The capacity to imagine situations that have already happened or ﬁctitious events that may take place in the future is known as mental time travel (MTT). Studies have shown that MTT is an important aspect of sponta- neous thought, yet we lack a clear understanding of how the neurocogni- tive architecture of the brain constrains this element of human cognition. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown that MTT involves the coordination between multiple regions that include mesiotemporal structures such as the hippocampus, as well as prefrontal and parietal regions commonly associated with the default mode network (DMN). The current study used a multimodal neuroimaging approach to identify the structural and functional brain organisation that underlies in- dividual diﬀerences in the capacity to spontaneously engage in MTT. Using regionally unconstrained diﬀusion tractography analysis, we found increased diﬀusion anisotropy in right lateralised temporo-limbic, corticospinal, inferior fronto-occipital tracts in participants who reported greater MTT. Probabilis- tic connectivity mapping revealed a signiﬁcantly higher connection probabil- ity of the right hippocampus with these tracts. Resting-state functional MRI connectivity analysis using the right hippocampus as a seed region revealed greater functional coupling to the anterior regions of the DMN with increas- ing levels of MTT. These ﬁndings demonstrate that the interactions between
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This work builds upon previously published methods for simultaneous estimation of the subsurface architecture and the effective water content based on on-ground multi-offset GPR measurement data (e.g., Gerhards et al., 2008; Buch- ner et al., 2012). In order to develop methods to addition- ally estimate hydraulic material properties, the ASSESS test site was forced with a fluctuating groundwater table ensuring large hydraulic dynamics. In this work, we use the result- ing transition zone reflection together with reflections orig- inating from material interfaces to estimate the positions of layers within the subsurface architecture as well as their hy- draulic material properties. Running 2-D or even 3-D mea- surements and inversions is a massive experimental and com- putational effort. Prior to embarking on this, the individ- ual steps must be demonstrated. To this end, the experiment was monitored with a stationary on-ground bistatic antenna that operates at a center frequency of 400 MHz, leading to time-lapse GPR measurement data. The hydraulic dynamics below this antenna are modeled in 1-D using the Richards equation. The resulting water content distribution is extruded and converted to a relative permittivity distribution to solve Maxwell’s equations in 2-D. Similar to Buchner et al. (2012), we developed a new heuristic semiautomatic approach to ex- tract the signal travel time and amplitude of relevant reflec- tions in the radargram (events). This approach is applied to both the simulated and measured radargram and the corre- sponding events are associated automatically. For optimiza- tion, a global–local inversion approach with preconditioning is applied. To that end, we draw parameter sets with a Latin hypercube algorithm that serve as initial parameters for the preconditioning step. In this step, a simulated annealing al- gorithm and a Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm are sequen- tially coupled using a subsampled data set for a limited num-
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Second, more insights are required, by carrying out new experiments, on the effects of learning and habitual behaviour as in Van der Mede & Van Berkum (1996), Bogers et al. (2007) and Ben-Elia & Shiftan (2010). Third, at this stage the model is based on accuracy at an indicative level. In future work various analytical formulations of accuracy should be considered and incorporated as an attribute in route choice models. Fourth, the descriptive information so far is only related to expected travel times; however, as discussed above, it would be beneficial to explore the effect of accuracy through presentation of variability information (e.g. the travel time range as in Katsikopoulos et al. 2002 in static designs, and in Ben-Elia & Shiftan, 2010 in dynamic designs) as well as investigate the effect of information reliability where outcomes fall outside the expected range. Fifth, strategic routing identified by Razo & Gao (2010) seems of added value. Here the effect of anticipating information can be tested by providing information both at the origin to the trip and downstream before a secondary diversion node. Last, as noted earlier, our study was conducted with lack of interaction between participants’ choices and with exogenous travel times. There is great importance in modelling network effects such that choices are endogenously linked to network performance and provided information is reflected in network parameters. Lu et al. (2011) show a promising direction of research here, and it would be of added value to incorporate accuracy of travel information in addition to uncertainty in network travel times. Notwithstanding, this work can lead to better considerations of traveller response when designing travel information architecture that is suitable and useful to travellers needs and traffic control centres policies.
