can be indicated as an anticancer product since it reduced the incidence of aberrant crypt foci around 70 to 80%. This compound was still able to reduce the relation crypt/foci, which strengthen its anticarcinogenic action as indicated by Pattananandecha et al. (2016). Besides the modes of action mentioned above, it is important to highlight that the DMH is hydrolyzed in the liver and generates methylazoxymethanol, which in conjunction with β-glucuronic acid is transported to the intestinal lumen where the β-glucuronidase bacterial enzyme releases the active metabolite of the DMH, the azoxymethane (LaMont and O’Gorman, 1978). This metabolite triggers an inflammatory reaction and an increase in cell proliferation in the rodent colonic mucosa culminating in development of ACF and cause GC → AT mutations in specific genes related to colorectal cancer such as β-catenin and K-ras (Krutovskikh and Turosov, 1994). Thus, the reduction of bacteria capable of converting these pro-carcinogens, indirectly reduces mucosal damage and inflammation. This reduction of unwanted bacteria can be achieved through the increased resistance. The increased resistance against pathogens is the most promising feature in the probiotic development. The use of probiotic cultures excludes potentially pathogenic microorganisms and enhances the natural mechanisms of the body’s defense (Puupponen-Pimia et al., 2002). The modulation of the intestinal microbiota by the probiotic microorganisms occurs through a mechanism called competitive exclusion. This mechanism prevents the colonization of the mucosa by potentially pathogenic microorganisms, by competition for adhesion sites, competition for nutrients and/or production of antimicrobial compounds, and by connecting the final carcinogen promoting their removal via faeces (Durko and Malecka-Panas, 2014). Facing that, it is considered that the Activia ® product favors the
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We conclude that rice bran PA inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells. The cytotoxic activity of PA is possibly due to iron chelating properties that may induce apoptosis via p53 and caspase dependent pathways. Hence, we suggest that PA is a promising molecule and can be successfully exploited in cancer chemoprevention or chemotherapy. However, further studies are warranted to decipher the precise molecular mechanism of this bioactive compound to evaluate its anticancer properties.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera on papilloma bearing mice. The extract treatment at the dose (topical and oral) of 500 mg/kg inhibited the Cumulative no. papillomas and tumour incidence as compared to carcinogen control group and also restore the level of GSH in extract treated groups (i.e. topical and oral).Aloe vera was also showed chromosomal protection against cyclophasphamide positive control group.
Previous studies have investigated other biological activi- ties including the anti-inflammatory effects of Peperomia pellucida  and the antimicrobial effects of Piper anducum [13,14]. Chloroform extracts from Piper sarmentosum have also shown considerable antimalarial activity against Plas- modium falciparum (in vitro) and Plasmodium berghei (in vivo) . The water extract of the entire plant showed a hypoglycaemic effect in rats , while the methanolic extract from the leaves of Piper sarmentosum exhibited peak antioxidant activity . However, the properties of this plant, and especially its anticarcinogenic activity, have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anticarcinogenic properties and mode of action of the Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). The Chang's liver cell line was used as a non-malignant cell for cytotoxic activity.
carcinogen treated control. In our previous study the anticarcinogenic activity of androgrphispanniculata leaves has been reported 18 . The methanolic extract of leaves of AP was more effective than stem extract in both Papilloma and micronucleus assay. Evidence has accumulated suggesting that this may be due to a reactive oxygen species.which play an important role in tumor initiation/promotion by enhancing or facilitating the metabolic activation and/or initiating effects of carcinogens . . The plant extract may have inhibited the DMBA metabolism to its active form, delayed the carcinogenesis promotion phase or down regulated reactive oxygen species formation. [19-
In vitro anticarcinogenic activity of the synthesized chelates using SRB assay as the published method . For 24 h, cells were plated in 96- multiwell plate (10 4 cells/well) before the chelates treatment. Using Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), the chelates concentrations (0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.5, 12.5 and 25 µg/ml) were added to the cell monolayer triplicate wells were prepared for each individual dose. For 48 h at 37°C under 5% CO 2 , monolayer cells were incubated with the chelates. Staining with SRB assay after cell fixing and washing. Acetic acid was used to wash
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Abstract- In the present investigations, the anticarcinogenic activity of Andrographis paniculata leaves and whole plant extracts was evaluated using two stage protocol in skin papillioma model in Swiss albino mice . It is a widely used medicinal plant and used in various indigenous systems of medicine. The prevention of papillomas in DMBA + Andrographis paniculata leaves and whole Plant extract + croton oil treated group was observed in The mice which was initiated by DMBA followed by croton oil . The different parameters like tumor incidence, cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden were measured which showed decreased in Andrographis extact treated groups. Whole plant extract of Andrographis Paniculata showed cytotoxic activity in different concentration starting from 10µg/ml and leaf extract of the plant showed in the concentrate from 250µg/ml after 24 hour. The glutathione level was also measured in blood and liver tissues of treated mice which showed increased level in the animals which received the treatment of Andrographis extract along with DMBA + Croton Oil. The results showed that Andrographis extracts have cytotoxic and anticarcinogenic potential in the test systems used.
