Inflammatory disorder like arthritis and rheumatism are major group of prevalent diseases. Conventional treatment uses drugs to either control symptoms or relieve the discomfort but can never eliminate the ailment. Premna latifolia has been ethno pharmacologically documented to be used in treating dropsy and also used as diuretic. Literature review shows that other species of Premna are useful in chronic inflammation. On the basis of traditional claims the present study is planned to evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity. The methanolic extract is prepared and dose of 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight are selected and evaluated for antiinflammatory activity in different animal models like paw edema, vascular permeability and cotton pellet granuloma, The phytochemical constituent like iridoid glycosides, diterpenes and saponins are reported to be present in the plant. Thus the present study reveals that the plant Premna latifolia may be used in the management of inflammation.
Where Co is volume of oedema in control group and Ct is volume of oedema in test group. Net oedema volumes formed two hours following injection of Carrageenan were used to calculate the effect of the extracts on the induced oedema. Data were expressed as the mean ± SEM. Significant difference between the control and the treated groups was performed using Student’s t-test and P values. The difference in results was considered significant when P < 0.001.
The present study establishes the antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity of petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Aegle marmelos and the ethanol extract antiinflammatory activity in the experimental models. Carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia are the most suitable test procedures to screen antiinflammatory and antipyretic agents respectively. Development of carrageenan-induced edema is biphasic (23). Early phase of acute inflammation is due to release of histamine and serotonin stores in the cells and late response are due to stimulating effect on the synthesis of prostaglandins. Petroleum ether and ethanol extracts showed antiinflammatory activity throughout 3 hrs observation period. Hence it is possible that the antiinflammatory effect of leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos is due to its effect on synthesis of prostaglandins. However slow absorption from gastrointestinal tract or other factors which affect bioavailability, could not be ruled out and require further studies to know the exact mechanism of antiinflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos.
To extend our findings to human subjects, we isolated HDL from human subjects with SLE with various degrees of systemic inflammation as assessed by standard inflammatory markers and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; Supplemental Table 1). HDL isolated from 10 healthy human control subjects all inhib- ited palmitate-induced inflammatory gene expression (data not shown). However, HDL from some SLE patients demonstrated a reduced antiinflammatory effect. Interestingly, the extent of HDL dysfunction as assessed by its inability to inhibit palmitate-induced Saa3 and Ccl2 gene expression positively correlated with the level of the circulating inflammatory markers SAA and C-reactive protein (CRP) (Figure 8, A–D). Circulating levels of SAA are a reflection of SAA-HDL, since most SAA is transported in plasma on HDL (24, 25). HDL samples that were most dysfunctional with respect to inhi- bition of Saa3 and Ccl2 gene expression (i.e., those with high SAA levels) were least able to stimulate cholesterol efflux (Figure 8E). A similar inverse relationship between the ability of HDL to stimulate cholesterol efflux from adipocytes were observed with CRP (Fig- ure 8F) and HDL’s inability to inhibit palmitate-induced Saa3 gene expression (Figure 8G). When SLE patients were arbitrarily divided into those with CRP values above and below 10 mg/l, HDL from subjects with the higher CRP values demonstrated a significant loss in its ability to inhibit Saa3 gene expression compared with HDL from subjects with the lower CRP values (Figure 8H).
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It was noticed that Indomethacin treated on oral administration of 5 mg/kg respectively (Table -2) showed a significant inhibitory effect was 4 and 5hrs carregeenan injection. Deepak and Swami,  reported showed a moderate activity, among them, A. viminalis that was included in this assay because its content in ursolic acid, a triterpene, which has already been reported as very active on carrageenan induced edema test. Meckes et al.,, reported % of inhibition produced by the methanol extract of A. viminalis was close to the effect registered with the methanol extract of B. paniculata and J. spicigera (40– 45% inhibition). B. paniculata extract contains xanthomicrol in high concentrations , this methoxiflavone has proved to be a LTC4 and thromboxane B2 inhibitor . Antiinflammatory activity of J. spicigera has not been reported before, although a potent activity was described for lignan glycosides isolated from the species Justicia ciliata . The present study maximum 68.84% inhibition produced by the ethanol extract of Cinnamomum keralaense barks extract and effective dose 400mg/kg of effective antiinflammatory time was observed (4-5hr). Antiinflammatory effect may be active constituents were anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, reducing and non-reducing sugars, and saponins found in Cinnamomum keralaense barks. Further investigation should be going on exact mode of action of individual constituents of Cinnamomum keralaense barks.
extract and drugs was 30 min prior to injection of 0.1 ml of 1% freshly prepared suspension of carrageenan in nor- mal saline in the right hind paw subplantar of each rat. The paw volume was measured initially and then at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after the carrageenan injection by using plethys- mometer . The antiinflammatory effect of MEPA was calculated by the following equation:- Antiinflammatory activity (%) = (1-D/C) × 100, where D represents the per- centage difference in paw volume after the administration of drugs to the rats and C represents the percentage differ- ence of volume in the control groups .