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Two old Marathi text, the Lilacaritra 3 and the Sthanapothi, describe the place on Ramtek hill where Chakradhara swami live for ten month during the first part of his spiritual career as a lonely samnyasin 4 (McGregor, 1992). The ota (dais or raised platform) on which he sat, was within a "Rama temple "named Bhogarama. Why did chakradhara travel to Ramtek,and in which sort of temple did he stay? The answer to this question might be in the thirteen century under the regime of the yadava Kings of Devagiri Ramtek. The lengthy yadava inscription of Raghavadeva, the proxy of the yadava king Ramachandra, which is found in the Lakshmana temple on Ramtek hill, eulogizes Ramtek or Ramagiri and surroundings as an important holy place dedicated to Rama, and this is endorsed by the monumental temple construction including the Lakshmana temple itself, which may date from the thirteenth century. Ramtek, situated about 45km north-east of Nagpur, which the bhosales has made their capital, new building activities were initiates. Raghuji bhosale is credited with the construction of new fortification on Ramtek hill.
Although services enabled by WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) will most probably replace SMS messages as the most popular media for wireless applications, there will still be a very large user base for a long time. The great market interest related to WAP and so-called mCommerce (mobile commerce) has made also SMS interesting as a service delivery channel. Operators and service providers are creating many new services. Wireless Application Service Provision (WASP) is a recent, interesting service architecture for providing SMS based services. The basic principle is that there is only one SMSC (SMS Center) that encodes the messages to be submitted through the GSM network. The basic difficulty in developing SMS based services is the variety of protocols used in SMS Centers. The European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) has approved four SMSC protocols: SMPP (by Logica), CIMD (by Nokia), UCP/EMI (by CMG) and SMS2000 (by SEMA). All these protocols have slightly different functionalities and largely different character conversions. Supporting all these protocols is a demanding task for a service provider. There are several SMS gateways able to interact with some or all of the SMS protocols. However, there is no standard way for service providers to interact with the SMS gateways. Also, only few of the SMS gateways support all the SMSC protocols. This draft proposes a solution by introducing an easily adoptable interface to SMS Centers or SMS gateways for service providers. Most countries use the GSM standard, the United States is one of the few countries to favor use of CDMA and TDMA standards over GSM (though there are GSM networks throughout the US). CDMA and TDMA allow extremely limited SMS capabilities.
and asylum is a rare exception. 7 “Buenos días. Tiene-usted algunas preocupaciónes sobre su hija?” ( “ Hello. Do you have any concerns about your daughter? ” ) I ask my patient ’ s mother. The mother is an undocumented immigrant, and her child is a US citizen. Our conversation proceeds in a brisk Spanish with a Mexican dialect learned through patients and families. Her daughter is 3 years old, and "no come nada" (she eats nothing). We spend our visit getting a dietary history, including what she drinks throughout the day. She is growing and developing well, and by the end of the visit, we determine that the mother’s fears are related to excess juice intake. She leaves relieved and with a plan. Next is examination room 3: to Thailand, the Mae La refugee camp, on the Thai-Myanmar border. “ Na or- choo ah? ” ( “ How are you? ” in Karen). I learn about my Karen family’s adaptations to US life as new refugees from Myanmar, how their ﬁrst winter is going, and what the 10-year-old boy thinks of snow (answer: pretty for the ﬁrst 5 minutes then way too cold). I met the boy at his US arrival 1 year ago. He was scared and shy and spoke no English. He now speaks to me in almost- ﬂ awless English and tells me about school and his new friends, that math is his favorite subject, and that he wants to be a lawyer when he grows up. Twenty minutes later, I virtually travel to my next examination room: the Democratic Republic of the Congo. My 16-year-old patient greets me, “Bonjour. Ça va?” (“Hello. How are you?” in French). She arrived in the United States when she was 10 years old, also as a refugee from the chronically war-ravaged Democratic Republic of Congo. Now a teenager, she worries of acne, friends, boys, and SATs and college applications. She leaves with a prescription for acne and promises to update me on her offers for full scholarships to some of the top US universities.
Travelling has an impact on public health, given the millions of travellers across the globe, and risks associated with travelling. Most travel-related diseases can be prevented either through immunisation, chemoprophylaxis or behaviour change. Individual travellers are therefore strongly encouraged to consult a suitable travel clinic and healthcare professional, well in advance of undertaking their trip. An individual pre-travel risk assessment and guidance on suitable or required prophylactic measures, is essential for minimising travel-related risks. The traveller’s medical history, current illnesses and prescribed medication may significantly influence his/her prevention strategies, precautionary measures and/or travel plans.
