Anti-ulcerogenic

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ANTI-ULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA IN VARIOUS EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

ANTI-ULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA IN VARIOUS EXPERIMENTAL MODELS

Their anti-ulcerogenic potency was tested against indomethacin-induced ulcer. Indomethacin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor which suppresses gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion, reduces endogeneous prostaglandin biosynthesis and disrupts the mucosal barrier as well as mucosal blood flow in animals [23]. It is also well known that prostaglandins synthetized in large quantities by the gastrointestinal mucosa can prevent experimentally induced ulcers by ulcerogens. Thus, when the ulcers lesions are induced by indomethacin, the cytoprotective effect of the anti-ulcer agent can be mediated through endogeneous prostaglandins [24]. The results obtained show that the mean ulcer index was significantly reduced in the ethanol extracts from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia treated groups, compared to their respective controls. Ethanol extract may
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Anti inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti ulcerogenic effects of red algae gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract

Anti inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti ulcerogenic effects of red algae gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract

Development of anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic drugs has recently focused on discovering the favourable application of herbal plant-derived extracts that are potent and safer to use. Algae found growing in abundance off the coastal areas of many parts of the world represent a huge yet untapped potential for new source of therapeu- tics [12,13]. The red algae for example has been reported to contain active compounds that may help ameliorate inflammation of the alimentary tract [14], prevent or treat gastric ulcers and cancers caused by oxidative stress [15,16], inhibit inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of inflammatory media- tors [17-19] and induce cancer cell apoptosis in stomach [20] and colon [21]. Natural compounds derived from the edible algae could be safer to be used as anti- inflammatory and gastric anti-ulcerogenic therapeutics
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Study on phytochemical profile and Anti-ulcerogenic effect of Casuarina equisetifolia (L.)

Study on phytochemical profile and Anti-ulcerogenic effect of Casuarina equisetifolia (L.)

Casuarina equisetifolia (L.) is a member of the Casuarinaceae. It is common along the coast on beaches, rocky coasts, limestone outcroppings, dry hillsides and open forests in both wet and dry zones from sea-level to mid-montane. It is native to South-East Asia, Australia and Polynesia. It is also cultivated as an ornamental, for wind-breaks, or as a medicinal plant in some tropical countries in the South Pacific. To investigate the phytoconstituents, acute oral toxicity and anti-ulcer profile of the Ethanol extract of Casuarina equisetifolia (L.) extract in albino rats. Ethanolic extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o administered to evaluate anti-ulcer activity by using Ethanol, indomethacin, and cold-restraint stress induced gastric ulcer models in Albino rats. Ethanol extract gave positive results for the alkaloids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, and flavonoids. Study on acute toxicity of extract was found to be safe at the doses 2000mg/kg p.o. Ethanol extract dose dependent inhibition in ethanol induced gastric lesions, ethanol extract showed 70.37 % protection at 400 mg/kg, and 52.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, In indomethacin induced gastric lesions, Ethanol extract showed 68.3% protection at 400 mg/kg and 51.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, it also dose dependent inhibition in Cold-restraint stress induced gastric lesions, ethanol extract showed 75.02% protection at 400 mg/kg, and 45.86% protection at 200 mg/kg. All the results are found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05). Hence we suggest that ethanol extract possess anti-ulcerogenic properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
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EVALUATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF ANTI-ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITIES OF PHOENIX SYLVESTRIS ROXB

EVALUATION OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF ANTI-ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITIES OF PHOENIX SYLVESTRIS ROXB

Their anti-ulcerogenic potency was tested against indomethacin-induced ulcer. Indomethacin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor which suppresses gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion, reduces endogeneous prostaglandin biosynthesis and disrupts the mucosal barrier as well as mucosal blood flow in animals [15]. It is also well known that prostaglandins synthetized in large quantities by the gastrointestinal mucosa can prevent experimentally induced ulcers by ulcerogens. Thus, when the ulcers lesions are induced by indomethacin, the cytoprotective effect of the anti-ulcer agent can be mediated through endogeneous prostaglandins [16]. The results obtained show that the mean ulcer index was significantly reduced in the Ethanolextracts from the whole plantof Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. treated groups, compared to their respective controls. Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. extracts may be stimulate the secretion of prostaglandins or possess prostaglandins like-substances (Table -2).
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THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERGIA SUFFRUTICOSA

THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERGIA SUFFRUTICOSA

The analysis of the chemical constituents of the extracts studied showed the presence of tanins, saponins, flavonoids and coumarins. (Gonzales et al., 2001). The intraduodenal administration of Combretum leprosum in four-hour pylorus-ligated rats increased the volume and pH of gastric juice while decreasing the acid output and produced a significant increase in gastric wall mucus content. The major compounds detected in a preliminary phytochemical screening were triterpenes, flavonoids, taninns and saponins. This study provides evidence that the ethanolic extract of Combretum leprosum possesses gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects, which are related to the inhibition of the gastric acid secretion and an increase of mucosal defensive factors such as mucus and prostaglandin. (Nunes et al., 2009).
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ANTI ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS OF ARECA CATECHU L  IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

ANTI ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS OF ARECA CATECHU L IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Areca catechu L in ethanol induced ulcer model in Sprague Dawley Rats. For possible mechanism of anti-ulcerogenic potential, determination of ulcer index was done using the Merazzi-Uberti and Turba method. Also, analytical method was used to test the 10% homogenate preparation of mucosa of the glandular stomach for protein content and glutathione level. The Sprague Dawley Rats were divided into five groups. Group I was the Normal Untreated group. Group II was the alcohol treated group. Group III was the alcohol treated group and protected group using Areca nut extract 1 g/kg.bwt. Group IV was the alcohol treated group and protected using Areca nut extract 2g/kg.bwt. Group V was the alcohol treated group and protected using the positive control Ranitidine 50 mg/kg.bwt .The paper details the rationale of using Areca nut extract to protect the animals from ulcer formation. In conclusion, aqueous extract of areca nut showed potential anti- ulcerogenic effect compared to Ranitidine, which is the standard gastric anti-secretory drug.
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Phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic and hypoglycemic activities of Periploca angustifolia L extracts in rats

Phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic and hypoglycemic activities of Periploca angustifolia L extracts in rats

Background: In traditional North Africa, medicine decoctions of the leaves of Periploca angustifolia are used to treat diarrhea, inflammation, ulcers, edema and diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical, anti- inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, and hypoglycemic activities of an ethanolic extract of P. angustifolia L. in rats. Methods: An extract of air-dried powdered P. angustifolia plant was obtained using 96% ethanol. The extract was concentrated and the total phenolic and flavonoids contents were estimated colorimetrically. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds were quantified and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic and hypoglycemic activities of the extract were evaluated in three rat models respectively: formaldehyde-induced paw edema, ethanol induced gastric damage and alloxan induced hyperglycemia. Results: The total flavonoids and total phenolics constituted 15% and 2.69% of the extract, respectively and are expressed as quercetin equivalent and μ g/mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Coumarin, resorcinol, isorhamnetin, quercetin, and naphthalene were isolated from the ethanolic extract of P. angustifolia. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract at 500 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) significantly reduced paw inflammation, gastric lesions, ulcer index scores and blood glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats.
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ANTI ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS OF NIGELLA SATIVA L  MELANIN

ANTI ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS OF NIGELLA SATIVA L MELANIN

Aim: The current study is to examine the effect of a Herbal Melanin (HM), obtained from the seed coats of Nigella sativa L., as anti- ulcerogenic agent against alcohol-, indomethacin-, aspirin-, stress- and combined stress and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Method: Using Wistar rats, gastric ulcers have been induced by administration of alcohol-, indomethacin-, aspirin-, stress and combined stress and aspirin. Herbal melanin was administrated before or together with the ulcerogenic agents. Results: Pretreatment or co-administration of HM with the ulcerogenic agents at doses of 0.12 or 1g kg -1 body weight, by gavage, significantly protected the stomach against inducible ulcers. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HM, extracted from the seed coats of Nigella sativa L, strongly protects from ulcers induced by alcohol, indomethacin, stress, or the combined ulcerogenic action of both stress and aspirin.
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Phenolic profile, anti inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti ulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activities of Pimenta racemosa leaves