The aim of the present study was to explore the probable antiinflammatory activity of different extracts of Tephrosia purpurea leaves using carrageenan induced inflammation in the rat. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with normal saline (as control group) and Tephrosia purpurea extracts (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg), 60 min before 0.1 mL 1% carrageenan injection. Paw volume was measured before and 1, 2, and 3 h after the injection of carrageenan. The results were expressed as the Mean ±SEM and the statistical significance of differences between groups was analyzed by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s test. The subplantar injection of carrageenan caused a time-dependent paw edema in the rat. Oral administration of Tephrosia purpurea extracts (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg) inhibited paw swelling dose-dependently at 1, 2, and 3, h after carrageenan injection. We can conclude from the outcome of the present work that Tephrosia purpurea extracts exert an excellent antiinflammatory effect in rats.
Adiponectin is secreted into the circulation in three isoforms: low-molecular weight trimers, medium molecular weight hexamers, and high-molecular weight (HMW) multimers com- prised of 4 – 6 trimers . It also exists as a proteolytic cleavage fragment consisting of the globular C-terminal domain, known as globular adiponectin. HMW adiponectin is regarded as the major metabolically active form, while the central actions have been attributed to the hex- americ and trimeric oligomers . The rat recombinant adiponectin protein used in the cur- rent study mimics serum adiponectin by forming HMW and hexameric species, therefore presumed to be biologically active centrally. Adiponectin mediates its effect through binding AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and a third receptor T-cadherin [24, 25]. While previous studies have shown that T-cadherin is present in rat spinal cord [26, 27]), this receptor was not investigated in the present study. AdipoR1 binds globular adiponectin with high affinity, while AdipoR2 shows intermediate affinity for both globular and full-length adiponectin. Both isoforms were expressed in spinal cord, AdipoR1 being the most abundantly expressed. AdipoR1 and Adi- poR2 are also differentially expressed in various brain regions [11, 13, 17]. It is AdipoR1 that is thought to mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin , and be primarily respon- sible for mediating hyperthermic effects of adiponectin in hypothalamus , suggesting that in spinal cord this receptor subtype may contribute to the anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflam- matory effects of adiponectin observed in this study.
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Recently we have reported very good nitric oxide scavenging activity of V. faba hulls.  Because NO transmits signals from vascular endothelial cells to vascular smooth muscle cells and plays an important role in vital physiologic functions such as inflammation, this extract was selected for assay of antiinflammatory activity.  To the best of our knowledge, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive of V. faba hulls have not been reported to date and nothing was found about these activities. The aim of the present work was to determine the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of V. faba hulls in mice in the thermal and chemical models of analgesia in order to understand the usefulness of this plant in medicine.
Albizia lebbeck (L.) BENTH (Fabaceae), popularly known as Sirisha, is employed in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of boils, cough, pain, swelling and it is also used against diarrhea. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using acute and subacute models of inflammation in rats. These studies demonstrated that oral administration of ethyl acetate extract of Albizia lebbeck (EAL) (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In acute inflammation as produced by carrageenan 62.19% after 5h, by histamine 43.19%, by dextran 45.29%, by serotonin 68.84 while in subacute anti-inflammatory model using formaldehyde-induced hind paw edema (after 5 h) 31.5% and cotton pellets 13.48% protection from inflammation was observed at 400 mg/kg orally dose of EAL. EAL neither show ulcerogenic effect at different doses of EAL nor show any sign of toxicity and mortality up to a dose level of 5000 mg/kg, p.o. in rats & mice. These data indicate that EAL possesses significant anti- anti-inflammatory activity.
Inflammatory events involve micro-vascular changes with increased vascular permeability, flow of exudation, including plasmatic protein and amplification of endogenous chemical mediators 20 . The extract of K.pinnata fruit showed significant inhibition of formalin-induced rat paw edema. The formalin injection into rat paw produces localized inflammation and pain. This nociceptive effect is biphasic in nature: an early neurogenic component followed by a later tissue-mediated response 21 . Inhibition of formalin-induced paw edema in rats is one of the most suitable tests to evaluate anti- proliferative activity and to screen anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agents as it closely resembles human arthritis 22, 23 . The vascular permeability was induced by acetic acid, which could cause an increase in peritoneal fluids of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ),
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The invivo studies were carried to determine the effect of various formulation such as negative control (NC) which is a plane carbopol gel, drugs entrapped liposomes (L), Marketed sample which is treated as positive control (PC) and surfactant modified liposomes (SL) in delivering the drug diclofenac sodium through the skin.
sub planar injection of carrageenan in the hind paw of rat. The increase in oedema in animals treated with standard drug (ibuprofen) and MG formulation were compared with increase in oedema of untreated control animals at constant intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Thus percentage inhibition of oedema at known intervals in treated animals was used for the purpose of calculating percent inhibition of oedema of control. The present study revealed that the MG formulation showed better antiinflammatory activity. The maximum activity was observed during 3 rd and 4 th h, and the results are
Inflammation in one form or the other is at the root of most of the common ailments starting from traumatic disorder or fever associated with infection to major life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction or brain hemorrhage or infract. In addition, inflammatory diseases also include various kinds of arthritis. Although many specific drugs like nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used with success to combat inflammation with its accompanying pain and fever. However, NSAIDs have high incidence of serious side effects like gastrointestinal ulceration and hypersensitivity. To overcome these limitations search is ongoing throughout the World to find new effective and safe antiinflammatory agent.
