replacement of other forms of selenium in the future. Post-antibiotic effect (PAE) defines the potential of a substance to delay re-growth of a microbial population after short-term exposure and removal of an antimicrobial compound (17, 18). Determination of the PAE is recommended in further evaluation of all new antimicrobial agents because it influences optimal antimicrobial dosing intervals. In this investigation, we have evaluated the effect of pre- exposure to biogenic Se NPs on the growth of test strains based on the method published by Jacobs et al. (17).
As stated above, the stem extract sample displayed the highest TPC value (9.5 mg GAE/g DM) and resulted in major inhibition percent in all F. verticillioides isolates (Table 1). However, the required concentration of this extract to inhibit the three fungal isolates by 50 % is two to three times greater on average than that required for leaf and root extracts (fig. 1C). In the present study, ethanol extracts from different red mangrove (R. mangle) organs were obtained, and their antifungal activity was evaluated against three F. verticillioides isolates from maize roots.
Plant extracts of higher plants have been reported to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal properties. Several studies have been focused on screening of plant extracts for new antifungal compounds that can be used to control postharvest diseases (Talibi et al., 2014). Pong- pong and Neem have displayed positive effects on the inhibition of postharvest fungi as alternatives to fungicides through cytotoxicity screening using the Brine-shrimp lethality test (BST) and in vitro screening on mycelial growth of Penicillium digitatum (Al-Samarrai et al., 2012). Kuri et al (2011) have investigated the potential of certain botanical extracts against important seed-borne pathogens associated with brinjal seeds. Their findings indicate that aqueous leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Calotropic procera, Clerodendron spp., Luffa cylidrica, Croton spasriflorous, Moringa oleifera and seed of Lantana camaradis played some potentiality to inhibit the growth of some seed borne fungi such as Phomopsis vexans, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nigar, Curvularia lunat and Penicillium spp.
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The aqueous seed extract of Abelmoschusesculentus were used to synthesized gold nanoparticles and its antifungal activities were tested against Puccinia graminis tritci, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans. The synthesized nanoparticles hence, has a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against fungal diseases. 
Introduction: Today regarding drug resistance of fungi and bacteria, many researches have focused on herbal-based medication. As these herbal-based medications can show better adaptivity, the minimum advantage of them compared to synthetic drugs is that they are harmless. This article aimed to study the antifungal effect of alcoholic extract and essence of Arnebia euchroma L (Abukhalsa) roots on saprophytic and dermatophytic fungi.
In addition, the inhibition rate obtained in our study was less than 60%. This could be explained by the concentration of our extracts which was lower than that used by other authors [6, 33, 34]. Our results also showed that for the concentration of 0.625 mg/ml (figure 2), some plant extracts promoted mycelia growth of P. digitatum. This was the case of S. anteuphorbium, L. inermis R. alaternus, R. tripartita and P. laevigata. Indeed, the plant extracts contain a mixture of diverse compounds. It is possible that in the same extract, compounds have inhibitory activity while others promote mycelia growth. For this reason, it would be better to conduct the study of the antifungal effect on fractions or purified products.
nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dispersive Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antifungal effect was assessed using a luminescent microbial cell viability assay. Biocompatibility tests were carried out using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a Jurkat human lymphocyte cell line. Cells were cultured for 24 or 72 hours in the presence or absence of the polymer formulations and analyzed using three different tests, ie, cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell proliferation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay BrdU, and genomic DNA damage (Comet assay). Finally, the samples were evaluated mechanically, and the polymer-bearing silver nanoparticles were analyzed microscopically to evaluate dispersion of the nanoparticles.
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This research is the first to use Si ZnOnps incorporated into PMMA to create the material that has an antifungal effect while maintaining its mechanical properties. It has also been demonstrated that the addition of ZnOnps in PMMA had a detrimental effect on the optical properties of PMMA. It was felt that the increased antifungal effect outweighs the color change because the color change can be adjusted using extrinsic coloration. However, future studies can determine the optimal concentration of ZnOnps incorporated into PMMA that results in a balance between the antifungal effect and the detrimental effect on opacity. Moreover, the addition of a secondary filler that has refractive index close to PMMA and harder than ZnOnps may help in reinforcing the mechani- cal properties without causing more color change. This aspect should also be investigated in the future studies. The results of this study suggest that 2.5Si ZnOnps incorporated into PMMA might fulfill the requirement in terms of antifungal and mechanical properties. Although the color differences of the PMMA might be an aesthetic concern, this can be corrected by denture characterization using extrinsic col- oration. Therefore, this nanocomposite material might be a material to inhibit the growth of C. albicans in the PMMA that causes denture-induced stomatitis. This material might be used as a treatment denture, a therapeutic denture used for a specific period, or for treating denture induced stomatitis in patients, especially in the elderly patient with limited manual dexterity. However, the long-term evaluation of the antifun- gal effect of PMMA denture base material incorporated with Si ZnOnps both in vitro and in vivo is recommended.
