The focus of related studies in the literature is versatile. Most previous works have focused on phonological and pragmatic differences between female and male language use in speech (Trudgill, 1974; Holmes, 1990), informal writing (Mulac et al., 1990), fiction and nonfiction textbooks (Argomon et al., 2003), and electronic messaging or web logs as a new genre of computer- mediated communication (Herring & Paolillo, 2006). Sociolinguists, on the other hand, have reported different styles of language use in speech in statistical terms. For instance, females have been speculated to be excessive users of hedging in communication while males have been speculated to be more assertive users and interrupters particularly in mixed gender interactions (Holmes, 1984). Tannen (1990) suggested that females talk about relationships more than males. They use more compliments and apologies and use more facilitative tag questions (Holmes, 1984, 1988). In the second language acquisition context also Spanish learners of English” either frequently fail […] to identify hedges in the L2 or consider […] them as negative evasive concepts,” (Alonso, Alonso, & Mariñas, 2012, p. 47).
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In this regard, and in addition to existential paradigm, schemata, the writer’s anticipation of the reader’s possible reactions, the writer-reader interaction, and Pagano’s classification of denials, there is a crucial concept proposed by Bakhtin. Bakhtin (1981) , observes that all utterances exist "… against a backdrop of other concrete utterances on the same theme, a background made up of contradictory opinions, points of view and value judgments… pregnant with responses and objections” . That is to say, a dialogistic perspective reveals that when writers engage with prior speakers and prior utterances in the same sphere, they can stand with, stand against, be undecided, or neutral to the other speakers and their value positions. At the same time, the dialogistic perspective reveals the anticipatory aspect of the text that equips the writer with the signals for the ways they expect their addressee to respond to the current proposition. Moreover, this reflects Bakhtin’s notions of dialogism and heteroglossia under which all verbal communication, whether written or spoken, is ‘dialogic’ in that to speak or write always refers to or reveals the influence of, what is written before, and simultaneously anticipates the reader's responses . Utterances are categorized accordingly into a two-way distinction that classifies them as ‘monoglossic’ or ‘heteroglossic. When they make no reference to other voices or viewpoints, they are monoglossic, whereas when they invoke or allow for dialogistic alternatives and refer to other voices or viewpoints, they are heteroglossic .
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Chapter 1, Part I, deals with a general definition of discourse and proposes “a multiple methodology associated with different approaches to discourse analysis- based research” (p. 3). The authors draw on Scollon and Scollon’s (2001) definition of discourse which is anchored in the study of grammatical and syntactic features of language, language in social contexts, and language as a system of communication. A differentiation is made between Discourse and discourse in that the former pertains to members’ practices and the latter is related to general principles guiding all kinds of Discourses. The chapter, moreover, introduces macro and micro practices as social formation and discursive practices, respectively. Like Weigand (2010), the authors introduce the rules of discourse as the rules of the game whereby meaning is created by interaction among all human abilities.
Daniel Perrin is Professor of Applied Linguistics, Vice President at Zurich University of Applied Sciences, President of the International Association of Applied Linguistics AILA, Board Member of the Swiss Academy of Social Sciences and Humanities, as well as Editor of the International Journal of Applied Linguistics and the de Gruyter Handbook of Applied Linguistics series. His areas of research are media linguistics, methodology of applied linguistics, text production research, and analysis of language use in professional communication. Before his academic career, Daniel Perrin worked as a journalist and writing coach. This long-term experience in professional practice has fostered his transdisciplinary research. Today, he is still engaged in training and coaching media and communication professionals as well as leaders in education, economy, and politics in the framework of transdisciplinary projects. For more information see: www.danielperrin.net. What comes below is an email-based interview with Daniel Perrin (DP) conducted by the editor of IJLTR (KS).