Regarding Ki-67 expression, after 4 weeks of therapy, the histopathologic examination of Ki- 67-immunohistochemical stained tissue sections of untreated female rats bearing mammary carcinoma (group II) showed a strong nuclear staining in areas of invasive ductal carcinoma as well as in areas of in situ components. Oral treatment with fenofibrate, pioglitazone or omega-3 for 4 successive weeks to breast cancer-bearing female rats resulted in negative to weak, moderate and moderate to strong proliferative activity in the mammary tissue, respectively, with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression in comparison to group II (MCp <0.05). Among all treated groups, group III has shown the least proliferative activity with a significant difference in Ki-67 expression between this group and all other treated groups (P> 0.05). However, no significant difference was detected between group IV and group V (P< 0.05).
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Ricinus communis, family – Euphorbiaceae, is also known as Castor oil plant in English; in Hindi: arand, erand, andi, rend. Castor oil is widely used as a catharatic, and also for lubrication and illumination. There is extensive applications in industry, particularly in USA. Bulk of the commercial oil is generally processed in a number of ways and then used for different purposes. The treated oil finds use in products like paints, enamels and varnishes, oiled fabrics, linoleum, patent leather, fly-paper, typewriting and printing inks, greases and special lubricants, polishes, waxes, cutting, dielectric and condenser oils, softening agent for gelatin in rayon sizing, nitrocellulose-baking finishes, hydraulic brake fluids, urethane foams and rubber substitutes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and insecticidal formulations. Castor oil is a mild and most efficient purgative. The plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-implantation, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, central analgesic, antitumour, larvicidal & adult emergence inhibition, antinociceptive and antiasthmatic activity 39 .
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In this present study, we isolated strain TS22 from the shrimp shell waste was identified by biochemically and gnomically found to be as Bacillus subtilis. After analyzed for chitinolytic activity it showed the highest chitinolytic activity when compared the previous studies on Bacillus subtilis W-118, Bacillus sp DAU101 and Bacillus licheniformis TP1. It shows the 127U/ml of chitinolytic activity in colloidal chitin media. The molecular weight of the protein in bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis TS22 was found to be 50 KDa. The Bacillus subtilis TS22 was effectively shows antifungal activity against, the eggplant fungal pathogens such as Phytophthora parasitica, Pythium aphanidermatum, Alternaria solani which is more than 15mm.
modulatory action of propolis on the host's specific and non specific immunity by activation of lymphocyte . It could be promote cellular immune response and would be expected as the component drugs of new type of immunopotentiator . Ethanolic extract of propolis for 14 days in mice, activate the antitumor cell mediated immunity exerted an Immunomodulatory and antitumoral action in vivo . The present study was aimed to investigate the anticarcinogenic effects of propolis against EAC bearing mice.
6. Antimicrobial activity: Antimicrobial activity of alkaloidal and nonalkaloidal fractions of alcoholic extract of flowers has also been reported . Sphaeranthus indicus L. were tested against the uropathogenic organisms Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabils, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. From the above results it can be concluded that plant Sphaeranthus indicus extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against micro-organisms and that they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by resistant micro- organisms .
being generated through the management of the processes – Figure 3. The PCT can manage multiple requirements relating to either specific aspects of the product, general aspects across the product, or aspects across multiple products and processes. Requirements have two roles within the PCT: as a measure of the extent to which customer requirements have been satisfied; and to enable the control flow within a process to be directed on the basis of the outcome of the requirement. Through the user interface of the VIP, a designer may get a list of requirements and their states to determine how a project is progressing, and take appropriate action in order to satisfy any of these requirements. Alternatively, requirements may be associated with design activities within the PCT indicating that the activity, once enacted, is expected to contribute to the satisfaction of the requirement. When a designer completes an activity, the associated requirements are displayed within the user interface of the VIP, allowing the designer to indicate which ones have been satisfied. When an activity is completed, the PCT is notified, giving details of the activity, along with requirement and guidance information. For ROPAX design, the PCT may be managing the enactment of a process that is responsible for designing and evaluating the general arrangement which consists of a number of design and simulation activities, such as defining the compartments, corridors, stairwells and muster stations, and simulating the evacuation for example. Once the general arrangement activity has been completed, the PCT would allocate the evacuation simulation activity to a designer that can undertake it. The requirement might not be satisfied once the simulation is complete if the passengers failed to evacuate the vessel within a predetermine time limit for example, and the designer may subsequently choose to attach guidance stating that the general arrangement appeared to have a bottleneck around one of the stairwells, restricting the movement of the passengers. This guidance would be communicated to the PCT, which would direct process control back to the general arrangement activity, with automatically generated guidance stating that the requirement had failed, as well as the guidance from the designer stating the problem with the stairwell.
