The composting materials were composed of apple pom- ace and fresh cattle manure. Apple pomace was kindly provided by Shaanxi Haisheng fresh fruit juice Co. Ltd., China . The cattle manure was collected from the Northwest A&F University farm located in Yangling, China. The composting experiment was conducted from September 15 to October 29, 2016 according to Sun et al.  with slight modifications. Briefly, the cattle manure was mixed with apple pomace to adjust the C/N ratio to 30:1 and the moisture content to around 60% and then the mixture was placed in rectangular foam containers as described in Sun et al. . The piles of compost were turned and sampled daily. Samples were pooled from the top, middle, and bottom of the composting, and then mixed completely. When the pile temperature dropped to ambient temperature at the end of the maturing stage, the composting process was considered as completed. The each sample was split into two parts: one part was stored at 4 °C for subsequent physicochemical analysis and the other was stored at −80 °C for high-throughput sequencing.
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In this study, phenolic compounds were isolated from Golden Delicious pomace with five organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, and chloro- form), and the antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined. The highest levels of TPC and TFL were found in the methanol extract. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest amount of TFD, whereas the lowest amounts of TPC, TFD and TFL were found in the chloro- form extract. Both the antioxidant activity and TFD of the extracts had the same order: ethyl acetate extract > meth- anol extract ≈ ethanol extract > acetone extract > chlo- roform extract. Additionally, the four antioxidant activity assays within the same extraction medium revealed the following order: ORAC > HORAC > DRSC > FRAP. Phlo- ridzin and phloretin were measured to be the predomi- nant components in the extract and displayed higher antioxidant activity than the ethyl acetate extract, there- fore, these flavonoids are considered to be responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract. In addition to antioxidant activity, phloretin, phloridzin, and ethyl ace- tate extract all have activities against both S. aureus and E. coli. Phloretin, which accounted for 41.94 % of TFD in ethyl acetate extract, has the highest antimicrobial activ- ity against both S. aureus and E. coli, and in particular against S. aureus ATCC 6538. And, S. aureus was more sensitive to the ethyl acetate extract than E. coli. Notably, phloridzin showed a relatively higher antimicrobial activ- ity and was able to take the place of phloretin due to its stronger water solubility, better stability and higher con- tent in apple pomace. These experimental results provide the basis for the development of promising natural anti- microbial agents possessing antioxidant activity and for supporting the potential use of apple pomace extracts as food supplements or the potential applications of these Table 6 Antibacterial activity of EAE (inhibition zone
Caloric substitution of a healthy or Western diet with 10% apple pomace had no impact on renal or bone health in growing female rodents. Based on our results apple pomace is safe for consumption, despite its high fructose content combined with a high calcium content, regardless of diet quality in rodents. The study provides evidence for apple pomace, a “waste” byproduct of apple processing, has a favorable nutritional profile and is safe and therefore, has potential to be re-purposed as a sustainable food source for human consumption. However, the impact of processing on apple pomace should be further evaluated for processing and undesirable compounds before human clinical trials are conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of apple pomace consumption.
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management, and the soil was sampled twice (15 and 210 days after incorporating AP). In this study two paddy field areas from Gavan Kola , Babol county in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran which had different textures or different particle size distribution and bulk density were chosen. Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in mostly silt loam to which 50 Mg ha (-1) of Apple Pomace were added as a control.
In present study, a cultivation experiment was performed on modified sub- strates for the Flammulina velutipes, which contains 0% (control group), 4.8% (S group), 9.6% (M group) and 14.4% (L group) of fermented apple pomace (FAP) substituting corncob on a dry matter basis. The pH of all substrates was maintained at the required level, although the pH of FAP was low (3.9). Addi- tion of FAP affected the mycelial growth and full colonizing in test groups to a minor degree, but extended the period by one day in L group. The initiations of fruit bodies were extended in all FAP groups by one day, but there was a lit- tle difference in terms of total cultivation time duration among groups due to FAP groups showing raise of growth rates in later phase. The effect of FAP on fruit bodies yield was observed clearly: the yield has the positive correlation with increasing levels of FAP. Fruit bodies showed little difference concerning Brix degree, proximate composition, and organic acid profile among groups. In conclusion, it is suggested that FAP can be used as an alternative to corn- cobs as a F. velutipes substrates raw material.
