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The Effect of Addition of Dextrin and Arabic Gum to The Quality of Crude Albumin Fish Cork (Ophiocephalus striatus)

The Effect of Addition of Dextrin and Arabic Gum to The Quality of Crude Albumin Fish Cork (Ophiocephalus striatus)

can be done by foam drying (foam-mat drying) which was previously used as foam first by adding foaming agents (Zubaedah, 2003). This drying temperature is relatively low so that the color, aroma and nutritional components of the product can be maintained. To reduce albumin damage due to hot temperatures, fillers can be added to function as binding agent binders or binders. Dextrin and gum arabic can be applied as a protein binder (Chamidah and Hakim, 2013). Dextrin has a function to protect sensitive food components, reduce nutrient loss, add liquid components to solid forms that are easier to handle than other fillers (Latifah and Apriliawan, 2007). In addition to decorating, the commonly used material is arabic gum which is an effective emulsifier because of its ability to protect colloids and is often used in the food industry (Meliala et al., 2014).
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Encapsulation of Peppermint Oil with Arabic Gum-gelatin by Complex Coacervation Method

Encapsulation of Peppermint Oil with Arabic Gum-gelatin by Complex Coacervation Method

2. 3. Preparation of Microcapsules Arabic gum and gelatin solution were prepared with known concentrations. To prepare gelatin solution, 50 °C water bath was used to facilitate dissolution of the gelatin. After preparing the solution, menthol, which was melted at 50 °C was added to gelatin solution. After that gum arabic and Tween 80 soloution, with a 1:1 mass ratio of gelatin to gum arabic was added to mixture. Then, in a 40 °C water bath, the pH of mixture was adjusted to 4 by adding acetic acid 10%. Then the mixture was putted in ice bath until the temperature reached 4 °C. Tannic acid was added to the mixture and put on stirrer to reach ambient temperature. Coacervate liquid deposited at the bottom of the container was washed with distilled water and dried using a freeze dryer.
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Arabic Gum: a source of income for vulnerable rural households

Arabic Gum: a source of income for vulnerable rural households

A BSTRACT : In Sub-saharan Africa, many rural communities live from the exploitation of natural forest resources including non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Arabic gum figures prominently among non-timber forest products that generate significant income for rural households, especially the poor and vulnerable households (agro-pastoralists and pastoralists). Therefore, it is important to evaluate the contribution of arabic gum to food security of rural households. It is in this context that this study is conducted, whose objectives are to: identify the stands demographic structures; characterize the production methods (traditional or modern) of the gum; estimate the quantity of gum production and estimate its contribution in the household income. Dendrometric measures are made in 62 plots on three gum trees stands and semi- structured individual interview was conducted in the three gum production areas of Niger. The results showed that demographic structure of population of A. senegal is stably at Kokoyé (western basin), degraded at Bader goula (central basin) and declining at Dogona (western basin). These structures translate the aging of A.senegal populations in which there is practically no regeneration, and hence the decrease the gum production. Moreover, the survey found an estimated annual production of 139.960 tons of arabic gum value at near 119 million CFA francs. 94.9% of this production is obtained through the picking natural exsudates of which 92.40% are sold on the local market. The value added generated by the activity is estimated at about 107.6 million CFA francs, with average revenue per operator varying from 35000 to 40000 CFA per production area. 77.90% of this income is used for the purchase of foodstuffs for the households. These results show that the sale of arabic gum strongly contributes to the food security of vulnerable households. Thus, the results of this study could be used as the basis for the justification of the renewal of A. senegal stands in order to contribute to strengthening the resilience of poor rural households.
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Permeability and tensile strength of concrete with Arabic gum biopolymer