Phenolic profile, anti inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti ulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activities of Pimenta racemosa leaves

Pimenta racemosa (Myrtaceae) is commonly known as the West Indian bay tree, bay rum tree and cilimnet. It is native to Carbbean region but it is also cultivated in many warm parts of the world. It is a large tree up to 25 ft. high [1]. The traditional uses and pharmacological properties of P. racemosa are mostly due to essential oil phenolic constituents, which have shown anti-inflammatory, anal- gesic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties [2, 3]. The leaves were indicated for treatment of arthrosis, oedema, gastrosis, inflammation, myalgia and rheumatism in addition to other useful uses [4]. Tea prepared from the leaves of P. racemosa was used as a stimulant and for treatment of flatulence, colds and fever. Moreover, the leaf essential oil was used for treatment of both stomach pains, and externally for skin diseases [5] while the bark exhib- ited strong antischistosomal activity [6]. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported for the aqueous extract from leaves of P. racemosa var. ozua [7]. Few studies were conducted concerning the previously isolated compounds from Pimenta species. Galloyl gluco- sides and phenolic glycosides were isolated from P. dioica berries [8, 9], while galloyl glucosides, flavonoids, tannins and triterpenes were reported in P. dioica leaves [10, 11]. To date, there are no literature reports about the phenolic compounds and pharmacological activities of P. racemosa (Mill) J. W. Moore leaves. Inspired by Pimenta dioica leaves which are rich in flavonoids and phenolic com- pounds exhibited antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in animal model [12], we were encouraged to investigate P. racemosa J.W. Moore leaves for the same effects. Therefore, our objective is to isolate the phenolic constituents from AME of leaves and evaluate its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-ulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activities.
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THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MONECHMA CILIATUM SEEDS

THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MONECHMA CILIATUM SEEDS

This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the methanolic extract of Monechma ciliatum seeds to validate its traditional uses in treatment of stomach disturbances. The methanolic extract of Monechma ciliatum seeds was screened for its anti- ulcerogenic activity against induced-ulcer in four different models. The phytochemical screening of the plant showed that flavonoids, sterols, alkaloids, triterpenes, tannins and saponins are the main constituents of the plant. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Monechma ciliatum seeds at a dose 300mg/kg markedly decreased the incidence of ulcer induced by oral administration of ethanolic HCl in mice by 81.86% ulcer inhibition where as sucralfate showed 50.54% ulcer inhibition, as well as it significantly inhibited ulcer induced by water immersion stress in rats by 86.92%ulcer inhibition, whereas omeprazole showed 100% ulcer inhibition. Also the extract reduced ulcer index compared with the control (10.66±0.53 – 14.72±0.65) in aspirin-induced ulcer. At a dose 400µg/ml the extract elevated stomach pH{H + } to (0.0015) compared with pH {H + } (0.0050) induced by histamine( 2 µg/ml). The results obtained from this study revealed that the methanolic extract of M.ciliatum seeds possesses anti-ulcerogenic activity.
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Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of Some Indian Medicinal Plants on Mucosal Lesion in Rats

Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of Some Indian Medicinal Plants on Mucosal Lesion in Rats

The phyto-constituents like flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and Saponin have been reported in several anti-ulcer literatures as possible gastro protective agents. Flavonoids, tannins and triterpenes are among the cytoprotective active materials for which anti ulcerogenic efficacy has been extensively confirmed (7). Tannins may prevent ulcer development due to their protein precipitating and vasoconstriction effects. Their astringent action can help precipitating micro proteins on the ulcer site, thereby forming an impervious layer over the lining that hinders gut secretions and protects the underlying mucosa from toxins and other irritants (6,34).
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Anti-Ulcerogenic Effects of Salmalia Malabarica in Gastric Ulceration – Pilot Study