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Total phenolic content of the extract was determined using the Folin Ciocal- teus’s micro scale method proposed by Waterhouse, (2001) . Gallic acid was employed as the standard. 20 μl aliquots of extract were pipetted into 3 test tubes and 1.58 ml of distilled water added to each sample. 100 μl of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was then added and thoroughly mixed. 300 μl Sodium Carbonate solu- tion was added to the mixture and vortexed thoroughly (Miximatic Vortex). The samples were incubated for 30 minutes at 40˚C in a water bath (Clifton). 300 μl of the solutions were pipetted into 96 Well F/B microplate and absorbance of sample read using a microplate spectrophotometer at 750 nm (Promega Glo- max). Total phenolic content was expressed in mg Gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight of apple pomace.
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with blueberry, grape seed and oregano extract  as well as blackcurrant oil synergy with broccoli sprouts have been reported . Sometimes synergism is already used in practice. Extracts from wild blueberries, straw- berries, cranberries, wild bilberries, elderberries and ras- pberries significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited H. pylori, com- pared with controls, and also increased susceptibility of H. pylori to clarithromycin, but food supplement Opti- Berry, made from a blend of the abovementioned extracts, demonstrated maximal effects . The antibacterial active- ity of sweet flag rhizome, green tea and apple pomace ex- tracts also could be expected in in vivo conditions.
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Proanthocyanidins and flavanoids, both subfamilies of the polyphenols, are highly concentrated in different fruits and berries as well as in fruit pomace. They have shown to exhibit anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, and im- mune-modulatory effects in vertebrates. Herein the effect of additional apple pomace or red-grape pomace in conven- tional piglet starter feeds were investigated in 36 young growing piglets. Immunological marker gene expression was quantified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in white blood cells, and intestinal bacterial flora was investigated from weaning to three weeks post weaning. Polyphenol content in red-grape pomace, gut content and tissues were analyzed with HPLC. Flavan-3-ols (epicatechin and catechin) and proanthocyanidins (B1, B2 and C1) were identified in the gas- tro-intestinal tract content, whereas only traces could be detected in various piglet organs. The blood parameters, he- moglobin and hematocrit, were affected and down-regulated in all groups over testing period. In both pomace treated groups more thrombocytes were present compared to the standard feeding group. It turns out, that the pomace diets had greatest impact on the bacterial content in the colon. Results demonstrate that feeding apple pomace and red- grape pomace tended to increase the number of total colonic bacteria. Steptococci/Enterococci increased in the red- grape pomace. C. perfringens was not detectable at the second time point. The number of lactobacilli increased in both applied diets. The number of Clostridium perfringens decreased with the age of the piglets. Trends of mRNA expression changes were found in white blood cell (WBC) between different feeding regimens, since the expression variability in the groups was very high. Between the different time points there were significant differences within the apple pomace group, where TNF (p = 0.033), NFB (p = 0.024) and Caspase 3 (p = 0.019) mRNA expression increased signifi- cantly during treatment. We conclude that both polyphenol rich feedings have the potential to positively influence the intestinal flora, blood parameters, and WBC mRNA gene expression pattern of immunological marker genes.
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In this research the 2 sub verities of Rhizopus oligosporus was used for production of antioxidative bioactive compounds from whey protein concentrate (WPC) and apple pomace. Total phenolic compounds, free radical scavenging ability by DPPH and antioxidant protection factort were evaluated in 48 determined treatments. Effect of Incubation temperature in three levels 23, 27, 31 °C, incubation time at 3,8,13 days, and Apple pomace/WPC ratio at three levels of 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10 were studied. The polyphenol content, percent of DPPH inhabitation and APF of the extracts was found to be in the range of 6.01-11.12 mg GAE/g DW, 65.8%-95.2% and 1-1.55 of samples respectively, depending on the ratio of Apple/WPC, time of incubation, type of fungi and temperature. The highest obtained efficiency was related to Rhizopus oligosporus PTCC NO.5287 and the results showed that the time of incubation had the most effect on measured parameters.
