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Tales of Transgression or Clashing Paradigms: The Danish Cartoon Controversy and Arab Media

Tales of Transgression or Clashing Paradigms: The Danish Cartoon Controversy and Arab Media

Al Arabiya, on the other hand, presents an official frame with less homogeneity, highlighting disgreements and dissonance among members of the Muslim establishment. Al Arabiya’s “official” frame remains more careful in presenting the fractious nature of the Muslim position. Divergences and disenchanted views are more markedly focused on religious leaders’ opinions and fatwas (edicts) concerning the carticatured portrayal of the prophet. The research detects a tension between two strands of opinions and reactions, one that is peaceful in seeking to portray outrage and demand an apology without pushing their cards to extremist reaches. The other strand reflects a more militant position whose proclivities might potentially channel the outrage into violence as indicated in the death fatwa by a Kuwaiti preacher. Additionally, al Arabiya also contextualized and provided ample space for Danish official viewpoints. That is why it is only fair to assess al Arabiya’s immediate coverage as having sucessfully problematized the “official” frame. Framing “mechanisms” do not in any way exclude the existence of multiple frames (Tankard et al. 1992), making it further plausible for overlapping frames to coexist. Arab media’s immediate coverage of the cartoon controversy exhibited analogous strategies of multiplying its frames. It is inescapable to observe similar supplementary frames in the coverage of both al Jazeera and al Arabiya, supplementary frames that are largely content based. Through explicit referencing and terminology, both news outlets provided ample grounds for an “economic” frame, a “freedom of expression” frame, as well as the traditional “conflict” frame germane to news coverage. Very few stories used a “clash of civilizations” frame, but mostly in refutation of the “clash” thesis (as discussed below; also, see Table II). These supplementary frames largely function as bulworks for the “official” frame explicated above. Further, the interplay among all frames, as in the case of the official Danish response to the predicament posed by the cartoon
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Terrorist or Freedom Fighter?
The Arab Media Coverage of “Terrorism” or “So-Called Terrorism”

Terrorist or Freedom Fighter? The Arab Media Coverage of “Terrorism” or “So-Called Terrorism”

There is a more apparent monolithic approach in the Arab media coverage of Al- Qaeda acts. After the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, most elite Arab media outlets either printed or broadcast a fatwah by six prominent Islamic scholars condemning the terrorist attacks as contrary to Islam and calling for the apprehension and punishment of the perpetrators. However, in their reference to Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks that take place outside the Arab/Islamic world (e.g. the Madrid attacks on March 11, 2004), the Arab print and broadcast media do not use loaded terms like “terrorist.” They refer to terrorist acts committed by Al-Qaeda as either “so-called terrorism” or “what an official called terrorism.”
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Islam Nationalism and the mission of Arab journalism A survey of attitudes towards religion politics and the role of Arab media in the twenty-first century

Islam Nationalism and the mission of Arab journalism A survey of attitudes towards religion politics and the role of Arab media in the twenty-first century

"victory over censorship. "957 The growing number of online reporters and bloggers imprisoned across the Arab world958 is evidence that the comment might be s[r]

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MODERNIZATION AND MEDIA IN THE ARAB WORLD

MODERNIZATION AND MEDIA IN THE ARAB WORLD

These reports are not surprising, given the fact that in spite of internecine warfare among the Arab nations for centuries, the various countries have shown themselves able to come together in the face of a common enemy, usually the United States and/or Israel. And different phraseology and sourcing do not in themselves imply any negative moral value judgment against Arab media or news consumers. Any nation’s focus is logically going to be slanted toward the home team. But when the same critique is leveled against American media, that of one-sided coverage, the comparison breaks down. Though a small contingent of political radicals might disagree, the coverage of Iraq by American media has been a major source of controversy in the States. Instead of toeing the party line as media have done in the past during warfare, American channels such as CNN - along with the three big networks, some would argue – gave the anti-war movement in the country healthy doses of attention before the war, and have continually battered the current presidential administration for its every move in the conflict.
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Arab Revolutions and the Social Media Effect

