Anticancer and Antioxidant

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Synthesis, anticancer and antioxidant activities of 6,8 dibromoflavones

Synthesis, anticancer and antioxidant activities of 6,8 dibromoflavones

High yields, mild reaction conditions, and short reaction times are the notable advantages of this procedure. We believe that this procedure will provide a better scope and a more practical alternative to the existing methods for the synthesis of flavones. We have designed a new method and synthesized a series of new flavones derivatives with potent antioxidant activity against DPPH as well as anticancer activity against HeLa cells in vitro. Among the eight compounds, 6b possesses highest antioxidant activity and compounds 6b, 6c and 6d exhibited potential anticancer activity.
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Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Pomogranate and Custard Apple Extracts

Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Pomogranate and Custard Apple Extracts

The study of anticancer agents from natural sources has been going on worldwide. Active constituents that have been isolated presently are used to treat human diseases. There is an increasing epidemiological and pharmacological evidence that plants contain biologically active components (e.g. free radical scavengers) offering health benefits and protection against degenerative diseases (Boeing H et al., 2012). The antioxidants contained in fruits and vegetables such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids and tannins, are supposed to play a vital role in prevention of these diseases (Eleonora Turrini et al.,2015). The extracts showed anticancer and antioxidant activities based on concentrations.
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Antioxidant and Anticancer Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds

Antioxidant and Anticancer Potential of Nigella sativa Seeds

To determine the phytochemical composition, anticancer activities and antioxidant of Nigella sativa methanol and ethyl acetate seed extracts. Phytochemical screening was characterized using standard qualitative and quantitative methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide scavenging process whereas the in vitro cell viability and cytotoxicity was determined by using Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7) cancer cells. Phytochemical screening of the extracts showing that they were rich in secondary class metabolite compounds in all three different solvents such as quionones, cardiac glycosides, terpinoides and phytosteroides and absence of saponins, phlobatannines and glycosides whereas tannins, flavonoids, phenols, coumarins were present only in Ethyl Acetate (EAC) and Methanol (MCE). Total phenolic and whole flavonoid composition were quantified and showed more in Methanol Extract (ME) than Ethyl Acetate Extract (EAE). In vitro antioxidant activity of DPPH radical scavenging showed 63.32 µg/ml in methanol extracts than in ethyl acetate extracts which found about 37.41 µg/ml. The nitric oxide scavenging activity of N. sativa showed 66.59 µg/ml in the methanolic extract and 36.66 µg/ml were found in EAE. Cytotoxic activity of 100 µg/ml concentrations of EAC and MCE exhibited 69.28% and 82.01% of cancer cell death respectively. The results show that N. sativa was a promising antioxidant and anticancer agent.
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In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Studies on the Leaf of Acalypha indica

In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Studies on the Leaf of Acalypha indica

value of 0.96± 0.22 at 600 nm. Cisplatin and different Et OH and water extracts of A.Indica were dissolved in DMSO. The test solution consisted of 1 ml of drug + 0.25 ml of water. The control solution consisting of 1.25 ml of water + 1 ml of bacterial suspension. The stained potato dishes were viewed under a dissecting microscope and the mean number of tumors was counted. The results of the study showed that the extracts of A. indica produced maximum reduction in the mean number of tumors compared to control. These above studies showed that the antioxidant activity and related anticancer activity of Acalypha indica , because of the presence of flavanoids and tannins present in the Et OH and water extracts of Acalypha indica.
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Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant and anticancer activities of mastic gum resin from <em>Pistacia atlantica</em> subspecies kurdica

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant and anticancer activities of mastic gum resin from <em>Pistacia atlantica</em> subspecies kurdica