Background: Most children do not meet the recommendation for fruit consumption. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the US; however, no studies have examined the association of total apple products, apples, apple sauce, and 100 % apple juice consumption on diet quality and weight/adiposity in children. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between various apple consumption forms with diet quality and weight/adiposity in a nationally representative sample of children. Participants were children 2 – 18 years of age ( N = 13,339) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 – 2010. Intake was determined using a single interview administered 24-h diet recall. Apple product consumption was determined using the cycle-appropriate USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies food codes. Total diet quality and component scores were determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI). Anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Covariate adjusted linear and logistic regressions were used to compare apple product consumers with non-consumers; sample weights were used. Probability was set at <0.01. Results: Approximately 26 % of the population ( n = 3,482) consumed some form of apple products. Consumers of apple products, whole apples, apple sauce, and 100 % apple juice had higher HEI scores than non-consumers: 50.4 ± 0.4 v 41.9 ± 0.3, 52.5 ± 0.5 v 42.7 ± 0.3, 52.1 ± 0.8 v 47.2 ± 0.4, and 51.4 ± 0.6 v 46.5 ± 0.4, respectively. Apple products and whole apple consumers had lower BMI z-scores than non-consumers: 0.4 ± 0.04 v 0.5 ± 0.03 and 0.3 ± 0.1 v 0.5 ± 0.02, respectively. Apple products and whole apple consumers were 25 % (0.59 – 0.95 99 th CI) and 30 % (0.52 – 0.95 99 th CI), respectively, were less likely to be obese than non-consumers.
plantings lowest average scores were obtained in 2001. Scabresistance has been broken in most of the scabresistant varieties. There is a high infection level in the orchard; nearly half (48%) of the varieties was infected the first year after planting. Williams Pride, Katinka and Katrina (scabresistant varieties) were the only varieties not showing any scab in the experimental period. Williams Pride was very resistant to apple scab, no symptoms were observed in any of the 7 experimental years. The scab resistant varieties in general obtained scores below medium (except Santana in 2003) while the non resistant varieties Elise, Elstar/Elshof, Gloster and Jonagold were high susceptible to apple scab. The two old Danish nonresistant varieties Gul Richard and Sukkertop in general obtained scores below medium.
Anthocyanins belong to compounds which are easy to oxidise, thus they are usually the best antioxidants. Several studies have suggested that the anthocyanin content and their corresponding antioxidant activity, contribute to the fruits protective effect against degenerative and chronic diseases . It has also been reported that they characterize anticarcinogenic activity. It has been proven that the antioxidant activity of berries is directly proportional (linear correlation) to the anthocyanins content . The results received by Soto Rodriguez Gil demonstrated that the main anthocyanins found in black raspberry pomace extract were cyanidins (95% of the anthocyanins), namely cyanidin-3-rutinoside (68.8%), cyanidin-3- sambubioside-5-rhamnoside (18.2%), cyanidin-3- glucoside (7.1%) and pelargonidin-3-glucoside (6%). In addition, in the study by Soto Rodriguez Gil anthocyanin content was 3800 mg per kg of black raspberry pomace .
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Composting process represents an eﬀ ective use of grape pomace. The compost made from grape pomace is regarded as the high quality organic fertilizer. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace. It was provided by 3 variants of diﬀ erent compost piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of this process is aﬀ ected by the share of raw materials. According to the temperature curve characteristics, the temperature above 45 °C for at least 5 days was necessary for compost sanitation. Such temperature was achieved in all piles with diﬀ erent pomace content. Monitoring also showed the inﬂ uence of compost piles composition expressed by structure and density of composted materials on performance eﬃ ciency of machines for turning. Performance capacity the windrow turners ranged, depending on the composition of the pile, between 227–255 m 3 . h −1 .
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the incorporation of mobile applications technology in the field of agriculture to ease the human labor intensive process of grading fruits, apple. It is an android based application for quality grading of the fruit like apple. It shows implementation of a grading technique based on android platform used in handy mobile phones. It uses a clustering algorithm for effective grading of the fruit apple by using parameters like color on the fruit’s surface, weight of the fruit in grams, size of the fruit. The grading analysis is done by capturing four different images of apple with the help of mobile phone’s rear camera, provided that the camera is digital with minimum 2.0 megapixels resolution for crystal clear images. Automated grading system not only speeds up the time of the process but also minimizes the errors thereby increasing the accuracy of the process. The main purpose is to detect the defects in the outer skin of the fruit and categorize the apple in various grading classes viz. average, good, moderate. Clustering algorithm offers effective grading with accurate, reliable, consistent and quantitative information apart from handling large volumes, which may not be achieved by employing human graders.