Arab Revolutions and the Social Media Effect

The Arab world witnessed an influx of satellite channels during the 1990s and in the early years of the first decade of the new century. Many analysts in the Arab world applauded this influx as a potential tool for political change in the Arab countries. Two stations were at the heart of the new optimism: Al-Jazeera and Al Arabiya, the two most prominent 24-hour news channels in the region. Al- Jazeera proved to be more controversial because in its early years of broadcasting it managed to break taboos in the Arab media by tackling issues of human rights and hosting Arab dissidents. Also, its coverage of international conflicts (primarily Afghanistan and Iraq) has marked it as a counter-hegemonic news outlet. For the first time, the flow of news went from South to North. Some scholars who study Arab satellite media, and Al-Jazeera specifically, have gone so far as to suggest that it has created a new Arab public sphere (Lynch, Miladi). However, the political developments in the Arab world, mainly the recent revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt and what is now happening in Bahrain, Libya, and Yemen, have raised questions as to how credible these suggestions are. And are we going to claim the same powers for social media in the Arab world? This article takes the form of a personal reflection on how successful (or not) Arab satellite channels are proving to be as a tool for political change and reform in the Arab world. Are these channels editorially free from Arab governments’ political and economic interests? And could new media (notably social networking sites) achieve what satellite channels have been unable to over the last two decades?
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Mirror on the Wall: Who is the Best Communicator of Them All - Al Jazeera or Al Hurra?

Mirror on the Wall: Who is the Best Communicator of Them All - Al Jazeera or Al Hurra?

Although Al Hurra’s marketing communication is an exception to the rule, it is very much in line with its intended mission, or rather multi missions. Some of tasks are educating the Arabs about democratic values and correct what it considers as a distorted image of US in the Arab world, which the US administration blames on the Arab media. The effectiveness of Al Hurra’s blunt approach in stating its intentions, in terms of impressing its prospective Arab audiences, would need to be evaluated against how apprehensive the Arab general public is towards US policies and intentions in the Arab world.
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Determinants of Youth Engagement with Health Information on Social Media Platforms in United Arab Emirates

Determinants of Youth Engagement with Health Information on Social Media Platforms in United Arab Emirates

Messages, notifications, and alerts sent through social networks must be rele- vant, timely, and well-written to be effective. Design guidelines for posts from healthcare practitioners and healthcare organizations should pay particular at- tention to: message content; message frequency and timing; voice and tone; en- gaging followers and facilitating discussion; profile information and design; building a following and promoting a social network presence. The process of engaging users to co-create content, to rate, rank and comment on communica- tions, is increasingly perceived to give a heightened authenticity to health mes- sages, improving trust in, and building users’ relationships with, organizations [6]. Health literacy is an important precondition for seeking, accessing and uti- lizing health information on the internet. Assuring high quality health literacy for adolescents is important in the United Arab Emirates to facilitate govern- ment’s Vision 2021 objectives of superior health and intellectual attainment of young people, as well as to reduce very high prevalence of obesity and other be- havioral and dietary risk factors for health. Most studies of health literacy among UAE’s young people indicate a low percentage of highly health literacy, hig- hlighting the need to improve health literacy training, especially among Emirati males [7].
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The European Community and the Arab World. Information [Cooperation-Development] 169/78

The European Community and the Arab World. Information [Cooperation-Development] 169/78

Among the most important of these are the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development,theArabFund for Assistance to Arab and African Countries, the Arab Monetary Fund, the Arab Organiz[r]

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Social Media as a Tool for Political Resistance: Lessons from the Arab Spring and the Nigerian Protests

Social Media as a Tool for Political Resistance: Lessons from the Arab Spring and the Nigerian Protests