Permeability and tensile strength of concrete with Arabic gum biopolymer

2.1.2. AGB. Arabic Gum Biopolymer consists predominantly of volatile matter and a varying percentage of ash and is rich in metallic elements such as aluminum, iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium [1]. The physicochemical properties of AGB depend on the type and origin of the tree, exudation time, storage type, and climate. AGB is highly soluble in water and is characterized by a low viscosity compared to other gums. Finally, AGB can be dissolved in distilled water in concentrations beyond 50% [2]. Alkalinity of AGB is confirmed by a measured pH of 8 for the AGB utilized in the present study using 781 pH/Ion Meter-Metrohm at a room temperature of 20.6 ∘ C.
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Effect of Arabic Gum as Prebiotics and Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) as Probiotic on Oxidative Stress and Renal Function in Adenine–Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

Effect of Arabic Gum as Prebiotics and Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) as Probiotic on Oxidative Stress and Renal Function in Adenine–Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

It has been demonstrated that chronic renal failure (CRF) patients consuming low protein diet (LPD) supplemented with 50 g GA/d had greater fecal bacterial masses, greater fecal nitrogen excretion, and lower serum urea nitrogen than those consumed the LPD alone or supplemented with 1 g pectin/d. Because elevated concentrations of serum urea nitrogen have been associated with adverse clinical symptoms of CRF, the results suggest that Arabic gum may be a useful adjunct to an LPD for increasing excretion of nitrogenous wastes in feces [43]. Another study by Ali et al. [44] on rat models of acute renal failure showed that GA might also improve renal function independently of its action on fecal bacterial ammonia metabolism, but its effect is attributed to a decrease in the generation of free oxygen radicals.
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Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Abstract: The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative- stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues.
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Nanoencapsulating of Kaffir Lime Oil with Coacervation Method using Arabic Gum and Maltodextrin as Encapsulant

Nanoencapsulating of Kaffir Lime Oil with Coacervation Method using Arabic Gum and Maltodextrin as Encapsulant

Kaffir lime oil is an essential oil from cirtus hystrix leaves. that product is generally volatile when exposed by air, kaffir lime oil covering is used, made with the nanocapsule. The technique used is coacervation method. This experiment aims to identity the ratio of arabic gum and kaffir lime oil, and also by maintaining the optimal crosslinking time. Nanoencapsule making process starts with mixing arabic gum into the kaffir lime oil on various mixing ratio. The coacervation process is done by dropping encapsulant mix and kaffir lime oil with various concentration into glutaraldehyde. After the coacervation, next is the process of adding maltodextrin into the mix with homogenization process and lastly is spray drying emulsion. Analysis is done by observing the result of encapsulation efficiency, particle distribution, and morphology profile using Scanning Electron Microscope. The result shows that the best nanoencapsulation efficiency is between 70.71% - 80.75%. The optimum condition for the highest value of total essential oils content in on 1:3 ratio (b/v) and the optimal time of crosslinking is 13 minutes. The nanocapsules had spherical shape with dips in the surface with average size of nanocapsules of 457.87 nm.
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Determination of the Effect of Gum Arabic on Body Weight and Some Biochemical Parameters on Albino Wistar Rat

Determination of the Effect of Gum Arabic on Body Weight and Some Biochemical Parameters on Albino Wistar Rat

This experiment studied the effect of different concentration of Gum Arabic as a supplementary diet and its effect on lipid profile, glucose level and some enzyme activity on Albino rats. Sixteen Albino rats of nine (9) weeks of age were divided into four (4) groups; each group had four (4) rats. Three (3) groups were feed with oral dose of Gum Arabic at different concentrations (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg) for two (2) week and the other was used as the control. The study revealed that in serum, there was a significance at p<0.05. The significant decrease was represented in percentages for different concentration respectively as follows: Total cholesterol (7.47%, 16.16%, 35.95%), triglyceride (4.95%, 7.69%, 15.93%), High Density Lipid (HDL) (60%, 22.85%, 14.28%) as well as Low density lipid (LDL) (0%, 22.70%, 27.56%) when compared with the control, it also showed a significant result at p <0.05 for glucose level of normal rats and a reduction in body weight of the albino rats when the final body weight was compared with the initial due to the high fiber content of Gum Arabic. Gum Arabic as supplement in the diet should be done because it is rich in highly soluble fiber.
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Study on Sudan’s gum arabic industry development