Accounting for individual-, household-, and area-level confounders, the key objective of this study is to apply multi-level spatial statistical models to explore the rela- tionship between SES, active transportation, and BMI, with three sub-objectives. First, to examine the asso- ciation between self-reported travel mode and BMI in a sample of Canadian adults living in an urban center. Sec- ond, to examine the potential modifying effects of house- hold income on the relationship between travel mode and BMI, given that income may limit the opportunity to benefit from physical activity achieved via active trans- portation. Third, to compare the results between spatial and non-spatial statistical modeling.
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However, before I continue, I think it relevant to explain the circumstances of my participation in a lifestyle that I’d assumed I would reject. As mentioned earlier, my inclusion within this large ‘Antipodean’ group was accidental. Like many of my generation I had the opportunity to travel to the United Kingdom on a working holiday visa. The impetus for these travels was an English friend, who shortly before I arrived in England, left to pursue her travels in Europe. I became of necessity a backpacker, a form of traveller that I’d had little contact with, or knowledge of, prior to my journey to London. My introduction to the backpacking experience began when I arrived at Heathrow airport early in the morning. I was lonely, scared and desperate to find accommodation. I sat in the airport, surrounded by strangers, hoping I didn’t look like an obvious target for pickpockets or psychopaths as I flicked through a guidebook. I rang a number of hostels but all of them were either full or closed. I began to panic and as my eyes rested upon a tourist hotel help desk, I seriously considered booking into a hotel that was 90 pounds a night. Yet I knew that at such a high rate I wouldn’t last more than a week before my money ran out. I also knew that going to a hotel would compromise my perception of myself as an independent traveller who could thrive in an unfamiliar urban metropolis, and I rejected the idea of being a tourist, believing that backpacking was a spontaneous and superior form of travel. 21 I returned to my guidebook, Let’s Go Europe, and rang the last hostel listed there. Finally, I managed to reach a hostel that was open and had a bed available. I was told to get a tube to the suburb of Bayswater where I would then find Dean Court.
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Abstract: Efficient transportation system management is possible only through managing travel needs of commuters, using travel demand models. The extend by which a commuter need to travel for accomplishing his/her daily needs is here represented by the total travel time. Total travel time is one of the activity-travel behaviour which is least considered by transportation researchers. Travel demand studies often focus the workers, but give little attention to the students. In a developing country like India, students also contribute a major share in morning and evening peak hour traffic. This study presents the analysis of total travel time for the student community incorporating the socio-demographic features using activity based modelling approach. Preliminary analysis gives details on daily activity-travel pattern, mode choice preferences and other particulars of students in the study area. Statistical models are developed and simulation of choice probabilites is also done for understanding the factors affecting total travel time behaviour, for students in a usual working day.
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As for the behavioural patterns of tourists, three stages are involved: a) the decision to travel, b) during the trip, gauging tourists satisfaction with the infrastructures, facilities, attractions, and community, and c) after the travel, which involved tourists’ travel refection, their faithfulness on the travel destination and repeat visit. Nonetheless, due to time constraint, this study only focussed on the first two stages in determining the travel behaviour pattern of Malaysian Generation Y. The study identified the travel motivation of Malaysian Generation Y in making their decision to travel and the travel behaviour during the trip, including time of travel, accommodation, preferred meal, travel party, preferred activities, source of information, frequency of travel, and travel expenses.
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This emphasizes on semantically collecting information on cloud, and maintaining its replica as a backup on the mobile database using local cache. It will enable the users to access web information even in case when Internet connection fails or is unavailable. The suggested architecture for this is shown in Figure 2. A possible application is a Tourism Search Engine for mobile, which is explained below.
easingly important area of research driven by the dramatic growth in access to very large text stores such as the Web, email and domain-specific reports. At the heart of Web Text Mining is the need for tools that occurring patterns in text. Typically advances in machine learning and statistics are exploited for pattern discovery. Knowledge acquisition and representation techniques help transform discovered patterns into new knowledge structures. These structures are more transparent and manageable. Importantly, are able to provide higher level abstractions that facilitate the solution of text-related tasks. In this work we describe a web text mining process based on flexible architecture able to discover knowledge in a heterogeneous multi-organization environment. This paper is composed as it follows: in the second section we introduce a generic web text mining lifecycle. In the third section we describe a web text mining process through the description of four steps: Crawling, Pre- Processing, Text Mining and Presentation of Results. In the fourth section we present the service oriented architecture and our flexible web text mining architecture. Finally we present a prototyping of web text mining process.
With traffic networks having been in shape in all cities nowadays, optimization design should be carried out through expanding or constructing roads on basis of present traffic networks. