anthocyanins and metabolites

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Modulation of Adhesion Process, E-Selectin and VEGF Production by Anthocyanins and Their Metabolites in an In-Vitro Model of Atherosclerosis

Modulation of Adhesion Process, E-Selectin and VEGF Production by Anthocyanins and Their Metabolites in an In-Vitro Model of Atherosclerosis

Polyphenols are a heterogeneous class of bioactive compounds found abundantly in the plant kingdom. They are generally classified into phenolic acids (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids), flavonoids (flavanols, flavonols, flavons, flavanones, isoflavons and anthocyanidins), stilbens and lignans. Polyphenols are responsible for the color, bitterness, astringency, flavor and smell of numerous plants including fruits, vegetables, coffee, chocolate and tea [6]. In recent years, polyphenols have received extensive interest for their health benefits in the prevention of numerous cardiovascular diseases [7-11]. The mechanisms through which polyphenols may exert their bioactivity are not completely understood since they are poorly bioavailable, rapidly absorbed and metabolized by liver, kidney and gut microbiota. Some of the most proposed protective mechanisms of action include the increase of antioxidant/detoxification enzymes activity (i.e. glutathione S- transferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) [12-14], and the decrease of pro- inflammatory cytokines (i.e. tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1, interleukin-6) [15- 17]. Furthermore, polyphenols have been documented to exert atheroprotective properties modulating the release of numerous vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents at the endothelial level such as nitric oxide, endothelin-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (sVCAM-1) [18]. In this regard, we have previously reported the ability of different anthocyanins and metabolites to counteract and/or resolve an inflammation-driven adhesion of monocytes on endothelial cell (HUVECs). In the present study, we focused on the effects of peonidin (peo) and petunidin (pet)-3- glucoside, and their respective metabolites (vanillic and methyl-gallic acids; VA and MetGA) on their capacity to resolve a TNF-α mediated inflammatory process responsible of the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs through the production of the mediators VCAM-1 and E-selectin. In addition, since TNF- α and monocytes play a crucial role in angiogenesis [19], we evaluated whether polyphenolic compounds were also able to reduce VEGF production, one of the main angiogenic factors. To the best of our knowledge, very few studies have explored this topic, as the majority of them focus on oncology.

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Anthocyanins and their physiologically relevant metabolites alter the expression of IL 6 and VCAM 1 in CD40L and oxidized LDL challenged vascular endothelial cells

Anthocyanins and their physiologically relevant metabolites alter the expression of IL 6 and VCAM 1 in CD40L and oxidized LDL challenged vascular endothelial cells

to modulate the expression of both IL-6 and VCAM-1 [13–15]. Studies feeding anthocyanin-rich bilberry and strawberry bev- erages to human participants with elevated risk of CVD re- ported reduced plasma concentrations of IL-6 and C-reactive protein [7,13,16]. This is also supported by animal and in vitro studies that demonstrated that IL-6 production can be atten- uated by anthocyanins [14, 17]. In addition, black soybean anthocyanins have been observed to reduce VCAM-1 produc- tion in tumor necrosis factor-␣ (TNF-␣)-challenged human endothelial cells and protect against ischemia-induced my- ocardial injury in mice [5,15]. In previous studies the assump- tion is, parent anthocyanins are responsible for the observed biological activity. However, due to the biological instability and extensive metabolism of anthocyanins [18], we propose that the anti-inflammatory bioactivity results from the activity of anthocyanin degradation products and metabolites and not the parent anthocyanins directly.

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Potential anti-inflammatory, anti-adhesive, anti/estrogenic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of anthocyanins and their gut metabolites

Potential anti-inflammatory, anti-adhesive, anti/estrogenic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of anthocyanins and their gut metabolites

but also to their metabolites produced by the action of the gut microflora. Both anthocyanins and their phenolic acid metabolites might play a role in decreasing vascular inflammatory markers, such as cytokines and adhesion and chemoattractant molecules. Despite observing a slight modulation of NO production by protocatechuic acid, the concentrations required to produce this effect do not fit with this being a potential mechanism of action for the antiatherogenic properties of anthocyanins. It might be the ability of anthocyanins and three of their metabolites to inhibit ACE activity, which could decrease the expression of inflammatory markers and therefore improve endothelial function. On the other hand, some of the assayed metab- olites have shown a relatively important affinity for ER a and b, which regulate transcription of target genes, such as NF-kB. This affinity could also be implicated in athero- matosis. Overall, the concentrations of anthocyanins and their metabolites, as used in the present cell culture and in vitro assays mediating anti-inflammatory, anti-adhesive, anti-estrogenic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhib- itory activities were often manifold higher than those physiologically achievable (Vitaglione et al. 2007). Further research, preferably in vivo, is necessary to determine whether, and to what extent, anthocyanin metabolites play a role in the prevention of atherosclerosis in humans. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Spanish Min- istry of Science and Innovation through projects AGL2006-05453, AGL2008-01713, AGL2009-07894, SAF2008-00945, and the Con- solider-Ingenio 2010 Programme (FUN-C-FOOD, CSD2007-00063). M. Hidalgo wishes to thank CSIC, for a JAE predoctoral fellowship (JAEPre094).

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In vitro Evaluation of the Anti-scavenging and Anthelmintic Activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus LAM Leaves (Moraceae) in the Democratic Republic of Congo

In vitro Evaluation of the Anti-scavenging and Anthelmintic Activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus LAM Leaves (Moraceae) in the Democratic Republic of Congo

In this study, the aim was to determine the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition, to extract organic acids and to evaluate the anthelminthic and antioxidant activities of A. heterophyllus Lam, in order to contribute to the valorization of the plant used in ethnoveterinary medicine in DR Congo. Results revealed that A. heterophyllus contains various secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, anthraquinones, terpenoids and anthocyanins. The organic/terpenic acids extract displayed interesting antioxidant activity against the ABTS radical (IC 50 : 0.97 ± 0.13 µg/ml). However, at the dose of 0.625

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Complete Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins Using E  coli Polycultures

Complete Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins Using E coli Polycultures

The rapid success of polycultures to realize the de novo production of various late-pathway flavonoid metabolites demonstrates the power of such approaches over traditional monoculture metabolic engineering efforts (30, 31). Additionally, the ease with which these pathways were reoptimized through conservation of the previously optimized inoculation ratio further highlights the benefits of polyculture modularity over that of traditional monoculture techniques (31). In traditional monoculture tech- niques, extension of the current heterologous overexpression pathway would require additional genes to be cloned and expressed in the previously optimized strain, consequently deoptimizing the strain from both a genetic and fermentation perspec- tive. Genetic reoptimization is a cumbersome task. Oftentimes, it is impossible to regain the fluxes previously achieved due to either increased metabolic burden (32) or altered natural precursor and cofactor availability, thus limiting the overall titer, yield, and productivity of the process. Polycultures, however, enable the genetic optimization of each module to be preserved, requiring only minor fermentation optimization to adjust the inoculation ratio of the new strain (14). The simplicity of this optimization and the smooth trends observed in corresponding production landscapes support the hypoth- esis that these cultures are relatively stable through the production phase of the fermentation.

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Anti Sickle Cell Anemia and Bacterial Inhibitory Effects of Uvariodendron molundense (Diels) R E Fr  (Annonaceae)  from Ubangi River Basin, DR Congo

Anti Sickle Cell Anemia and Bacterial Inhibitory Effects of Uvariodendron molundense (Diels) R E Fr (Annonaceae) from Ubangi River Basin, DR Congo

The present study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the chemical composition and bioactivity of Uvariodendron molundense against Sickle cell disease and associated pathogenic bacteria agents. The antisickling and anti- bacterial activities were assessed using Emmel and micro-dilution methods respectively. The results revealed that the leaves and stem bark of U. molun- dense contains various secondary metabolites such as total phenols, flavono- ids, anthocyanins, tannins, quinones, saponins, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and leuco-anthocyanins. The n-hexane (non-polar solvent) extract displayed poor yield (0.66) than the extracts obtained in the polar solvents which have a high yield (Methanol: 1.68, Ethanol: 1.46 and Ethyl acetate: 1.40). These results indicate that the abundant secondary metabolites/compounds in this plant species are those which pass easily through the polar solvents (methanol, etha- nol and ethyl acetate). This is the case of phytomarkers like flavonoids and tannins (which are most concentrated in methanol) and anthocyanins which are concentrated in ethyl acetate. The extraction yield of organic/triterpenoic acids (betulinic acid rich extract) was 1.70%. All tested extracts displayed anti- sickling activity. At 100 µg/mL, the rates of normalization were 89% for or- ganic extract (ED50 = 0.391 µg/ml) and 82% for anthocyanins extract (ED50 = 0.659 µg/mL). The antibacterial activity of tested extracts was very good to- ward Staphyloccocus areus (CMI ≤ 31.25 µg/mL) while, for Escherichia coli , only the organic extract exhibit interesting activity (CMI = 31.25 µg/mL). This How to cite this paper: Ngbolua, K.-T.-N.,

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Characterization of Phytochemicals in Methanolic Extract of Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees Collected from Kanyakumary Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

Characterization of Phytochemicals in Methanolic Extract of Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees Collected from Kanyakumary Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

In the preliminary phytochemical analysis of Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees, seventeen different types of secondary metabolites (alkaloids, anthocyanins, anthroquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, diterpenes, emodins, flavanoids, glycosides, phenols, phlobatannins, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and triterpenoids) were tested in methanol extract of Entryomorpha compressa (L.) Nees. Among the tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 13 tests showed positive results and the remaining gave negative results. The 13 positive results showed the presence of alkaloids, emodines, tannins,

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Role of Bioactive Components of Indigenous Herbs  in Combating 	Inflammation

Role of Bioactive Components of Indigenous Herbs in Combating Inflammation

Inflammation being a Biological process in which protective cells of our body like white blood cells as well as other substances safe guard us from infections with certain foreign substances such as bacteria or viruses etc which might act as antigens. It regulates secretion of certain hormone like substances like prostaglandins besides this other substances particularly enzyme fractions like cyclo oxygenase, Lipoxygenase etc that induce inflammation. However there are certain Bioactive components in food products especially certain herbs which help in modulating metabolic processes and help in reducing inflammation thereby ensuring better health. Thus by consuming a diet containing appropriate anti inflammatory bioactive compounds like curcumin, eugenol, anthocyanins etc we can stimulate our positive health and wellbeing.

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Regulation of 11β Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 and 2 in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Regulation of 11β Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 and 2 in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Over the 24 weeks period disease activity of RA de- creased significantly (median PV week 0 = 1.85 mPa (IQR 1.76 - 1.90), week 12 = 1.77 (IQR 1.71 - 1.89), week 24 = 1.77 (1.66 - 1.84), p < 0.01; median AI week 0 = 24 (IQR 17 - 29), week 12 = 15 (10 - 23), week 24 = 11 (IQR 6 - 23), p < 0.02, respectively). Concurrently, significant changes from baseline were found for plate- lets (decrease), haemoglobin (increase), albumin (in- crease), globulins (decrease), IgG, IgA, IgM (decrease), but not for CRP, γGT, leucocytes, lymphocyte count, C3, C4 and EMS (data not shown). No significant changes of urinary steroid metabolite excretion (median values) were detected over the observed time periods (Tables 1 and 2) and all urinary steroid levels were in the normal range. Over the same time period the ratio of the tetrahy- dro-metabolites THF + 5αTHF/THE, an index of 11β- HSD1 activity, decreased significantly (median week 0 =

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Periodontal therapy and salivary nitric oxide metabolites

Periodontal therapy and salivary nitric oxide metabolites

Andrukhov et al (Meschiari, 2015) and Han et al. (Han, 2013). This study offers validation that NO synthesis is increased in periodontal disease. It has also been substantiated that NO metabolites plays an imperative role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, either directly or indirectly by modulating the production of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. There is a linear increase in the levels of NO metabolites with periodontal clinical parameters. However, we have detected that surgical periodontal therapy has reduced the levels of NO metabolites to a greater level when compared to non-surgical therapy. The reason for the significant decrease after 12 weeks in patients who underwent only non- surgical periodontal therapy can also be attributed to various unexplained host interactions along with the removal of the etiologic factors which had eliminated the inflammation.

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Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthesis and transport in berries of black and white spine grapes (Vitis davidii)

Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthesis and transport in berries of black and white spine grapes (Vitis davidii)

Anthocyanidins need to be modified by glycosylation, methylation and acylation to form stabilized anthocya- nins. In V. vinifera, the glycosylation was catalyzed by UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin: flavonoid glucosyltransfer- ase (UFGT) at C3 position, and the gene encoding UFGT had been cloned [24, 80]. The action of UFGT was crucial for anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skin [1, 22, 23, 25, 50, 67, 81, 82]. In our study, a differ- ential expression gene (VIT_16s0039g02230) was anno- tated as UFGT, which had a high expression level in B2 and B3, and did not express in white spine grape. How- ever, in non-V. vinifera species, the 3-5-O-disglucoside anthocyanins are widely present [7, 8]. There must be another UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin: flavonoid glucosyl- transferase to catalyze glycosylation at C5 position. In recent years, a few studies reported the isolation of 5GT genes in grapes [83, 84]. Jánváry et al. [83] cloned func- tional Cha5GT and nonfunctional Dia5GT from the het- erozygous hybrid cultivar ‘Regent’ , a cross of V. vinifera cv. ‘Diana’ and the interspecific hybrid cv. ‘Chambour- cin’. The functional analysis of Cha5GT and Dia5GT suggested that two mutations in the 5GT gene elimi- nated its enzymatic activity. Because of the absence of active 5GT, dis-glucosidic anthocyanins could not be produced in V. vinifera red grapes. He et al. [84] cloned the full-length cDNA of UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 5-O- glucosyltransferase (Va5GT) from V. amurensis Rupr. cv. ‘Zuoshanyi’. The results suggested that Va5GT was a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of dis-glucosidic anthocyanins in V. amurensis grape berries. In our study, a differential expression gene (VIT_09s0002g06590) showed a high ex- pressional level just in B2 and B3, which was annotated as UGT. It has high homology with Va5GT. Thus, we in- ferred that the expression of VIT_09s0002g06590 (5GT) led to a high 3-5-O-disglucoside anthocyanins concentra- tion in black spine grape.

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Antioxidant and Antihyperlipidemic activities of anthocyanins from eggplant peels

Antioxidant and Antihyperlipidemic activities of anthocyanins from eggplant peels

As shown in Figure 2, eggplant peels anthocyanins, and TBHQ showed the reducing power as dose dependent manner. In particular, anthocyanins exerted the strongest reducing power, indicating that anthocyanins had high electron-donating capacity. At a concentration of 200ppm, the reducing power of anthocyanins and TBHQ reached 1.00 and 1.70, respectively. These results reveal that anthocyanins could donate electron easier and also had higher reducing power than TBHQ at the same concentration. These results are in agreement with those reported by [28] who found that the anthocyanins from purple sweet potato exhibited a higher reducing power than BHT and ascorbic acid, suggesting that the anthocyanins had strong electron-donating capacity. The study demonstrated that anthocyanins from eggplant peels extracts DPPH and reducing power activities resulting in a significant, dose dependent scavenging radical.

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Composition analysis and structural identification of anthocyanins in fruit of waxberry

Composition analysis and structural identification of anthocyanins in fruit of waxberry

Anthocyanin pigments in the fruit of waxberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), were extracted with 0.1% HCl in ethanol, and the crude anthocyanin extract was purified by C18 Sep-Pak cartridge open-column chromatography. High-per- formance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detection (PAD) and matrix-assisted laser desorp- tion/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied for the separation and identification of anthocyanins in the fruit of waxberry and their aglycones resulting from acid hydrolysis. Three anthocyanins were found in the fruit of waxberry and identified as Cyanidin 3-O-β-galacopyranoside (14.8%), Cyanidin 3-O-β-gluco- pyranoside (60.5%), and petunidin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (24.7%), respectively, using spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis and MS). The three anthocyanins were isolated and purified by preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were further characterised by H 1 NMR. On the basis of chromatographic data, the total anthocyanin content was 286 mg/g

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Role of Bioactive Components of Indigenous Herbs in Combating Inflammation

Role of Bioactive Components of Indigenous Herbs in Combating Inflammation

Inflammation being a Biological process in which protective cells of our body like white blood cells as well as other substances safe guard us from infections with certain foreign substances such as bacteria or viruses etc which might act as antigens. It regulates secretion of certain hormone like substances like prostaglandins besides this other substances particularly enzyme fractions like cyclo oxygenase, Lipoxygenase etc that induce inflammation. However there are certain Bioactive components in food products especially certain herbs which help in modulating metabolic processes and help in reducing inflammation thereby ensuring better health. Thus by consuming a diet containing appropriate anti inflammatory bioactive compounds like curcumin, eugenol, anthocyanins etc we can stimulate our positive health and wellbeing.

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The Use of Anthocyanins of Black Currant and Polysaccharides in the Production of Sweet Dishes

The Use of Anthocyanins of Black Currant and Polysaccharides in the Production of Sweet Dishes

Despite the simplicity of releasing anthocyanin pigments, improvement and development of new methods for their extraction is relevant due to their instability during storage. The literary sources name the production methods of anthocyanins pigment with which the pigment is extracted from plant materials with the extractants of different chemical nature (Jampani, Raghavarao, 2015; Liu et al., 2014; Perevertkina et al., 2011; Churilina et al., 2010; Deineka et al., 2007). Due to the above mentioned, the goal of the present research is to examine the extraction intensification of anthocyanin pigments from black currant in the presence of polysaccharides, as well as the possibility of using this dye in the production of sweet dishes. Selection of polysaccharides as the extracting agents required for anthocyanin pigments release is due to their ability to interact electrostatically and form stable complexes at the account of charged groups present in them (Kruif, Tuinier, 2001). In addition, natural polysaccharides are non-toxic and allow using the system of the anthocyanin pigment-polysaccharide in food production by regulating their colour and consistency.