Anti-Ulcerogenic Effects of Salmalia Malabarica in Gastric Ulceration – Pilot Study

of acid in GIT  [20]. Hence NSAIDs correspond to the initial stages of destruction of the muco- sal cell membrane, parietal cells and endothelial cells [42]. Prostaglandins play a crucial role in the maintenance of gastroduodenal mucosal integrity and repairing of GIT [43]. NSAIDs also cause dis- turbance in prostaglandin synthesis and thus can damage mucosal defense. Arachidonic acid orig- inates from membrane phospholipids by the en- zyme phospholipase A2. The metabolism of ara- chidonic acid to prostaglandins is catalyzed by the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway [44]. COX-1 and COX-2 are 2  isoforms having similarity in their amino acid sequences but have different roles in the pathophysiological cascade of events [45]. As- pirin is a potent COX blocker which also decreases gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion [46]. Ulcers induced by NSAIDs resulted in the production of excess amounts of acid leading to pyloric obstruc- tion and mucosal necrosis. Although various fac- tors are involved for the induction of ulcerogen- esis, the most important is an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Methanol extract of Salmalia malabarica significantly decreased the ulcer index in aspirin-induced ulcer and in- creased the percentage of protection up to 74.54%, as shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1. Methanol extract of Salmalia malabarica showed its anti-ulcerogenic
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ANTI-ULCEROGENIC ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF  BUXUS WALLICHIANA

ANTI-ULCEROGENIC ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF BUXUS WALLICHIANA

are mostly associated with test of unwanted side effects including ulceration which are the most common and a serious problem[1].Plants are the most important source for the new drug development due to its safe use. Our aim of the present study is to access the possible anti ulcerogenic-anti inflammatory activity of the various extract of the plant Buxus Wallichiana .Plants are the most important source for New Drug development due to its safe use. Our aim of the present study is to access the possible anti ulcerogenic-anti inflammatory activity of various extract of the plant of Buxus Wallichiana.
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BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC POTENTIAL OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L  SEEDS

BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ANTI ULCEROGENIC POTENTIAL OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L SEEDS

INTRODUCTION: Gastric ulcer is a common disorder where discontinuity in the gastric mucosa is observed. The conventional treatment of ulcer comprises of regular feeds and adequate rest, antacid, various drugs and avoidance of ulcerogenic agents such as coffee, alcohol and tobacco. The drugs used in the treatment of ulcer include receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, drugs affecting the mucosal barrier and act on the central nervous system 1 . Eventhough a range of drugs and available for the treatment of ulcer, many of these do not fulfill all the requirements and side effects such as arrhythmias, impotence and hematopoietic changes are noted 2 & 3 .
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Anti Ulcerogenic Activity of the Pomegranate Peel (Punica granatum) Methanol Extract

Anti Ulcerogenic Activity of the Pomegranate Peel (Punica granatum) Methanol Extract

There are no related reports which describe antiulcer effect of pomegranate peel but in other studies fruit parts are assessed. Although the exact mechanism of the anti-ulcer activities of pomegranate peel has not been clearly delineated, it contains some active constituents which ulcer protective properties have been identified based on their antioxidant activity. Pomegranate is a rich source of polyphenols. It contains antioxidants like solu- ble polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins which pos- sessing anti-atherosclerotic properties. The in vitro eva- luation of the pomegranate extracts and some selected medicinal plants on H pylori activity demonstrate that the extract of pomegranate has remarkable anti-H. pylori function [24].
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Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of 2-(Pyrimidinylsulfinyl) Benzimidazole Derivative Against Different Ulcerogenic Agents In Rats

Anti-Ulcerogenic Effect of 2-(Pyrimidinylsulfinyl) Benzimidazole Derivative Against Different Ulcerogenic Agents In Rats

