In 2008, the Department of Groundwater Resources initiated a project to solve the drought problem by the Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Method, including the design and construction of an ASR station. ASR re- lies on storing available or excess water in an aquifer as an artificial recharge to be recovered when needed. The artificial recharge test was performed previously in 1973 for mitigation of land subsidence in the Bangkok area. The main problems which occurred during the test were clogging and outbreaks of injected water ca 10 m away from the recharge well  .
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Abstract. Coastal aquifers and the deeper subsurface are in- creasingly exploited. The accompanying perforation of the subsurface for those purposes has increased the risk of short- circuiting of originally separated aquifers. This study shows how this short-circuiting negatively impacts the freshwater recovery efficiency (RE) during aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in coastal aquifers. ASR was applied in a shallow salt- water aquifer overlying a deeper, confined saltwater aquifer, which was targeted for seasonal aquifer thermal energy stor- age (ATES). Although both aquifers were considered prop- erly separated (i.e., a continuous clay layer prevented rapid groundwater flow between both aquifers), intrusion of deeper saltwater into the shallower aquifer quickly terminated the freshwater recovery. The presumable pathway was a nearby ATES borehole. This finding was supported by field mea- surements, hydrochemical analyses, and variable-density so- lute transport modeling (SEAWAT version 4; Langevin et al., 2007). The potentially rapid short-circuiting during stor- age and recovery can reduce the RE of ASR to null. When limited mixing with ambient groundwater is allowed, a lin- ear RE decrease by short-circuiting with increasing distance from the ASR well within the radius of the injected ASR bub- ble was observed. Interception of deep short-circuiting water can mitigate the observed RE decrease, although complete compensation of the RE decrease will generally be unattain- able. Brackish water upconing from the underlying aquitard towards the shallow recovery wells of the ASR system with multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW-ASR) was ob- served. This “leakage” may lead to a lower recovery effi- ciency than based on current ASR performance estimations.
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Water supply challenges exist throughout the world. As a result, in drought or water limited areas, the ability to store water for later use has value for sustainability of the local community. AWWA Manual M21  divides aquifer storage programs into four categories: Artificial Aquifer Creation, Aquifer Recharge, Aquifer Reclamation, and Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR). All of these approaches are used as part of the water supply industry to ensure that sustainable water resources are available for agricultural, environmental and urban uses. This paper focusses on the ASR portions only and utilizes the dataset developed in conjunction with AWWA Manual M-63 [2-4]. ASR is touted as a viable concept in the management of both potable and non-potable water supplies. Utilities pursue ASR programs to increase the efficiency of system operations to utilized unused water treatment plant capacity to treat water and pump it into an aquifer for later withdrawal for augmentation of water supplies at a later point of time to avoid the need to construct plants only for peak demands [2-4]. The injection applications include potable water, raw surface and
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Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a MAR technology where surface water is collected and injected directly into an underlying aquifer by way of an engineered system such as an injection well, as a means to raise groundwater levels, improve groundwater quality or create a storage area which can be used for later extraction and consumption (Bouwer, 2002; CSIRO, 2010). ASR has advantages over other MAR technologies because injection occurs directly into a suitable aquifer, allowing for low permeability areas or areas of poorer water quality to be avoided. Land requirements are also smaller than, for instance, a recharge ditch or basin (Maliva and Missimer, 2010). Figure 6 illustrates how an ASR operation works. Specifically for developing countries, the advantages of ASR are that it can fill in gaps in current water supply system availability, it can offset shortages in supply by creating storage capacity, it can ensure that high- quality surface water used for injection is stored safely where if left on the surface it could become impaired from natural disasters such as flooding because of lack of safe storage infrastructure, and the associated cost is often cheaper than alternatives (Almulla et al., 2005).
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Considering the above, we coupled a standard open source groundwater modeling software MODFLOW (USGS, 2008) with a free software genetic algorithm optimization tool GA- toolbox (Sastry, 2006) and a game theory analysis free software Gambit (McKelvey et al., 2007). We call this implementation as Natural Resources Optimal Management System: SMORN. It can resolve a multi-objective optimal control problem, with m constraints for groundwater flow. To illustrate the SMORN capabilities, we used real data from Duero’s river basin in Mi- choacan México. We aimed a three objective function problem: maximize the total water extraction, minimize the mean draw- down and minimize the mean drawdown velocity. The first objective function is clearly designed to obtain the maximum benefit from the aquifer, meanwhile the second and third seek to lower aquifer impacts and possible subsidence problems. SMORN optimization converges to four different types of op- timal solution: the first one corresponds to an extraction privi- leged type of solution; the second, privileges the aquifer con- servation and the two others offer an intermediate solution where extraction and conservation are in equilibrium.
smart grid demonstration project MeppelEnergie, which is funded by the Dutch program Switch2SmartGrids. For the project’s energy system, we develop a smart grid con- trol. The Meppel energy concept consists of a biogas combined heat and power engine (CHP), backup boilers, high temperature (HT) water storage, heat pumps, and aquifer underground thermal storage. The CHP generates electric and thermal energy. The thermal energy of the CHP is used for district heating, the electricity is used to supply heat pumps placed at houses with no connection to the district heating, or is sold through the external grid. Cooling energy for the houses is provided by an under- ground aquifer consisting of a warm and cold well. During the heating season, the warm well provides low temper- ature (LT) heat for the heat pumps. Cooling energy of the houses also provides part of the required regeneration energy to maintain temperature balance within the under- ground thermal storage. Another part of the regeneration is provided either by a dry cooler or an effluent stream from the municipal wastewater treatment plant (MTP).
