen et al., 1978). Cold acclimation also results in an increase in mitochondrial volume density in the muscle of many temperate fish species (Johnston and Maitland, 1980; Egginton and Sidell, 1989). Thus, differences in muscle mitochondrial content in Antarctic notothenioids may be related to their phyletic derivation or simply be an extension of the response observed during winter in temperate fishes (cold acclimatisation) that has become fixed in the genome (cold adaptation).
Over the past ~50 million years mean global oceanic temperatures have experienced a long period of cooling (Thatje et al., 2005b). However, anthropogenic climate change is at present, warming the world’s oceans at an alarming rate, with the ‘isolated’ polar regions unable to escape the negative impacts of human activity (Aronson et al., 2011, Bennett et al., 2015, Hall & Thatje, 2011, Clarke et al., 2005). “Antarctic shelf bottom waters off the WAP have risen by nearly 1.5ºC over the past 50 years, approximately double the globally averaged rate” Aronson et al., 2015a, p. 12998). As the shallow WAP water temperatures increase, the thermal barrier to invasion by lithodids will gradually be removed, aiding their spread into Antarctic shelf benthic communities (Aronson et al., 2015a, Thatje et al., 2005a).
The sub-Antarctic is now recognised as a separate realm (Green 2007), differing from the glacial realm to its south and the temperate realm to its north. It is a uniquely Southern Hemisphere feature covering some 8% of the Earth’s surface and linking the southern extremities of the three great oceans – Indian, Pacific and Atlantic (fig. 1). This paper discusses the concept of extreme events in the realm, events that are out of the range of normally expected or experienced occurrences. It concentrates on the non-meteorological extreme events and distinguishes those events that are endogenous (generated within the realm) and exogenous (those that impact from outside the realm). Examples of the former are volcanic eruptions and landslides, and the latter, mainly space-sourced events such as extreme cosmic ray fluxes or meteoritic impacts.
From the vantage point of a plant biologist, the nature and location of the sub-Antarctic is very simple: it is the region south of the south temperate zone and north of the Antarctic zone. The sub-Antarctic is a region of much ocean and little land, a region where herbaceous flowering plants and bryophyres grow well, bur where trees and shrubs are absent. Ir is a region where the tiny specks of land are strongly influenced by the vast ocean and where there are strong connections between marine and terrestrial ecosystems (Smith 1984, Selkirk et al. 1990, Erskine et al. 1998, Smith et al. 2001, Smith 2007).
My indebtedness to scholars and librarians known and unknown is, of course, incalculable, but I would especially like to thank for their generous help the staff of the University of Tasmania’s Morris Miller Library, the library of the Australian Antarctic Division and the library and archives of Scott Polar Research Institute. I am also grateful to Lord Kennet for kindly allowing me access to family archival material held at the Institute and at the library of the University of Cambridge.
Harvesting of finfish in the sub-Antarctic is briefly described together with an historical account of its management by the international Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) under the Convention of the same name (CAMLR Convention). The key objectives of the CAMLR Convention are outlined, with emphasis on the procedures adopted by CCAMLR to meet its management objectives through implementation of an ecosystem-based and precautionary approach. Four case studies are presented to illustrate CCAMLR's success as a modern-day and effective marine management organisation. The cases considered are CCAMLR's efforts to: (a) combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, (b) mitigate incidental seabird bycatch during longline fishing for toothfish, (c) institute precautionary management of developing fisheries and (d) address environmental protection. In evaluating CCAMLR's actions, emphasis is given to the challenges faced and lessons learnt thereby highlighting the organisation's standing as an example of international best practice in the management of marine living resources on the high seas.