1218 concerning the participation of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and pathophysiology of ulcer [4].Non-judicious use of alcohol, NSAIDs and even bile reflex can also lead to mucosal ulceration. NSAIDs are used worldwide for the treatment of pain, rheumatic, cardiovascular diseases, and more recently, for the prevention of colon cancer and Alzheimer’s disease [5]. It is known that stress, alcohol, steroidal and nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are some of the factors that increased ulcer risk [6]. A number of products have been used for the treatment of gastric ulcers such as antacids, proton pump inhibitors or antihistaminics [7]. A multiple mechanism action of drugs and formulations are effective in healing experimentally induced gastric ulcers [8].
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Anti inflammatory and Anti histaminic activity of Kurosani Omam (Hyoscyamus Niger) for Karappan and Anti-ulcerogenic action and efficacy of Panchalavana Mezhugu for Gunmam

Anti inflammatory and Anti histaminic activity of Kurosani Omam (Hyoscyamus Niger) for Karappan and Anti-ulcerogenic action and efficacy of Panchalavana Mezhugu for Gunmam

In the present study, PLM have been shown to possess anti-ulcer activity against experimentally induced acute ulcer model (aspirin + pyloric ligation model). PLM significantly reduced the acid secretory parameters as well as the gastric volume, ulcer index and total acid output. They also increased the individual carbohydrate concentrations (hexoses, hexosamine and fructose) and total carbohydrate: protein ratio(TC :P ). The increase in individual carbohydrate content in PLM treated groups over that of the untreated ulcer group appears to be due to stimulation of mucus secretion. The more the mucus production, the less was the degree of ulceration.
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 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON THETRAN VIDHAI KUDINEER: A SIDDHA POLYHERBAL FORMULATION

 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON THETRAN VIDHAI KUDINEER: A SIDDHA POLYHERBAL FORMULATION

Strychnos potatorum Linn.F. a medicinally important endangered tree species which belongs to Loganiaceae and is also known as nirmali and clearing nut tree. The seeds of the plant possess important phytochemical constituents which may be responsible for many of the pharmacological activities such as diuretic activity, anti-diarrhoeal activity, contraceptive efficacy, hepatoprotective activity, anti-oxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, anti-ulcerogenic activity, anti-nociceptive and anti- pyretic effect 5 . (Table 3,4)
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Amit Vaibhav*, Meera Antiwal, Jai Prakash Singh & Om Prakash Singh

Amit Vaibhav*, Meera Antiwal, Jai Prakash Singh & Om Prakash Singh

Indian gooseberry or Amla or Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, one of the most important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda which is the world’s most ancient traditional medicine system. Various parts of this plant are used in different diseases, but the most important and potent part is the fruit which contains majority of active constituent. Amla or Emblica officinalis is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat several ailments like cancers, chronic inflammotary diseases like hypertension, high Cholesterol, Diabetes, influenza, Chronic cough, cold, Chronic infections, Chronic fatigue, liver problems, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The major properties of Amla are Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, free radical scavenging , Antidepressant, Antifungal, Anti-diabetic, hypoglycemic, Anti ulcerogenic, Antimutagenic, Anti-cancer,anti- proliferative, Cytotoxic effects, Insecticidal, Larvicidal, mosquitocidal , Immunomodulatory, Hepato-protective, Radioprotective, Hypolipidemic and several other activities as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility in different disease conditions specially in humans.
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Evaluation of Traditional Herbal Formulation in Experimentally Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats.

Evaluation of Traditional Herbal Formulation in Experimentally Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats.

This formulation was selected to exploit the medicinal plant potential for the treatment and management of ulcers. Since the formulation is effectively used for the treatment of ulcers in human beings. Formulation contains powdered seeds of Solanum niagram, Physalis alkekengi. Pistacia integerimmia and Tribulus terrestris. The anti-ulcerogenic activity has been performed in Indomethacin induced ulcers model and Pylorus ligation ulcer model in rats.The ethanolic extract of Traditional Herbal Formulation in the dose of 300 mg/kg body weight showed significant protective effect in both the models. The results revealed significant activity when compared to control and standard groups.
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