Branded Formulations containing Boswellia serrata: Besides its use in religious ceremonies, olibanum has been utilised as an important fixative in perfumes, soaps, creams, lotions and detergents, with an oriental note in its scent, in leading products of the perfume and cosmetic industry. The interest of pharmaceutical companies created a third market for olibanum. Since ancient times, it has been used in folk medicines for its antiseptic, antiarthritic and antiinflammatory effects. For this reason, in the last 20 years olibanum has gained increasing attention from scientists to better define its medicinal effects and identify the constituents responsible for these effects. Therefore, primary aim should be to find out a rapid way of distinguishing the different types of olibanum from each other and to identify the diagnostic markers for each species. This discrimination is important to improve the quality of the products obtained from olibanum, like its essential oil or the phytopharmaceuticals prepared from the resin acids. Even from an economical point of view, this identification is necessary for satisfaction of the consumer. Some of the branded formulations containing Boswellia serrata available in the market are:-
results of effect of thiazolidin-4-one derivatives on xylol-induced ear edema in mice are given in Table 4 and analgesic activity of thiazolidin-4-ones in acetic acid induced writhing in mice and rat caudal immersion are mentioned in Table 5. All the test compounds also showed significant inhibition of edema in xylol induced mouse ear edema; however, it was less as compared to standard nimesulide. In acetic acid-induced writhing all the test compounds showed signiÞ cant analgesic activity equal to standard nimesulide, however, in caudal immersion test none of the compounds showed any analgesic activity. In yeast induced pyrexia test compounds B 1 , B 2 , B 5 , B 6 , B 7 , B 8 and B 11 showed significant inhibition of pyrexia at higher dose of 100 mg/kg as compared to B 3 , B 4 , B 9 and B 10 (Table 6). In in vitro COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the test compounds B 1 , B 2 , B 5 , B 6 and B 8 showed maximum inhibition of COX-2 enzyme activity than the other test compounds and comparable to nimesulide. However, all the test compounds and standard did not inhibit the COX-1 enzyme activity (Table 7).
for its analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory activities. The antiinß ammatory properties of FPP028 were evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma methods and found to possess the activity similar to indomethacin, phenylbutazone and isoxicam. Similarly FPP028 was shown to possess analgesic and antipyretic activities comparable to the former drugs. At the same time ulcerogenic activity of FPP028 was studied in restraint-stressed rats, demonstrated a gastro protective effect since the number of gastric lesions induced either by stress or phenylbutazone treatment was decreased.
The anti-arthritic activity of OS fixed oil was evaluated against formaldehyde-induced arthritis in rats. The fixed oil significantly reduced the diameter of inflamed paw. On intra- peritoneal administration of the fixed oil daily for 10 days, there was marked improvement in the arthritic conditions in rats. The anti-arthritic effect at 3 ml/kg dose was comparable to aspirin @ 100 mg/kg, ip41. The fixed oil inhibited carrageenan and inflammatory mediators (e.g., serotonin, histamine, bradykinin and PGE2) induced inflammation. It is natural that the oil could inhibit any inflammatory response involving these mediators. The result suggests potentially useful anti-arthritic activity of the inflammation models; including adjuvant as well as turpentine oil induced joint oedema in rats. 61
aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) that, under conditions of cell injury, increases local adenosine release. We now present the first evidence to establish this mechanism of action in an in vivo model of inflammation, the murine air pouch model. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with either methotrexate or saline for 3-4 wk during induction of air pouches. Pharmacologically relevant doses of methotrexate increased splenocyte AICAR content, raised adenosine concentrations in exudates from carrageenan-inflamed air pouches, and markedly inhibited leukocyte accumulation in inflamed air pouches. The methotrexate-mediated reduction in leukocyte accumulation was partially reversed by injection of adenosine deaminase (ADA) into the air pouch, completely reversed by a specific adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), but not affected by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-dipropylxanthine. Neither ADA nor DMPX affected leukocyte accumulation in the inflamed pouches of animals treated with either saline or the potent antiinflammatory steroid dexamethasone. These results indicate that methotrexate is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent, the antiphlogistic action of which is due to increased adenosine release at inflamed sites.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti- inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis Linn. The anti- inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinesis Linn was evaluated using carrageenin induce paw edema, cotton pellet induce granuloma and xylene induce mice ear edema. The analgesic activities were analyzed using formalin test and writhing test; pyrexia induced by brewer’s yeast in rats. The ethanolic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis Linn was administered orally at 125,250 and 500 mg/kg .The result showed the plant has significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic effect. The result of acute toxicity test at which maximum toxic dose was above 5 g/kg indicates that the plant extract is relatively safe in mice. The anti- inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic effect of Hibiscus rosa sinesis Linn is here demonstrated validating its use in traditional medicine.
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