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Influence of the Degree of Maturation on the Bioactive Compounds in Blackberry (Rubus spp ) cv  Tupy

Influence of the Degree of Maturation on the Bioactive Compounds in Blackberry (Rubus spp ) cv Tupy

Determination of total anthocyanins was performed using the method described by Lees & Francis [11], with some modifications. One gram of each sample was added to a beaker covered with aluminum foil, to which 25 mL of ethanol acidified with hydrochloric acid (pH 1.00) was added. The sample was agitated every 5 minutes for one hour. After this period, the sample was filtered with cot- ton into a 50-mL volumetric flask, and the volume was completed with acidified methanol. The absorbance was measured in a spectrophotometer (model Ultrospec 2000) at 520 nm, using ethanol as a blank. Calculation of the concentration of anthocyanins was based on Beer’s Law, and the results are expressed as mg of cyaniding-3-gly- coside per 100 g of fresh fruit.

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Quality Control Of Impurities And Comparison Of Pharmacokinetic Parameters Of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists

Quality Control Of Impurities And Comparison Of Pharmacokinetic Parameters Of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists

Candesartan cilexetil, Embusartan, Losartan, Olmesartan medoxomil and Tasosartan are ester prodrugs and after absorption through the gastrointestinal tract are hydrolysed by esterases to its respective active metabolite: Candesartan-7- carboxylic acid, BAY 10-6735, EXP 3174, Olmesartan and Enoltasosartan. The metabolites are moe active than the corresponding prodrug: Candesartan-7- carboxylic acid: 30-100 times more than Candesartan cilexetil. Candesartan slowly is biotransformed to a very small extent by oxidation by CYP2C9 [95].

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Serum metabolite markers of early Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs

Serum metabolite markers of early Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs

The distribution of 84 serum samples from mock inoc- ulated control and inoculated pigs in a score plot of the PCA model on pooled LC–MS data showed that sam- ples collected at 0, 2, 5, and 9  dpi were clearly sepa- rated from samples collected at 14, 21, and 28 dpi along the 1st principal component of the model (Figure  2A). This distribution profile suggests the existence of time- dependent metabolic changes in both mock inoculated control and inoculated pigs. More importantly, the majority of serum samples from infected pigs at 14 and 21 dpi were further separated from other samples in the 1st principal component of the model, indicating the occurrence of infection-responsive metabolic changes (Figure  2A). The metabolites contributing to time- and Table 1 Identities of top 20 metabolites associated with pig growth and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection

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Anthocyanins inhibit high-glucose-induced cholesterol accumulation and inflammation by activating LXR&alpha; pathway in HK-2 cells

Anthocyanins inhibit high-glucose-induced cholesterol accumulation and inflammation by activating LXR&alpha; pathway in HK-2 cells

HK-2 cells were obtained from ATCC (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, USA). They were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 (DMEM-F12, 3:1) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum in a humidified 5% CO 2 atmosphere at 37 ° C. Cells were made quiescent by culturing in serum-free medium for 24 hours (h). According to the different experiments, HK-2 cells were pretreated with or without C3G or Cy (50 µ M) for 1 h, before exposure to HG (30 mM) for 24 or 48 h. Additional cells were stimulated with normal glucose (NG) (5.6 mM) as a normal control, and NG plus mannitol (24.4 mM) as an osmotic control. In the experiments intended to evaluate the specific involvement of PPAR α in the activation of its target genes, cells were treated with 25 µ M GW6471, a PPAR α antagonist, 30 minutes (min) before the treatment with anthocyanins. All cell experiments were repeated at least three times.

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Analysis and characterisation of anthocyanins in mulberry fruit

Analysis and characterisation of anthocyanins in mulberry fruit

stabilised in acidic solution (pH < 5, from red to purple-black), but unstable in neutral or alkali solution (pH > 5, from colourless to blue). This is a typical property of anthocyanin compounds. The most common way to indicate anthocyanin colours is based on the presentation of visible λmax-values from UV/Visible absorption spectra. Since anthocyanins in rather strong acid solutions occur only as flavylium forms, the λ max -values may be reasonably representative of colour at these pH values. However, when pH increases, each anthocyanin occurs as a mixture of various equilibrium forms (Figure 6) in proportions which are unknown for practically all anthocyanins. At

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