The popular revolutions that swept across North Africa and the Middle East (NAME) countries, popularly called the “Arab Spring”, removed several sit-tight regimes and threatened to remove some others. Until those revolutions, nobody in the region had the audacity to question the actions of the governments. The mass media in the region had no freedom of operation and could not be used to express opinions or ideas that contradicted government wish or stand. However, the self-immolation of Tarek al-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi on 17 December, 2010 in Tunisia and his subsequent death led to an unstoppable torrent of protests across the region. The social media became the tool of communication, organization and coordination during the protests. The social media thus provided the protesters with an alternative voice of expression, which they used to mobilize and organize the protests. This study therefore, examined the role of the social media in the the Arab Spring. The study which is theoretical concludes that the use of the social media was very effective in success of the revolution.The study showed that without the social media, the revolution might not have been successful or might not have taken place at all. The study thus recommends that people should continue to use the social media to protest against oppressive regimes and all forms of oppression.
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The July 2006 War and the Lebanese blogsphere: towards an alternative media tool in covering wars

The July 2006 War and the Lebanese blogsphere: towards an alternative media tool in covering wars

This was also what Hanady Salman, editor at the Lebanese Arabic daily Assafir, tried to do through her e-mails that found their way into a special blog called ‘Beirut Journal’, a blog set to accommodate her daily English messages from Beirut. Salman knew that the worst images of the war would not reach many outside the Arab world.

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From masterchef to the Arab Spring via Wikileaks: social media and political change

From masterchef to the Arab Spring via Wikileaks: social media and political change

After the 2007 Australian Federal Election, the activist group GetUp! was credited with boosting the Labor Party bid for office with an issues-driven organization of online lobby groups into grass roots street activities (Huijser & Little, 2008). The networking positives of social media were subsequently held up by some as indicators of a trend towards genuine participatory democracy, since the engagement included net surfers who were compelled to click „yes‟ to giving cash to fund GetUp!‟s television commercials. No matter that they could donate anonymously and standing, in the ersatz way of the lounge or office chair, shoulder to shoulder with those sharing the same concerns, without having to actually touch them. Participatory democracy had won its apparent victory through social media, but that was before Australians had to fill out another ballot paper less than two years later in yet another Federal Election. This poll was borne out of the ruling Labor party‟s caucus room move to oust Prime Minister Kevin Rudd during his first term of office and replace him with a
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Exploring strategic leadership's role in managing social media crisis inside the United Arab Emirates

Exploring strategic leadership's role in managing social media crisis inside the United Arab Emirates

The world is witnessing a post-modernism and post-industrial era which created a universal digital society that produced what is known now by "Digital Human" and “Internet human” who asks himself "what will happen next?" instead of the traditional question "what will we do?"(Khory, 2005). The communication abundance became a torrent within the society and no one can neglect it with its huge amount of information, thoughts and emotions. This abundance created a great burden on human in many fields as he finds himself in many confusing and perplexing situations which may in turn drive many people for; isolation, neglecting reality, being more aware of reality, being angry, etc… which means that influences are dissimilar or even conflicting. These dissimilar influences usually characterized by; emotional inertia, invulnerable to criticism, lack of responding to advices and directing, lack of verbal communication, etc… which prompted psychiatrists to call this situation as “Alienation” or “Inwardness”. Some psychiatrists consider that enormous communication flow an enrichment for the human thoughts, while others see it as mental violation, psychological pressure, and ideological disorder(Hity, 2003).Anyway, social impacts of social media became clear in many fields, as many researchers tend to describe bloggers and social media users as “historians of thisera”(Eisha, 2009). In light of the above, traditional social relationships between individual have been weakened and retreated in favor of virtual relations by skipping geographical, economical, and lingual communication barriers. Social media has created a live and interactive virtual society which is often similar in its features with the real society enabling continuous communication without any material barriers
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The Politicization of Arab Gulf Media Outlets in the Gulf Crisis: A Content Analysis

The Politicization of Arab Gulf Media Outlets in the Gulf Crisis: A Content Analysis

Al-Arabiya and Sky News Arabia’s coverage of terrorism regarding Qatar is reflected by the countries’, Saudi and UAE, official stances on the issue: Qatar is the main supporter of terrorist groups that threaten global security. A July 4, 2017 article published on Sky News Arabia titled “Qatar Abandoning the Heads of Terrorism… Is at the Top of Arab Demands” [22] reports that “turning over designated terrorists that Qatar has sheltered for years and ceasing to fund terrorists is the top demand” of the Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt. The article states that four countries issued a list of wanted terrorists that pose a danger on the peace and stability of the four countries, the region, and the world. The articles imply that the list of terrorists wanted in Qatar by the four countries reflects the Qatari “dual policy of the declaring to fight terrorism on the one hand, and financing, supporting and harboring various terrorist organizations on the other.” A report broadcast on Al-Arabiya September 4, 2017 titled “Protesters in Barcelona Denounce Qatari Funding of Terrorism” [23] alleges that a group named ‘Spaniards Against Terrorism’ held a protest featuring people of various European nationalities at the site of the August 17, 2017 terrorist attack in Las Ramblas in Barcelona, that was committed by an “extremist imam linked to Qatar,” according to the report. The report goes on to say protestors denounced the role of Qatar and its Emir in spreading terrorist attacks in Spain and Europe. The reporting from Al-Arabiya and Sky News Arabia, as the samples suggest, frames Qatar as the core funder of terrorist groups and their activities.
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Impact of social media in arab spring: special emphasis on tunisia’s uprising

Impact of social media in arab spring: special emphasis on tunisia’s uprising

According to the wiki leaks founder about face book “ Julian Assange called Facebook "more great spy tool in the history", which is already confirmed in an exclusive interview with RT.com many years ago, Google and Yahoo are also used for the spying purposes . The role of face book cannot be forgotten able in Arab revolution as the people share their views and do future planning(Mainwaring, 2011). In Tunisia, Facebook is more than a social platform, it is also political. Facebook was a key tool in coordinating the social action that led to the fall of the Ben Ali regime. It still serves as a platform for organizing and gathering people to “go to the streets,” and in many ways it represents Tunisians strong desire for free sharing of information and connection with the outside world. The journalists clearly valued that ability to leverage Facebook as a tool for sharing their own stories. As Facebook is so widely used in Tunisia, there was much commentary throughout the Needfinding engagement about the importance of it in journalists’ daily lives. As one journalist said, “Sometimes Facebook can decide your future”. The role of face book and twitter are important because it helps to link of activists and opinion about leaders for ordinary citizens and to spread the rapid expansion of the network of people to take action. As Stowe Boyd writes” The Egypt learns from the Tunisia citizens of other.
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Being Young in Arab Detroit: Media and Identity in Post 9/11 America

Being Young in Arab Detroit: Media and Identity in Post 9/11 America

Spliced between Bradley and Bell’s conversation is a conversation between Bradley and Ishmael Ahmed, the co-founder of then Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS). Ahmed is asked by Bradley to speak to the charges of two men who received educational funding from ACCESS and were later arrested by the FBI. Ahmed defends the work of ACCESS by stating, “We pay tuition for thousands of people. If they misuse what they’ve learned, then we can’t be held to blame for that. We’ve cooperated with the authorities. We want to see the people who are guilty get taken care of.” Bradley questions him, “Knowing what you know now, have you changed your procedures? Are you doing anything different?” Again, Ahmed responds with assurance of ACCESS’s credibility and points out how false documentation is a problem not only for their organization: “We’re checking documentation more closely. Because the one thing that slipped past not only us, but everybody else, was that the documentation was fake documentation.” After this short exchange between Bradley and Ahmed, the segment switches back to Bell and Bradley’s conversation and intersperses it with footage showing men inside of a mosque. Bell states, “There are people who will come into the country, they will go to the mosques and they’ll solicit money for various charities overseas.” Bradley presses him to elaborate, “But you haven’t seen people who you think are here to carry out terrorist acts…” Bell responds, “I don’t believe I could comment on that.” After a few more exchanges between Bradley and Bell, the segment comes to a close by featuring closing
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THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR PHARMACISTS’ PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES IN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR PHARMACISTS’ PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES IN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