Study on Sudan’s gum arabic industry development

Sudan is the largest producer of Arabic gum in the world, and Arabic gum is one of the four most important agricultural exports in Sudan as well as livestock, cotton and sesame. Gum Arabic was at the top of Sudan's exports before losing ground to cotton and oilseeds. Sudan was supporting 80% of the world demand for Gum Arabic. However, fluctuations in production, export and degradation of crop quality were the result of 1970s and 1980s, as well as political instability and weak marketing structure. These reasons have mergence of new gum Arabic producing During the past 20 years, Arabic gum exports have reached about 40 million US dollars. The government had previously intervened in the marketing of tuation changed for most of these crops, but Gum is still under government control through Gum. Gum Arabic is produced by small producers in traditional rained areas, where about 20 percent of Sudan's population is a member of the community. The current gum Arabic marketing policy was not feasible for this group of population, leading to a decline in production and therefore exports that have been declining in the last forty years by 2.2%
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Rheological Properties of Five Plant Gums

Rheological Properties of Five Plant Gums

and enhance the emulsion stability. The properties using in food have a high dependence on their chemical structure which could be assessed by rheological properties [6]. Some researchers have studied the rheological properties of some plant gums like arabic gum [7] and gum tragacanth [8]. However, there is also no research about the reasons that contribute to these different rheological properties among different plant gum. These studies also lack the systematic re- search of rheological properties of plant gums such as frequency sweep and the factors influencing its rheological properties. Thus, the rheological properties of five plant gums were studied. According to market share, we selected five plant gums (karaya gum, ghatti gum, shiraz gum, arabic gum and gum tragacanth) to explore the common and specific characteristics between five plant gums. This work is also to make a guidance for these five plant gums (karaya gum, ghatti gum, shiraz gum, arabic gum and gum tragacanth) practical application in food processing and application.
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Doping Of Some Organic Materials (Talha & Hashab)

Doping Of Some Organic Materials (Talha & Hashab)

materials for two type of Arabic Gum(Talha and Hashab ) with different in concentration and doping rate. The samples were heated first then pressed to act as p-type sheet. The energy gap at Talha was 3 eV as maximum when doping rate was 0.8% and concentration was 0.8mg/L while Hashab the maximum energy gap was 2.199700 eV when the doping rate was 0.2% and concentration was 0.2 mg/L. These new materials for doping semiconductor Arabic Gum shows many interesting properties. Talha Gum get regular increasing of energy gap related to increase in concentration and doping rate. While the Hashab get the random increasing of Energy gap related to decrease in concentration and doping rate ; It was observed that the different concentration of the samples confirmed the reason for the band gap shifts in addition to active Aluminum properties that increased energy gap.
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EFFECT OF EDIBLE GUM COATING, GLYCERIN AND CALCIUM LACTATE APPLICATION ON THE POST-HARVEST QUALITY OF GUAVA FRUIT

EFFECT OF EDIBLE GUM COATING, GLYCERIN AND CALCIUM LACTATE APPLICATION ON THE POST-HARVEST QUALITY OF GUAVA FRUIT

Guava is one of the commercially important fruit in more than 50 countries. Guava fruit is a rich source of dietary fibers, different vitamins and some important minerals (P, K, Ca and Fe). Dietary fiber and Ca are helpful in cordial problems, while vitamin C and Fe reduce anemia [10]. Moreover, guava is used in a wide range of food products like juice concentrates, paste, puree, squash, jams, jellies and candies. Guava fruit has a rapid softening rate due to its climacteric nature and higher metabolic activities which reduces in storage life [11]. It is the immense need of time to develop efficient strategies to overcome consumer demand and enhance quality of fruits during the entire storage duration to improve the storage life. Currently there are a variety of techniques to improve postharvest storage life of guava fruit [9]. Edible coating is one of the practical strategies for increasing storage life of the guava. Edible coating has got attention of the scientists due to its beneficial effects on general appearance, senescence and biofilms [20]. Calcium salts are extensively used for maintaining postharvest fruit quality. Applications of these salts reduce firmness by minimizing respiration rate and delaying fruit ripening and senescence [5]. Additionally, calcium based salts enhance structure of cell wall by creating bond between calcium and pectin [1]; [11]. Calcium has been extensively used in the fruits and vegetables sector for whole and fresh-cut commodities as preservative and firming agent [7]. Calcium ions ensure higher cohesion of the cell wall and thus decrease the senescence and ripening of fruits [12]. The utilization of Arabic gum as post-harvest covering of natural products decreases rate of water loss. Recently [2]
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Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