Based on the initial screening by dual overlay method all the LAB isolates were showed good antifungal activity against the F. proliferatum-LR was isolated from rose leaves as described in previous study . Isolates Lb. plantarum 1FF and Lb. plantarum ATCC8014 showed better inhibitory activity and selected for further study with well diffusion method. In this method was used to evaluate the antifungal effect of the five selected cells free supernatants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB-CFS) on conidia germination and the mycelia growth of phytopathogenic fungi F. proliferatum-LR (Figure 1 & Table 1). It was observed that F. proliferatum-LR was inhibited by all lactic acid bacteria (LABs) with values ranged from 3.26 between 3.93 mm. However, the cells free supernatant (CFS) of Lb. acidophilus ATCC314 was showed higher clear
Shukti marit hartal bhasma with panchatikta churna was prepared in 50 mg/ml, 150 mg/ml 200 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml concentrations for antimicrobial activity. 50 mg /ml and 150 mg/ml concentrations of shukti marit haratala bhasma with panchatikta churna have shown 12 mm of zone of inhibition on aspergillus niger, It indicates mild activity against fungi Aspergillus Niger. 200 mg /ml concentration of shukti marit haratala bhasma with panchatikta churna shown antifungal effect on aspergillus niger with 14 mm zone of inhibition. 250 mg/ml concentration of shukti marit haratala bhasma with panchatikta churna shown antifungal effect on aspergillus niger with 22 mm zone of inhibition.No any antibacterial effect of shukti marit haratala bhasma with panchatikta chruna was observed on staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and antifungal effect on candida albicans.
The beneficial medicinal effects of plant materials typically result from the secondary products present in the plant although, it is usually not attributed to a single compound but a combination of the metabolites. The medicinal actions of plants are unique to a particular plant species or group, consistent with the concept that the combination of secondary products in a particular plant is taxonomically distinct (Parekh et al., 2006). The screening of plants usually involves several approach; ethno botanical approach is one of the common methods that are employed in choosing the plant for pharmacological study. Plant essential oils and extracts have been used for many thousands of years, in food preservation, pharmaceuticals, alternative medicine and natural therapies. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of many 20 plant found that description, scientific classifications, Traditional constitution and chemical properties (Zaika, 1998).
Anethole was previously described to exhibit in vivo synergistic effect on the fungicidal activity of the anethole/- polygodial-containing compound against C. albicans, supporting its present clinical application . On the basis of the result obtained with polygodial, the study was further extended to see if the enhancing activity to mi- conazole is specific to only polygodial’s dialdehyde struc- tural feature. In order to facilitate it, a structurally simple primary aliphatic alcohol, decanol was selected since amphipathic primary aliphatic alcohols exhibit antifungal activity against C. albicans. Among these alcohols, de- canol was noted to exhibit the most potent fungicidal activity with an MFC of 50 µg/mL against C. albicans. Hence, miconazole was combined with decanol to see if the same combination effect can also be observed against C. albicans. The combination of miconazole and decanol synergistically retarded the growth of C. albicans, but had only marginal synergism on their fungicidal action. Thus, C. albicans cells appeared to adapt to this combi- nation stress, eventually recovering and growing normally. To reveal the different combination effect between po- lygodial and decanol, the leakage of 260 nm absorbing materials and K + ion from C. albicans cells was checked.
Data analysis and statistical methods. Results were entered into a Microsoft Access database and analyzed using “R” version 2.12.1. Differ- ences between bacillary counts on different media were analyzed by paired two-sample t tests. Modeling of bacillary elimination was done by previ- ously described NLME methods (5). Differences in the frequencies of clean or contaminated sample results were compared by assessment of relative risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Assessment of pa- tient factors contributing to sample contamination was done by logistic regression, with incorporation of random effect modeling in the multi- variate analysis to account for repeated sampling from some patients.
ABSTRACT: Thirty one bacterial strains were isolated from root tissues, stems and leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. The antifungal activity of these bacterial strains were tested in vitro by the technique of dual culture against Botrytis cinerea fungi; agent of gray rot on grapes, Fusarium solani; causal agent of Fusarium wilt of pepper and Aspergillus niger; causative agent of crown rot of peanuts. Four bacterial strains BR1, GT1, GR1 and GR2 induced inhibition of mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger with a rate greater than or equal 52%. These four strains are Gram positive bacilli, aerobic strict and capable of forming endospores. They belong to the family of Bacillaceae.