The internet has become an ideal source to discover health information for health-care providers and patients. Worldwide, about 4.5% of all internet searches are health-related. Pharmacists have been using the internet skillfully for years to access reliable health information resources such as government-sponsored (e.g., PubMed), organization- specific (e.g., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), or commercial (e.g., Medscape, RxList) resources. Social media have also been used in pharmacy to advertise products and services to consumers through websites. An example of services provided through the internet includes “Ask-the-pharmacist” service that allows consumers to send questions about their medicine to a pharmacist through e-mail [6,7].
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The development of trade between the European Community and the Arab League countries. Europe Information: Development, 1980. X/294/80

The development of trade between the European Community and the Arab League countries. Europe Information: Development, 1980. X/294/80

Value and source by major regions of EC imports from the Arab League Major Arab League suppliers of the EC Composition of EC imports from the Arab League Importance of the Arab League to[r]

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Opening Closed Regimes: What was the Role of Social Media during the Arab Spring?

Opening Closed Regimes: What was the Role of Social Media during the Arab Spring?

Between November 2010 and May 2011, the amount of content produced online by major Egyptian political actors increased significantly as they reacted to events on the street and adjusted strategy to compete for the affinities of newly freed Egyptian voters. Some observers have been skeptical of social media’’s relevance to the evolution of political conversations in Egypt. But we find that in Egypt, Facebook and Western news media are central to online political discourse. We mapped the digital space in Egypt twice, once in November 2010 and a second time in May 2011. What we found was that Egypt’’s major political actors often linked to social networking and news services. In fact, major Egyptian
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Growth Pattern of Social Media Usage in Arab Gulf States: An Analytical Study

Growth Pattern of Social Media Usage in Arab Gulf States: An Analytical Study

Bahrain, being the 6 th highly populated country of the Arab Gulf States, rank 2 nd in the number of internet users. The data analysis revealed that Facebook has maintained the top spot for all the three years, but shown a consi- derable decrease in its market share from a whopping 82.94% in 2011 to 58.57% in 2012 and 54.3% in 2013. Twitter, the 2 nd most used SNS in Bahrain with a 10.25% market share in 2011, has witnessed a considerable market growth similar to other Arab countries and reached to 26.26% in 2012 and 37.81% in 2013. YouTube gained some market in 2012 (9.67%) from a poor 2.53% in 2011 and moved to 3 rd position but declined again in 2013 (2.44%). StumbleUpon dipped from 3 rd position in 2011 to 4 th position in 2012 and 2013. Social Networking Sites such as Pinterest, reddit and Tumblr have a negligible market share in Bahrain as depicted clearly in Figure 6.
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Breaking the language barrier? Comparing TV news frames across texts in different languages

Breaking the language barrier? Comparing TV news frames across texts in different languages

government required the BBC take over the funding of the channel. This means that, during the time of the 2011 Arab uprisings BBC Arabic was funded by the Foreign Office, a government entity, thus heightening the impact of its political context. BBC Arabic’s coverage of the Arab uprisings was generally much tamer and less emotive than that of most Arab news channels/networks, in particular Al Jazeera Arabic’s (Al Nahed, 2014; 2015). This was due in large part to the ethos and professional environment of the BBC itself. An example would be the BBC’s Middle East Glossaries, that detail nomenclature associated with covering conflict in the Middle East (Barkho, 2008: 126-127). The BBC’s Middle East Glossaries, titled Guide to Facts and Terminology on Israel and the Palestinians: Key Terms, instructs news workers at channels across the BBC to cover the Israeli Palestinian conflict in a particular manner and to avoid loaded terms such as martyrs to describe Palestinian casualties.
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