This issue offers seven research articles and two book reviews. The first article deals with topics related to using cultural content in the English lessons to help undergraduate students develop meaningful communication through cultural knowledge. The authors, Oviedo, H., & Álvarez, H. (2019) explored undergraduate students´ responsiveness to cultural issues and activities in their process of learning English. The second article by Cuesta Medina L., Alvarez Ayure C.P., Cadena Aguilar, A., Jiménez Bonilla, M. S., Maldonado Chacón, P., & Morales Pulido, V. (2019) deals with the value of reflection in Language Teaching and Learning with in-service language teachers pursuing a graduate degree. The results of their study unveil the difficulties
Applied linguistics has two definitions: narrow sense and broad sense. In narrow sense, this discipline mainly studies intercultural communication terms and language teaching, mainly focusing on the internal research of linguistics. In broad sense, applied linguistics has been fully utilized in sociology, psychology, philosophy and logic, and has a certain guidance significance to the design of professional terms in various disciplines . Therefore, whether it is a narrow paradigm to understand applied linguistics or a broad view of applied linguistics, scholars generally agrees that applied linguistics is a discipline to solve linguistic problems. Applied linguistics holds that people should reconstruct the language teaching system so as to link language with context and social practice . In How to cite this paper: Xing, H.H. (2018)
The complexities of the relationship between teaching and language learning have motivated applied linguistics researchers to propose various hypotheses regarding the role of classroom interaction in providing samples of the target language. For example, ‘The comprehensible input hypothesis’ (Krashen 1982), proposes that if the interaction in the classroom is comprehensible to the learner, s/he will learn language by participating in it, without needing direct instruction. ‘The interaction hypothesis’ (Allwright 1984 a, b), proposes that the quality and quantity of spoken interaction in which a learner engages in the classroom will have an impact on his/her language learning. The belief about language learning underlying these hypotheses is that different learners will learn different things from exposure to purposeful communication in the target language. They suggest that researchers should lookcarefully at language in the language classroom as ‘input’ in its own right rather than just as the conveyor of information, and that teachers should be aware of the potential of their language use to act as a sample of the language to be learned. It is impossible to claim conclusively that these teaching approaches are more effective than others, since there are so many factors in operation in any teaching learning event, and there are such enormous differences from one cultural context to another (as discussed, for example, in Tarnopolsky 2000). However, we believe that these ‘interaction hypotheses’ are worth taking into account in relation to the teaching of English as a Second Language to adults, and we suggest also that they may be applicable to literacy learning through interaction with written texts, including interactive electronic texts.
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Vocabulary classification is one of the most important processes of language analysis in the area of descrip- tive and historical linguistics. In language technology and computational linguistics also, it has turned up as an important strategy for language-specific lexical information retrieval and knowledge representation. In the act of vocabulary classification, we propose to identify the source of origin of a word and annotate it accordingly. For instance, within a modern Bengali text corpus we have annotated the word iskul/ENG/ “school” as an English word, because although the word is a part of the present vocabulary of the Bengali language, the mother source of the word is English. Therefore, it is annotated as an English word, and not as a Bengali word. In case of hierarchical tagging it should carry tags of both the languages. Through this process, we shall be able to learn words of which an- cestry are used in a language and what kind of mor- phophonemic changes these words have undergone in the course of naturalization in the language (Rissanen 1989).
Certainly not at its inception, when the modernist invocation of the ‘truth’ and the supposed authority of science had the upper hand, but at least over the past 30 years of its short history, applied linguistics has been characterised by a plurality of approaches and styles of scholarly endeavour (Weideman, 2013a; Rajagopalan, 2004). Since at least the last decade of the previous century, paradigmatic variation has therefore been the rule rather than the exception, with cognitivism superseding behaviourism, and itself being superseded by constructivism and, subsequently, giving way to a plethora of new perspectives, for example on what have been variously labelled communicative, strategic, semiotic, symbolic, intercultural or performative competence (Kramsch, 2015: 458; 2008: 391, 400) as ways of describing the desirable kind of ability that learners of additional languages have as their target. This veritable explosion of alternative perspectives since the 1990s may in good measure be ascribed to a turning away of applied linguistics from its modernist roots, and its embrace of the variety and differentiation so characteristic of postmodernist approaches (Weideman, 2016). That departure from its modernist beginnings has been characterised as the “social and cultural turn in Applied Linguistics” (Kramsch, 2015: 457), a shift that has given rise to increasing attention to historicity, relativity, subjectivity, reflexivity (Macbeth, 2001; Strauss, 2015), the irrational, the unjust, and the grief and pain associated with that (McNamara, 2012a: 478, 480), along with a number of other characteristically postmodernist emphases (see too Paltridge, 2014: 100). As regards subjectivity, and specifically the interpretation of the intersubjective use of language, there is the appreciation in the ‘ecological perspective’ of language (Kramsch, 2008; Van Lier, 2008) of the subjective lingual factuality of human action (Weideman, 2009a: 81-83
This study has implications not just for genre theory but also for pedagogy. Samraj (2005) argues that "the results of previous studies on academic genres have been translated into pedagogical applications" (p. 153). Accordingly, the results of this study can be used to teach advanced level students pursuing master's and doctoral degrees the structure of research article introductions as a workshop in their subdisciplines. The results can be used to familiarize novice researchers with the variations found in academic writing across different subdisciplines. Finally, since the majority of Iranian researchers face problems in writing well- grounded and typical research article introductions due to their insufficient knowledge of generic structure, there seems to be a sound reason to sensitize the local researchers to properly attend to this key section in research articles. This line of study may be extended to other subdisciplines of applied linguistics to make more valid generalizations on subdisciplinary variations.