‘Gyzyl Ahmedi’ apple variety; chestnut of Gabala; water- melon of Sabirabad; melon of Kurdamir; pomegranate varieties of Gekchay; potato of Gedabek; white onion of Hovsan Village (Baku Suburb); ‘White Shany’ and ‘Black Shany’ varieties of grapes; almond, olive, ‘Khar Tut’ variety of mulberry and fig cultivated in Baku Suburbs for centuries; citrus plants, tea and vegetable of Lankaran; hazelnut, walnut, attar of roses and persimmon of Zagatala; apricot, peach, apple and walnut of Ordubad; quince and cherry plum of Agdash; cherry, crab/sweet cherry (merry) and tomato of Khachmaz. It is possible to develop this list. Unfortunately there are enough GMo FP in this unique land
697 | P a g e visited results on the top in the form of a ranked list. Individual have to go through the results and get the best possible he is looking for. The most relevant result may vary from individual to individual. Like for example, a school going child may search “Apple” and expect the results of the apple fruit and a college going student may search “Apple” and expect the top results of the Apple Inc. Thus, the results of such ambiguous queries should be obtained in the clustered format and then the individual will find it easy to search is relevant domain. This paper attempts to get results in the form of clusters.
Looking at the physical evolution of the computer mouse, it is clear that ergonomics played a limited role in the creation of the earliest mice [Fig. 19]. The styling of the Alto and Star mice, the early Apple mice designed by Hovey-Kelly, along with examples such as the first cordless infra-red mouse for the Metaphor computer (1984) closely reflect the form and material finish of the computers to which they belonged, rather than being purely informed by user requirements. Forms based on the ergonomics of sanding blocks were rejected by Apple in favour of rectilinear forms. Even the first Microsoft mouse, apparently closely based on a lump of clay modelled to fit the hand, was box-like compared to the mice of today.
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Management of the disease complex on apple in order to maximize the amount of marketable fruit does not always mean application of fungicidal materials. Most non chemical control methods are in agreement with the principles of organic farming, and can be integrated in the growing system. Hot water drenching to prevent Gloeosporium rot during storage as first studied in 1963 in at East Malling Research Station. (Burchill 1964), has been proven to be an elegant and effective method to reduce disease losses in organic production. Many institutes in Europe have in the last decade contributed to the development of this method into a practical applicable technique. The result is gratefully embraced by many organic growers in Europe.
It is clear from the table 1.1 that the mean selling price of various varieties of apple “grade A” is presented in table 4.3. It is clear from the table that among various varieties of apple “grade A”, Delicious was sold at 723.25 Rupees, Kullou Delicious at 920.43 Rupees and American was sold at 486.13 Rupees. Hence it is concluded that Kullou Delicious holds the first rank in terms of selling price followed by Delicious and American.
The liquid egg yolk shows more remarkable non-Newtonian behaviour, the values of the flow behaviour index n being higher than those obtained for the albumen (Table 4). An increase of n value was obtained for E1, E2, E3 and E4 groups compared to the control. This behaviour can be related to the novel phyto-additives added in hens diet, a higher increase being found in E3 and E4 groups. The increase could be attributed the presence of phytochemicals compounds from sea-buckthorn pomace and from the mix of bilberry leaves, sea-buckthorn pomace and walnut leaves which were included in the feed. In according to another study (Abbasnezhad et al., 2015) the non-Newtonian behavior of egg yolk can be due to the phosphate and lipo- proteins or other complex molecules. The high content in lipid in the food system may favor the formation of some protein-lipid complexes which will affect the viscosity (Codina and Mironeasa, 2016; Mironeasa et al., 2012). The egg yolk proteins being high molecular weight soluble polymers can greatly increase the viscosity even at very low concentrations. During storage, the viscosity increases in the experimental groups as a function of phyto-additives added in hens diet.
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