- hal wall (Numpaque et al., 2011). Additionally, thymol is hydrophobic, facilitating it to intermingle with the cell membrane of fungus cells, altering cell membrane perme- ability by letting the loss of macromolecules (Segvic et al., 2007). Oil of thyme, the essential oil of common thyme (T. vulgaris L.), contains 20 to 54% thymol. The essential oil obtained from thyme is also a rich source of p-cymene, borneol and linalool. Thyme oil was found to inhibit the growth of C. gloeosporiodes invitro or invivo in avocado cultivars Hass and Fuerte (Sellamuthu et al., 2013). The addition of thyme oil in the vapour phase in the modified atmosphere was found to enhance the activities of defen- ce enzymes such as chitinase, peroxidase, PAL and 1,3-ß glucanase, as well as antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase (Sellamuthu et al., 2013). The objective of this work was to study the impact of the com- posite edible coating of gum arabic and thyme essential oil in extending the shelf life of green chillies stored at room temperature.
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The Effect of Gum Arabic on Energy Balance Genes in Mouse Liver

The Effect of Gum Arabic on Energy Balance Genes in Mouse Liver

Arabic groups each with 10 mice. Gum Arabic mice group received 0.5% of gum Arabic aqueous solution as drinking water for 7 days, and then 10% solution for the further 12 next weeks. The control group was given water through the experimental period. Body weight and food intake was measured during the experiment. In addition, fasting blood samples were collected from all mice. Then mice were killed at the end of the experiment, liver and visceral adipose tissues were dissected, weighed and stored at-80°C. The experimental procedures were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing Agricultural University (Nanjing, China).
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Gum Arabic-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles For Methylene Blue Removal

Gum Arabic-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles For Methylene Blue Removal

Magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in many areas of chemistry, physics, and material science [6, 19]. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of magnetic nanoparticles coated with gum arabic as an adsorbent for methylene blue dye. In this study, MNPs were fabricated by co-precipitation of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ salts from aqueous solution by the addition of a base, which was ammonium hydroxide solution. The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles have supermagnetic properties making them very susceptible to magnetic fields and they can be separated easily from the solution. Figure 2 shows that the fabricated magnetic nanoparticles were separated in 30 seconds after applying an external magnetic field indicating a fast separation process for the microspheres.
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Atomic Diffusion and Electric Conductivity of Gum Arabic/Graphite Composite

Atomic Diffusion and Electric Conductivity of Gum Arabic/Graphite Composite

In this work, we had adopted solid states reaction kinetic model to calculate diffusion coefficient of graphite Gr in Gum Arabic (GA) as the function of temperatures and concentration D t C ( ) , . From the calculations we have found that the diffusion coefficient D increases with increasing temperature. At higher temperature the Gr atoms might get enough thermal energy to overcome the activation energy (Ea) barrier and hence can easily be trans- ported to a new atomic position. Diffusion coefficient of Gr at high concen- trations had exceeded that at low concentrations by more than two to three orders of magnitude. Such increase can be attributed to the large number of jumps or jump frequency which found to be directly proportion to the Gr concentration. Electric conductivity, calculated by Nernst-Einstein equation, at high concentration Gr had exceeded that at lower concentration. The de- crease in conductivity with decreasing Gr concentration might be attributed to the effective charges interactions, which lead to enhance the recombination of charge carriers.
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Evaluation of gum arabic from Acacia senegal var kerensis and Acacia senegal var senegal as a stabilizer in low-fat yoghurt