Materials and methods: Folin -Ciocalteau and the aluminum chloride colorimetric assays were used to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents in the mastic gum resin respectively. Whereas, DPPH and ABTS+ assays were used to determine the antioxidant activities of mastic gum resin. Regarding anticancer activities, the MTT assay was used to study the effect of mastic gum resin on the proliferation of various cancer cells and the morphological changes were identified after Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide staining. Flow cytometry was applied to determine the influence of mastic gum resin on the apoptosis rate by Annexin V double staining and to investigate the influence on cell cycle progression. Caspase colorimetric assay was used to estimate the hallmark enzyme of apoptosis, and finally RNA were obtained from COLO205 cells and analyzed by qRT-PCR analyses. Results: The MTT results showed that the mastic gum resin at concentrations from 0.01 to 100 μM induced death of cancer cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The mastic gum resin suppressed proliferation of human cancer cells with 72 h IC 50 value of 15.34 ± 0.21, 11.52 ± 0.18, 8.11 ± 0.23 and 5.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL for bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) (KMBC), pancreatic carcinoma (PANC-1), gastric adenocarcinoma (CRL-1739), and colonic adenocarcinoma (COLO205) cells, respectively. Normal human colon fibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells were not adversely affected by resin treatment. Flow cytometry showed that the mastic gum resin significantly (P,0.05) arrested COLO205 cell proliferation at the G2/M phase of cell cycle. The resin caused apoptotic morphological changes in COLO205 cells. The apoptotic effect to mastic gum resin was via the mitochondrial as shown by the up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2 genes, and activation of caspase-9 and -3 activities.
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ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALITY OF MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALITY OF MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

Former HOD of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, CHRI Campus, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India ABSTRACT: Cancer is a substantial world health threat, & a largest cause of death in peoples of various age groups and economic backgrounds. This dramatic increase in the global burden of cancer has spurred research and many pharmacological studies as an attempt to limit the progression of this disease. Painful, expensive chemotherapy by dietary supplements have come forth as a novel significant approach in ailment of cancer. Since ancient times mushrooms has been used a good resource of dietary supplement. Mushroom is attributed by many medicinal properties, due to presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory etc. bioactive compounds in fruiting bodies and cultured mycelium. Polysaccharides and antioxidant have been extensively studied biologically active compounds of mushroom for their cytotoxic as well as immunomodulation properties. In this review we will highlight the recent findings on anticancereous bioactive compounds of mushroom, their therapeutic potentials and mode of action and the need for further investigation in cancer management.
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Study of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of Berberis Aristata.

Study of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of Berberis Aristata.

We have been able to show that the stem bark of B aristata, contains different compounds that have health benefits. The amount of alkaloids is high, as expected, because the plant is reported to have berberine, a major plant alkaloid. The plant extract also showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against major pathogens. Also, the extract showed antioxidant activity comparable to that of L Ascorbic Acid and in correlation to previous research conducted, our results elucidate B. aristata has potential anticancer properties and a detailed investigation is suggested.
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Anticancer, antioxidant and analgesic properties of croton Caudatus Geisel leaf extracts

Anticancer, antioxidant and analgesic properties of croton Caudatus Geisel leaf extracts

Geisel is a traditional anticancer medicinal herb of the people of Mizoram, India. In anticancer potentials, antioxidant and analgesic properties of leaf extracts were evaluated. Phytochemical constituents of its methanol and aqueous Meth) and aqueous (CC-Aq) extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity was noted only with the value 28.36 µg/ml in vitro. The two extracts also induced pains in mice. The analgesic activity in both the induced pain test suggested that the extracts have both analgesic inflammatory properties. The aqueous extract showed significant DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging potentials. Results of preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of kaloids in larger amount and flavonoids, saponins, tannins and cardiac glycosides in lesser amount. The phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of the plant extract may be an important contributory factors involved in the anticancer and analgesic
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Effective antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of essential oils of horticultural aromatic crops in northern Egypt

Effective antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of essential oils of horticultural aromatic crops in northern Egypt

O. vulgarehad the best antioxidant and antibacterial ac- tivities with a high and unique pulegone ratio (77.45%). The essential oil of R. officinallis essential oil showed the highest antifungal activities by means of lowest MIC and MFC values which might be attributed to 1,8-cineole, camphor and α-pinene. The essential oils of O. vulgare, Citrus sp. and A. monosperma showed the highest anti- proliferation activities against different cancer cells. Oxy- genated monoterpenes (i.e. linalool and pulegone) as well as monoterpene hydrocarbons including pinenes plays a pivotal role in the antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities of the essential oils of different horticultural aromatic plants. Some species showed anti- oxidant and antimicrobial activities comparable to Table 8 Common names and edible parts of twelve ornamental and horticultural Egyptian plant species
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Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Edible Flowers

Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Edible Flowers

The present work confirms that Rose flower showed strong antioxidant activity as studied by DPPH assay, Reducing power assay and TBA assay and potent inhibitive effects on cancer cell lines which was studied by performing MTT based cytotoxic assay and trypan blue dye exclusion assay. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of aqueous extract of Rose and Pea in the treatment of cancer. Further studies to investigate the lead compounds present in the flower, evaluate its anticancer potential on in vivo animal models and put forward an attempt to carry out trails on human beings.
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 ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

 ANTIOXIDANT, IMMUNOMODULATORY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS: AN OVERVIEW

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Amla, Indian Gooseberry) belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. Amla fruits are acrid, cooling, refrigerant, astringent, diuretic and laxative. The raw fruits are aperient; while the dried fruits are useful in inflammation, haemorrhage, cough, diarrhoea and dysentery, and in combination with iron, used for anaemia, jaundice and dyspepsia. The flowers of E. officinalis are cooling, refrigerant and aperient; while the root and bark are astringent. The fermented liquor prepared from the fruits is used in jaundice, dyspepsia and cough. Exudation from incision on the fruit is used as external application for the inflammation of eye. E. officinalis seeds are used for asthma, bronchitis and biliousness. E. officinalis fruit contains ellagic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, emblicanin, flavonoids, glycosides and proanthocyanidins. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid or ascorbate), tannins (e.g., emblicanins A and B) and flavonoids present in amla have very powerful immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. Due to rich vitamin C, amla is successfully used in the treatment of human scurvy. Quercetin present in amla has hepatoprotective effect. Fruit has also been reported to contain phyllemblic acid, gallic acid, lipid, emblicol, colloidal complexes, micic acid, amino acids and minerals. Phyllembin, from fruit pulp identified as
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 EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF FEW MACROLICHENS COLLECTED FROM EASTERN GHATS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

 EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF FEW MACROLICHENS COLLECTED FROM EASTERN GHATS OF TAMIL NADU, INDIA

The aim of the present study is to investigate the bioactivities of various solvent extracts of lichens collected from Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. The lichen samples were identified based on color tests, chemical profiling and morphological and anatomical characteristic features. Lichens such as P.grayanum, P.tinctorum, P.reticulatum and P.austrosinense were selected and analyzed for their biological activities. Among the tested lichen samples, methanol extract of P.tinctorum and P.austrosinense showed a strong antibacterial activity with the inhibition rate of 15.13±0.76 and 13.9±0.1mm respectively. P.reticulatum indicated a strong antifungal activity with the inhibition zone of 10.17±0.96mm followed by P.austrosinense and P.tinctorum. Antioxidant study revealed that IC 50 value of acetone extracts of P. tinctorum showed higher antioxidant activity with IC 50 of 17.52 µg/ml
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Nutrients and bioactive potentials of edible green and red seaweed in Korea

Nutrients and bioactive potentials of edible green and red seaweed in Korea

E. prolifera is an abundant fouling green seaweed in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan, which prefers to grow from the intertidal to the upper subtidal zones (Cho et al., 2011b, b). Traditionally, Korean people use gasi-parae to prepare salads or preserve as a soup after boiling in hot water. In addition, E. prolifera is used as an ingredient in meals and cookies or as essences (Aguilera-Morales and Casas-Valdez, 2005). The south- ern coast of Korea is a popular region for commercial cultivation of the Enteromorpha species (Huh et al. 2004). E. prolifera is a rich source of essential nutrients; the dried gasi-parae contains around 9~14% protein and 32~36% ash. In addition, it contains n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, 10.4 and 10.9 g/100 g of total fatty acids, respect- ively (Aguilera-Morales and Casas-Valdez, 2005). The studies carried out with extracts and compounds col- lected from E. prolifera which was found to possess a range of bioactive properties such as antioxidant, blood lipid reduction, anticancer, immune modulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties (Shi et al. 2017).
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A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MACROTHELYPTERIS TORRESIANA (GAUD) CHING