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Part II of this Article explores the fundamentals of energy storage and its attendant uncertainty. This Part provides a flavor for the various energy storage technologies that make up this catchall term. It explains the multiple functions and value streams of energy storage that contribute to their complicated legal status. It then analyzes the fundamental uncertainty surrounding FERC’s treatment of bulk energy storage as a generation or a transmission asset and the resulting jurisdictional and cost recovery implications. Part III defends the proposition that not all uncertainty is created equal. For instance, some uncertainty is the result of coordination problems involving multiple actors, some uncertainty is the result of a single actor, some uncertainty surrounds whether an activity will be regulated at all, and some uncertainty surrounds how an activity will be regulated. It explores situations where uncertainty is particularly troublesome and those situations where the law has embraced uncertainty. It creates a new framework for evaluating and characterizing these different varieties of uncertainty along a spectrum, depending on three critical features: (1) the context, (2) the scope, and (3) the source of the uncertainty. Whereas high levels of uncertainty may justify avoiding the uncertainty, low levels of uncertainty associated with an activity are more deserving of efforts to resolve the uncertainty.
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31 Jian Song et al, Worked on thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system for marine diesel Engines. Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive.
The equivalent control system for the complete weak-grid supported by the ES is shown in Fig.13, whereas the complete electrical and control system used for the simulations is shown in Fig. 12. In the complete electrical system, the speed governor loop of the generator remains unchanged. However, the load torque is now provided by dividing the measured power in the electrical system by the speed of the generator. The measured voltage is input to a DSOGI-FLL for frequency detection, which in turn is input to the energy storage control system. The ES control system outputs the torque required, which is then converted to a controlled current source, which provides active power to recover the frequency at the PCC. As can be seen, the control representations of the DSOGI-FLL frequency detection, the ES system with power conversion and other non-linear electrical characteristics are included in the weak grid control model. This model allows us to examine the stability of the ES control system alongside the weak grid simulation model and gives the complete scenario needed to design the proportional gain K ES . Note that
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 Owen, E.W., 1975. Trek of the oil finders: a history of exploration for petroleum. AAPG Memoir 6, 1647 p.  Dashtgard, S.E., Buschkuehle, M.B.E., Fairgrieve, B., and Berhane, H., 2008. Geological characterization and potential for carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery in the Cardium Formation, central Pembina Field, Alberta. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, v. 56, n.2, pp.147-164.
The RRB, lying above the northern Ogallala Aquifer, is shared by Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas. The FCB, a sub- basin of RRB, lays above the Ogallala Formation, which is composed mainly of silt, sand, gravel, and clay-rock debris that have been washed off the face of the Rocky Mountains and other more local sources over the past several million years (Gutentag, 1984). Recharge to the High Plains aquifer is primarily fed by precipitation through infiltration. Natu- ral discharge from the High Plains aquifer goes to springs, seeps, and streams, as well as by evapotranspiration flux. However, the pumping for irrigated crops now becomes a sig- nificant discharge from the aquifer. The Ogallala Formation has the greatest saturated thickness, and the portion in FCB ranges from 200 to 300 ft. above the Permian bedrock (Miller et al., 1997). The aquifer underlying the FCB is conceptu- alized as a one-layer unconfined aquifer above a non-leaky bedrock in the groundwater model established by the Repub- lican River Compact Administration (RRCA). Groundwater- fed irrigation since the 1950s (shown in Fig. 1 as the pump- ing well numbers) in this region has reduced aquifer storage and caused stream depletion problems in the RRB as shown in Fig. 2. Groundwater storage in the High Plains aquifer in 2009 was about 2.9 billion acre-ft., showing a decline of about 274 million acre-ft. (or about 9 %) from predevelop- ment storage (McGuire, 2011). Szilagyi (2001) found the
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In level running, nearly symmetrical decreases and increases of the combined gravitational potential and kinetic (GPE+KE) energy of the CoM indicated equal possible elastic energy storage and recovery. However, asymmetrical fluctuations during hill running indicate reduced maximum possible elastic energy storage and return. We analyzed mechanical energy generation and dissipation during level and hill running by quantifying the anatomically estimated elastic energy storage (AEEE) in the arch and Achillesʼ tendon using peak ground reaction forces and anatomical characteristics. AEEE did not change with grade. At shallow downhill grades, the body must generate mechanical energy, though it dissipates more than it generates. At steeper downhill grades, little to no energy generation is required and only mechanical energy dissipation must occur. The downhill grade at which mechanical energy must no longer be generated occurs at approximately –9 deg, near the metabolically optimal running grade. At shallow uphill grades, mechanical energy must be generated to raise the CoM, and at steeper grades, additional energy must be generated to offset reduced elastic energy storage and return.