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The alcoholic extract of the flowers of C. gigantea was reported for analgesic activity in chemical and thermal models in mice. The analgesic activity was performed by acetic acid induced writhing test and hot plate method. Oral dose of ethanolic extract of C. gigantea flower produced a significant decrease in the number of writhings and delay in paw licking time. 2
Nootropic Activity, Anti-diabetic Activity, Anti-seizures Activity, Antidepressant Activity, Neuromodulatory Effect, Anticancer Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Antihypertensive Effect, Anti HIV Activity, Cytotoxic Effect, Immunosuppressive Activity, Radioprotection and DNA Repair Activity, Coronary Vasodilator Effect, Antispasmodic and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect, Insulin Sensitizing Activity, Wound-healing Activity, Anti-inflammatory Activity, Synergistic Anthelmintic Activity, Antihepatotoxic Activities, Anti-ischemic Heart Disease Activity, Antifungal Activity, Antibacterial Activity, Analgesic Effect, Antipyretic Activity, Bronchodilatory Activity, Licicidal Activity, Mosquito Larvicidal Activity, Repellent and Oviposition Deterrent Activity.
locomotor activity and anxiety levels  reduces elevated serum cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein levels  anticoagulant, platelet antiaggregatory, lipoprotein lipase releasing  cytoprotective  , increases Interferon gamma, IL-2 & Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, decreases TNF-α  , interleukin- 1beta, cyclooxygenase & lipooxygenase  , & other cell signaling intermediates, prevents glycation induced pathogenesis, prevents aging. 
We tried also to disentangle the effects of an injection into the activity of food processing (A5, act 5) on the same households groups considered above, in order to test which are the relative effects of an industrial activity strictly connected to the agricultural sector, in particularly on rural /urban farm and self employed households (H1, H5, H10 and H14). Results related to male headed rural farm households are shown in table A6.5 10 . Results show that there is a significant effect of the food processing sector on the income of rural farm households (H1 and H5) (always higher in the case of male headed households, H1) and that these effects are systematically higher than those for self-employed urban households, both male (H10) and female headed (H14). It is interesting, in particular, that the foods processing activity influences rural household income through indirect effects. As expected, indirect-indirect effects prevail in the case of H1 indicating that stimulating food processing sector activates other activities, from those the effects are transmitted to other households that in turn stimulate the income of the category of rural farm employed households.
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herb. It has 26 phytochemical compounds with cancer treatment properties and they were found in different parts like leaf, seed, flower, inflorescence, shoot, and stem (Table 3). Twenty five compounds of this plant possess cancer preventive activity and 10 possess antitumor activities (Table 2 and Fig. 1). Alpha tocopherol and beta carotene of this plant have anticancer, antitumor and cancer preventive activities. Chlorogenic acid possess antitumor anticarcinogenic and cancer preventive activities. Biochannin-a isolated from T. pratense inhibited carcinogen activity in hamster embryo cell culture
A methanolic extract Althaea officinalis root has been shown to possess an inhibiting activity on the periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus spp.) present in the oral cavity. Antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus has also been found in chloroform and methanolic extracts of Althaea officinalis roots (Valiei et al., 2011).
Chemoprevention is an important part of integrative and translational medicine in oncology. Naturally occurring compounds, such as polyphenols in fruits, are increas- ingly recognized for their effects in controlling aberrant signaling pathways and inflammatory signals in CSCs. Our group has discovered that the fermented, probiotic- like product PEBP greatly accentuates its antioxidant potential and endows it with novel anti-inflammatory , antidiabetic [24, 25] and neuroprotective  bio- logical properties. The common mechanisms underlin- ing the multiple beneficial effects of PEPB are probably related to its capability to modulate the activity of global regulators that are associated with cellular transforma- tion and inflammation. In addition, biotransformations involving fermentation and catabolic breakdown have been suggested to enhance bioavailability .
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