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Ingrid Piller and Aneta Pavlenko s ‘ Globalization, Multilingualism and Gender ’ provides cogent examples of how gender structures multilingualism in the domains of economic and social reproduction, and explains how ‘multilingualism is a form of practice, and it is a gendered practice’ (p. 22). Florian Coulmas brings together discussion of the language of economics (linking applied linguistics to areas such as game theory and evolutionary economics in unexpected ways) and the economics of language (language as capital). Strong though his chapter is, it oddly makes no reference either to Blommaert or Bourdieu in the latter sections. Suzanne Romaine writes about the correlation in the global distribution of linguistic diversity and poverty, maintaining that ‘addressing poverty entails a new understanding of the critical role of language and linguistic diversity in human development ’ (p. 47). Bernard Spolsky briefly and incisively summarises some key issues in the management of religious language. Nick Enfield’s investigation of the relationship among language, culture and cognition is, I feel, the weaker of the two chapters whose central issue is culture (the other being by Kramsch, in the first volume), and is seriously over- referenced.
However, we should bear in mind that not all learners may be susceptible to Applied Cognitive Linguistics’ instructional methods unless its benefits for learning figurative vocabulary are made sufficiently straightforward (Boers et al., 2006). Research data suggests that raising learners’ metaphor awareness can foster their ability to work with unknown figurative vocabulary (e.g. Boers, 1999). Therefore, the obstacles L2 learners face when copying with figurative language could be remedied if they are asked to work with various activities whose main objectives may be broken down as follows. First, learners should become aware of the fact that metaphor is ubiquitous in ordinary communication. A sample activity is to have learners define the differences between two abstract concepts, such as friendship and love. Second, learners should recognize the underlying metaphoric themes (i.e. conceptual metaphors) behind various figurative expressions. A sample activity would be to have learners read well chosen texts and classify metaphors and idioms according to more general metaphoric themes. Third, learners should be familiar with the non- arbitrary nature of many metaphors and idioms. A sample activity is to have them list the symptoms of an abstract concept, such as anger in order to realize their correlates in physical experience (i.e. experiential basis). Lastly, learners should be aware of possible cross-cultural and cross-linguistic differences in conceptual metaphors. A sample activity in a foreign language context is to have learners of various language backgrounds consider their own language about an abstract concept and its manifestations in everyday speech (Boers, 1999, 2000).
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More specifically, the study probed the use of anticipatory it lexical bundles in two genres of applied linguistics. Applied linguistics was selected as the discipline of interest for two reasons: (1) it has not been subject to rigorous analysis in terms of such clusters and (2), raising awareness of genre features through such studies can become part of its disciplinary content. Accordingly, two corpora of research articles and postgraduate writing in applied linguistics were employed to find the extent to which these two academic genres in a single disciplinary area are similar to or different from each other. At the same time, by comparing the two genres of applied linguistics, this study attempted to show the extent to which students' use of anticipatory it bundles could be compared to that of published writers.