Abstract: This study evaluates the dosages of Class F ﬂy ash, lithium nitrate and their combinations to suppress the excessive expansion caused by alkali–silica reactivity (ASR). In order to serve the proposed objective, the mortar bar specimens were prepared from (1) four dosages of Class F ﬂy ash, such as 15, 20, 25 and 30 % as a partial replacement of Portland cement, (2) up to six dosages of lithium nitrate, such as lithium-to-alkali molar ratios of 0.59, 0.74, 0.89, 1.04, 1.19 and 1.33, and (3) the combination of lithium salt (lithium-to-alkali molar ratio of 0.74) and two dosages of Class F ﬂy ash (15 and 20 % as a partial replacement of Portland cement). Percent contribution to ASR-induced expansion due to the ﬂy ash or lithium content, test duration and their interaction was also evaluated. The results showed that the ASR-induced expansion decreased with an increase in the admixtures in the mortar bar. However, the specimens made with the both Class F ﬂy ash and lithium salt produced more effective mitigation approach when compared to those prepared with ﬂy ash or lithium salt alone. The ASR-induced expansions of ﬂy ash or lithium bearing mortar bars by the proposed models generated a good correlation with those obtained by the experi- mental procedures.
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The objective of the device is to utilize this wastage heat energy. For this purpose a thermal storage device named as hot case has been employed to recover the wastage heat. As a necessary modification, the condenser tube located at the back side of normal refrigerator has been removed and relocated in the hot case being wrapped around it. In this way a new path to refrigerant flow from compressor to expansion device via tube of the hot case, is given .While passing through this tube of hot case refrigerant looses heat and increases the temperature of hot case. The temperature achieved by the hot case is about 56°C.
777 | P a g e We study the issue of remotely checking the integrity of regenerating-coded data against corruptions under a real-life cloud storage setting.We design and execute a practical data integrity protection (DIP) scheme for a specific regenerating code, while conserving its intrinsic properties of fault tolerance and repair-traffic is saving. Our DIP scheme is depicted under a mobile Byzantine adversarial model, and authorize a client to feasibly verify the integrity of random subsets of outsourced data against general or malicious corruptions.It is desirable to enable clients to verify the integrity of their data in the cloud. We depict and execute a DIP scheme for the FMSR codes under a multiserver setting. We establish FMSR-DIP codes, which preserve the fault tolerance and repair traffic saving properties of FMSR codes.
Interestingly, although we hypothesized that the “lex” feature sets would present an upper bound on the performance of the “asr” sets, because the hu- man transcription is more accurate than the speech recognizer, we see that this is not consistently the case. In fact, in the “-id” sets, “asr” always signifi- cantly outperforms “lex”. A comparison of the de- cision trees produced in either case, however, does not reveal why this is the case; words chosen as pre- dictors are not very intuitive in either case (e.g., for NnN, an example path through the learned “lex” de- cision tree says predict negative if the utterance con- tains the word will but does not contain the word decrease). Understanding this result is an area for future research. Within the “+id” sets, we see that “lex” and “asr” perform the same in the NnN and NPN classifications; in EnE “lex+id” significantly outperforms “asr+id”. The utility of the “lex” fea- tures compared to “asr” also increases when com- bined with the “sp” features (with and without iden- tifiers), for both NnN and NPN.
Carter et al. (1963), published maps and description of the geology of parts of Northeastern Nigeria which includes the Adamawa, Bauchi, and Borno province. This forms the basis for further groundwater studies around the area. Subsequently, Du Preeze and Barber (1965) and Kiser (1968) gave some details on the chemical quality of groundwater of the old Northern Nigeria which includes the study area. This paper tends to provide the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer in the area such as the aquifer units and their parameters, hydraulic head distribution, recharge and discharge areas.
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An air tank is used as a storage component, working jointly with the RVM. Each type of tank has its threshold of safety pressure. Thus, for a given volume and safety pressure, and a specified constant temperature, the maxi- mum energy in a tank is determined. In this sense, the characteristics of compressed air storage are analogous to battery storage, where capacity can be expanded by simply parallelizing component units to constitute bulk sto- rage.
Now a days the engineers are in deep research of recycling and reusing the wasted energy to contribute the energy need of society. Many forums and energy management groups have been formed to emphasize the storage of energy in both industrial and domestic sectors, in any possible form. The storage of energy in suitable forms, which can conventionally be converted into the required form, is a present day challenge to the technologists.
Renewable thermal energy is usually available when the energy demand is low. This mismatch can be balanced by seasonal storage of energy in Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems. The most common technologies are aquifer storage (ATES), borehole storage (BTES) and rock cavern storage (CTES) hot water thermal energy storage system(HWTES), gravel water thermal energy system(GWTES). It is not possible, for geological or geo-hydrological reasons, to construct all these systems at any location but one of them can in most cases be realized .