This study showed no color changes in the acrylic resin after a period of 180 minutes of exposure to alco- hol vinegar and nystatin, confirming previous results . The original color of a resin can be altered by the ingestion of large amounts of colorants, liquid absorp- tion and immersion in disinfectant solutions that influ- ence the surface roughness, damaging the aesthetics of the material . A study using vinegars showed color change in acrylic resin after an interval from 12 to 30 days of immersion . Even considering the import- ance of knowing the effect of prolonged exposure of acrylic resin to the action of disinfectants, shorter times such as those used in the present study must be used, since they simulate the time by which prosthetic devices are outside of the oral cavity. Previous studies have eval- uated the effect of disinfectant solutions on the physical properties of acrylic resin. Ethanol, in varying concentra- tions, can produce effects on roughness and color . The surface roughness of the acrylic resin was higher with the use of 3.8% sodium perborate and lower with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate .
Nagaraja et al., 2006 have documented the antifungal efficacy of naphthofuran derivatives against Aspergillus niger. This study indicated that synthetic heterocyclic compounds containing naphthofurans possess antifungal activity and can be effectively exploited as an ideal treatment for future plant disease management programmes. Overall effect of synthetic compounds on P. azadirachtae mycelial inhibition is as shown in Fig 2. Among the different concentration of synthetic compounds tested 100 ppm seems to be the most effective range, except for C-6 and C-7 where as low as 50 ppm was good enough for 100% mycelial growth inhibition.
The actinomycete strain HB-11 was inoculated in 50 ml of starch casein broth and incubated for 7 days at 30 . After incubation, the culture broth was centrifuged at 15000 ×g for 20 min and cell free supernatant (CSF) was used to observe antifungal activity by agar well diffusion method 9 . The test organisms used were Aspergillus niger NCIM 836, Aspergillus flavus NCIM 542, Aspergillus parasiticus NCIM 904, Alternaria solani NCIM 888, Ustilago maydis NCIM 983, Helminthosporium gramineum NCIM 1070, Mucor liomelis NCIM 873, Rhizopus oryzae NCIM 878, Sclerotium rolfsii NCIM 1084, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1072 and Candida albicans NCIM 3471. The test fungi were spread over potato dextrose agar (HiMedia) plates.
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4. 17 Anti-fungal activity: CAY-1, a novel saponin isolated from C. frutescens, was found to be active against 16 different fungal strains, it acted by disrupting the membrane integrity of fungal cells 101 . The antifungal potential of aqueous leaf and fruit extracts of Capsicum frutescens against many fungus (Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp) was studied. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of C. frutescens extracts were determined. MIC values of the fruit extract were lower compared to the leaf extract 102 . The literature review demonstrates that extracts and isolated peptides from chilli have been reported for their effectiveness against various microbes including, fungi 103 . Pereeira JAP et al., (2016) evaluated anti-fungal activity of Capsicum annuum against Arbuscular mycorrhizal 104 . Latef AHA (2011) also determined anti-fungal activity of Capsicum annuum 105 .
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Several of the 16 oils tested by us, which were further thoroughly examined (Clove oil, Geranium oil, Lemon balm and Citronella oil), showed strong effect on the cell wall and membrane of C. albicans. Furthermore, they caused long-lasting PAF effect and were shown as safe, because they did not generate resistance in one-step as- say. Time-kill experiments revealed that all these EOs were fungicidal and acted quickly (starting from 0.5 h of co-incubation). The most effective was essential oil of Melissa citrata indica herb (Lemon balm), which caused the quickest decrease in cell density of C. albicans ATCC 90028 and less evident effect towards C. albicans ATCC 10231. What is more interestingly, a 1-hour ex- posure of C. albicans ATCC 90028 to Lemon balm re- sulted in the longest PAFE. To our knowledge, this re- port is the first one describing such effects of essential oils. Furthermore, MPC (mutant prevention concentra- tion) of this oil, tested by single-step methodology was equal to or twice as high as their MICs, thus MSW (mu- tant selection window) was narrow [16-18].
The main results of our retrospective study including 322 critically ill patients are in line with these recent findings. Using Cox regression analysis to account for confounders, any antifungal treatment did not had a beneficial effect on the incidence of new pneumonia or in-hospital mortality in a cohort of heterogenic intensive care patients with isolated pulmonary Candida spp. colonization. Not surprisingly, patients that received an- tifungal therapy were more critically ill as evident from higher SAPS II and SOFA score and had a higher degree of systemic inflammation. In this respect, these patients showed prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU, and hospital length of stay.