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Discussing the question in depth if lying is ethically acceptable or inherently wrong would go much beyond the limitations of this paper and I am no expert on why people lie nor do I want to pretend to be one. I will just address a few thoughts on lying and some of the ethics of lying. It is very interesting to explore what experts say about lying. In the article “Situational Determinants of the Acceptability of Telling Lies” in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, the authors conducted a survey about lies and hearing lies. They say: “It appeared that the interviewees reacted rather negatively to lying in general and even more negatively to other people‟s lies. In contrast, however, the interviewees reported many instances in which they lied themselves, and even showed a great deal of understanding for their own lies.” xii
According to functional theories of language, contextual differences “such as the communicative purpose of a given genre” manifest themselves in the linguistic choices exploited by language producers (Lavid, Arús & Moratón, 2012, p.5). Therefore, it is expected that the communicative purposes, performed by academic introductions, of either introducing or promoting an academic work could be partly achieved through the utilization of various linguistic resources, of which the theme-rheme construct is just one example (Lotfipour-Saedi, 2015) . In systemic functional linguistics, theme is considered as one of the major systems in textual meta-function (Matthiessen & Halliday, 1997) and is defined by Halliday and Matthiessen (2004, p.64) as “the element which serves as the point of departure of the message; it is that which locates and orients the clause within its context”. They further argue that “the remainder of the message, the part in which the theme is developed is called in Prague school terminology the Rheme” (2004, p.64).
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The focus of analysis of this engagement is “discursive mapping” (Pennycook, n.d., p. 20). From my understanding, to map means to make sense of the seemingly incoherent realities. This leads me to refute Pennycook who is against the construction of coherence. My compro- mising stance is that while I may to some extent build up coherence of political confusion syndrome Discourse in a model, I agree with Pennycook who suggests that critical applied linguists need to be aware of their limits of knowing. Despite the limits, in order that CAL is more down-to-earth to EFL pedagogy in Indonesia, I propose a working model (the “discursive mapping”) with these purposes. First, it is to engage teachers and students with difference. That is, they need to acknowledge that language teaching and learning does not exist in social vacuum and hence different voices that contribute to confusion syndrome Discourses should be addressed. By so doing, it is hoped that both teachers and students learn to suspend judgment to politicians. Teachers and students may critique politicians’ language use but at least by being engaged with difference (e.g. putting oneself in someone’s shoes), they become more aware of the complexity politicians have to deal with, e.g. conflicts of interests, clashes of worldviews, and ignorance about a certain law that leads them to produce regulations that are not only against the law but make people confused.
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IRIS is a freely accessible online database that contains an extensive range of materials, instruments and stimuli used to collect language data (www.iris-database.org). It is an up- and downloadable multimedia repository, hosting a wide range of research tools used in L2 research. 'L2 research' is defined broadly, including foreign and second language learning and teaching, early and late bilingualism, and attrition. IRIS is designed to facilitate research in L2 applied linguistics, psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, sociolinguistics, teacher
Estamos, de esta manera, articulando al Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal con otras voces y con otras polifonías y horizontes investigativos. Confiamos en que nuestra meta de establecer diálogos transversales de conocimiento lingüístico aplicado e implicado estimule el debate y la reflexión en torno a la significación de investigar la Educación y desarrollo profesional de profesores de lenguas, Procesos de lectoescritura y nuevas literacidades en dos lenguas y Estudios del discurso en contextos educativos como escenarios cotidianos donde acontece todo lo social que es a su vez plural.
interactional perspectives of ethomethodology/CA and discursive psychology. It also aims to consider and critically evaluate the current state of qualitative interview use in applied linguistics. The intention is to provide a focus on important contributions that have already been made in applied linguistics and then look for evidence that those contributions have been having an impact in relevant research. The paper ends by suggesting a number of „parameters of sensitivity‟ that might provide a more reflective framework for qualitative researchers adopting interview methods; helping to move beyond „how to‟ prescriptions and general advice, in order to open out and report on what can be termed „discursive dilemmas‟ that arise in the process of carrying out, analyzing and reporting on qualitative interviews.
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Roshd is a local, peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by the Ministry of Education in Iran. It targets the English language teachers, students who major in teaching English, and all of those interested in teaching foreign languages. Its aim is to help local teachers share and benefit from each other’s experiences. This journal usually accepts RAs in German, English, and Persian. It predominantly publishes the M.A. thesis-driven RAs by novice Iranian researchers. The RAs are expected to be up-to-date in content, helpful to teachers of English, and bridge the gap between research findings and classroom activities. Besides article publication, the journal publishes interviews with famous local applied linguists, education/higher education authorities, as well as language teachers.
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