Evaluation of gum arabic from Acacia senegal var kerensis and Acacia senegal var senegal as a stabilizer in low-fat yoghurt

The amount of syneresis in the control was sig- nificantly greater (P < 0.05) than the amount of syneresis in the treatments with both gum sta- bilizers used, as shown in Tables 2 and 3. The most important causes for syneresis in fermented products include the use of high temperatures for incubation, low solids content or inadequate storage temperatures (Lucey, 2001). Syneresis is for the most part due to a rearrangement of the network, leading to an increase in the num- ber of particle-particle junctions. The network then tends to shrink, leading to whey separa- tion (appearance of whey on the gel surface of set yoghurt). Although total solids were kept constant for both stabilizers, the yoghurt made from A. senegal var kerensis gum was less sus- ceptible to syneresis and showed a significantly (P < 0.05) lower syneresis index compared to A. senegal var senegal gum at all concentration levels. The syneresis index for the gum-stabilized yoghurt decreased as the concentration level of the gum increased. This low syneresis in the A. senegal var kerensis gum-stabilized yoghurt can be attributed to the improved water hold- ing capacity by the A. senegal var kerensis gum (Mwove et al., 2016, 2018). Enrichment of dry matter and / or of protein content are common means of avoiding whey separation in yoghurt (Tamime & Robinson, 1999). It has been shown that there is a relationship between the micro- structure of yoghurt and firmness and susceptib- ility to syneresis. Yoghurts which have a denser structure and lower porosity exhibit more water retention capacity (Puvanenthiran, Williams & Augustin, 2002). It was reported (Staff, 1998) that low-fat yoghurts tend to have a higher de- gree of syneresis than high-fat yoghurts and this is the reason why stabilizers are added to low-fat yoghurt. The current work shows that the gum arabic from A. senegal var kerensis forms a bet- ter firm microstructure due to its high molecu- lar weight than A. senegal var senegal gum as shown in reduction of syneresis. The stabilizers make the yoghurt less susceptible to rearrange- ments within its network, and consequently less susceptible to shrinkage and serum (whey) ex- pulsion (Oh, Anema, Wong, Pinder & Hemar, 2007). Yoghurt is usually prepared from ho-
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Natural Rubber Latex and Gum Arabic: A Comparison of Physico-chemical Properties

Natural Rubber Latex and Gum Arabic: A Comparison of Physico-chemical Properties

Table 1 shows the physical state and result of proximate analysis of both samples for comparative purposes. While sample A looked brownish and odorless, sample B looked milky and had a smell close to that of rotten egg and characteristic of ammonia. This was corroborated by the result of the pH which revealed that it was alkaline (8.97) in nature (Table 1). The smell may be due to the preservation used for the latex after tapping and to keep it fresh in the liquid state. Both samples have similar ash content, density and carbohydrate and hence similarity in the internal energies (Idris, 2014). The low acidic content (pH of 4.12) of the guar gum may be the presence of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Mg, K, Na and Fe) that can form acidic salts.
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Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green
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Investigation of Molding Characteristics of Acacia Gum Arabic Grade 1 for Making Green Sand Cores Zhengwuvi, L. B.* 1, Hassan, M. A.2 , Godi, N. Y. 3and Dasin D. Y.4

Investigation of Molding Characteristics of Acacia Gum Arabic Grade 1 for Making Green Sand Cores Zhengwuvi, L. B.* 1, Hassan, M. A.2 , Godi, N. Y. 3and Dasin D. Y.4

Based on the standard recommended data on water soluble sand core binder, the following percentage mass composition of 0.5-2.5 % of gum and 700 grams of silica sand were adopted for the moulding [15, 16, 17]. The mixture composition was made in such a way that the sum fraction of each level equals unity [15]. That is,

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