A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MACROTHELYPTERIS TORRESIANA (GAUD) CHING

Among the natural products, plant-derived extracts or compounds are evident to use to treat oxidative stress (Aruoma et al., 1997). Thus, edible plants, plant extracts or their derivatives can be used to treat oxidative stress and oxidative stress related diseases (Rice-Evans et al., 1995). Scientific evidences suggest that oxidative stress can lead to inflammation, atherosclerosis, cellular aging and even cancer (Rosenfeld, 1998; Liu et al., 1999; van Kempen et al., 2006). M. torresiana extracts and its derivatives have been found show antioxidant, anti- inflammatory and anticancer effects in a number of studies.
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Composition of Vernoniaamygdalina and its Potential Health Benefits

Composition of Vernoniaamygdalina and its Potential Health Benefits

Abstract— Vernoniaamygdalina is a perennial shrub. It is a vegetable, commonly used in foods and traditional medicine in tropical Africa. Traditional users report that this plant possesses observable health benefits. It contains many nutrients and phytochemicals such as iodine, alkaloids, anthraquinones, edotides, sesquiterpene lactones and steroid glycosides. These bioactive compounds are associated w ith the plant’s health benefits. This review is a comprehensive update on the composition of V. amygdalina, linked to its food and medicinal uses. Traditional medicinal uses not yet supported by scientific evidence have been indicated. Clinical studies to substantiate the health-promoting effects of this plant product are lacking. More animal models experiments are required to prove the potency of this plant product. Grey areas where research is required to promote effective use of this plant product are indicated. Metadata for the health benefits of this plant product is based on inferences from compositional analysis and animal bioassays. There is a need to establish these claims in humans. Sources of information for this review were obtained from online search engines. The searches were restricted to information available as primary or secondary sources and effort was made to keep to only recent literature. Very important literature before that was not recent was also included. There is only very little information on the food uses of V. amygdalina which has been related to potential health benefits. There are a lot of claims on this plant-based on ethnomedicine and traditional uses. Vernoniaamydgalina is rich in nutrients and phytochemicals and this invariable account for its positive influence on health. Compounds associated with its anticancer effects, antioxidant properties, antimalarial properties, anti-inflammatory properties, antimicrobial properties and hypolipidaemic effects have been identified but most mechanisms of action have not been elucidated in humans.
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IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS FROM ALLIUM GRAMINEUM FLOWERS

IDENTIFICATION OF CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS FROM ALLIUM GRAMINEUM FLOWERS

The present study evaluates the in vitro anticancer, antiplasmodial and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic crude extract from the flowers of Allium gramineum growing in Georgia and of one flavonol and two steroidal glycosides which were isolated from this plant. The flowers were extracted with ethanol and this total extract was subjected to successive bioguided fractionations to provide glycosides 1-3. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS spectrometric data in comparison with the existing literature and have been identified as: isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D- glucopyranoside (Prosapogenin A of dioscin) (2), diosgenin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D- glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-]-β-D-glucopyranoside (Deltonine) (3). The ethanolic extract has been shown to strongly inhibit the growth of breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, with an IC 50 of 4.5 ± 0.7μg/mL for MDAMB-231 and 4.8 ±
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An Updated review on the Bioactivities and Phytochemistry of the Nutraceutical Plant Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) as valuable phytomedicine of multi-purpose

An Updated review on the Bioactivities and Phytochemistry of the Nutraceutical Plant Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) as valuable phytomedicine of multi-purpose

Results: Comparative analysis of the literature revealed that Moringa oleifera is traditionally used to treat several ailments. This plant is reported to possess various pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antifungal, antispasmodic, anticancer, antipyretic, anti-proliferative, wound healing, and antidyslipidemic, CNS effects as well as it is efficient against infertility. These properties are due to the presence of numerous naturally occurring phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids while its proximate composition makes it very relevant in daily life as nutraceutical. Conclusion: The present review can, therefore, help inform future scientific research towards the development of novel drugs of relevance from M. oleifera to improve human health and wellbeing. Especially, M. oleifera could serves as drug candidates for Sickle cell anemia treatment and others ailments of relevance in developing world like Democratic Republic of the Congo.
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Pharmacological potentials and toxicity effects of Excoecaria agallocha

Pharmacological potentials and toxicity effects of Excoecaria agallocha

Excoecaria agallocha is commonly found on the landward side of mangroves. Belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, trees are deciduous with leaves turning orange or red before shedding. The species produces white latex that is toxic, causing skin blistering and temporary blindness. The toxic E. agallocha latex which causes skin irritation and blistering has been attributed to three groups of diterpene esters of the daphnane and tigliane types. Classes of compounds of E. agallocha include diterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, sterols, tannins, and triterpenoids. The most common chemical constituents are diterpenoids which are of the labdane, artisane, beyerane, daphnane, tigliane, isopimarane and kaurane types. Commonly isolated diterpenoids include agallochaexcoerins, agallochaols, agallochins, excoeagallochaols, and excoecarins. Pharmacological properties of E. agallocha include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, larvicidal, hedgehog signalling inhibition, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Other bioactivities include anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, non-specific immunity, disease resistance, sedative, gastro-protective, anti-allergic and anti-hyperglycemic effects. A case report of a 15-year-old boy from Sri Lanka, splashed with a toxic latex of E. agallocha and admitted to the General Hospital in Matara, is presented.
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Title:  ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS: TREATMENT IN ELDERLY PATIENTS. Author:  Callegari C. *, Bianchi L., Vender S Keyword:  Antiepileptic drugs, elderly patients, gabapentinPage No:  96-102Abstract:   Introduction: This study aims to examine qualitatively the use

Title: ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS: TREATMENT IN ELDERLY PATIENTS. Author: Callegari C. *, Bianchi L., Vender S Keyword: Antiepileptic drugs, elderly patients, gabapentinPage No: 96-102Abstract: Introduction: This study aims to examine qualitatively the use of AEDs in a population of elderly patients in nursing homes, including the prescription of specialist and monitoring. Methods: This p revalence study was carried out in a state-founded nursing home providing assistance and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of the use of antiepileptic drugs. The second objective is to study the monitoring the dosage modification from the time of admission of the patient until the end of the study. Results: In the period of time that we took into consideration 65 of 402 patient’s monitored patients had at least one anti-epileptic therapy (prevalence of 32%). The antiepileptic drug most prescribed was gabapentin with a frequency of 63.6%. Discussion: The prevalence use of AEDs has beeen 32%. The second objective concerns the drugs monitoring and it has also been achieved and shows how gabapentin is the most prescribed drug (53.8% psychiatrist) and was introduced mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders. Keywords: Antiepileptic drugs, elderly patients, gabapentin Download PDF

forms the important component of pharmacophores of a number of biologically active molecules having synthetic or natural origin and many of them have useful medicinal applications 2 . Chromones are the hetrocyclic compounds with benzopyron network with substituted keto group on pyron ring. Chromone is an isomer of coumarin. Chromone derivatives have a number of biological activities such as anticancer 3-6 , antihypertensive 3 , antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidepressant, antiobesity. These derivatives ABSTRACT
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Comparative Assessment of Phytochemical Content and Antioxidant Potential of Azadirachta indica and Parquetina nigrescens Leaves

Comparative Assessment of Phytochemical Content and Antioxidant Potential of Azadirachta indica and Parquetina nigrescens Leaves

It was observed in this study that the concentration of alkaloids of Azadirachta indica was significantly lower when compared with that of Parquetina nigrescens at P<0.05. Alkaloids are natural products that contain heterocyclic nitrogen atoms. They are basic in character [46]. Alkaloids are known for different biological activities and each activity has its own specific mechanism of action. D-tubocurarine is one such example of alkaloids that possesses the antiparalytic activity due to its ability to obstruct the acetycholine receptor spots which enable the muscles to unwind at neuromuscular intersections [47]. Both plants might have antiparalytic activity but Perquetina nigrescens might be more active than Azadirachta indica. Alkaloids also possess antioxidant property and anticancer activity due to their ability to act as scavenger of free radicals, metal chelating activity or electron or hydrogen donation ability. These alkaloids have also been reported to exert chemopreventive effect against tumour cells by terminating or causing depolymerisation of protein microtubules that forms the mitotic spindle in cell division. This results in hindrance in the process of division and separation of tumour cells and reduces the incidences of cancer. This is in support of the research carried out by Moura et al. [48] who reported the ROS scavenging ability, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities of betacarboline alkaloids, found in medicinal plant and variety of foods. Parquetina nigrescens might therefore have higher potential of having chemopreventive effect than Azadirachta indica.
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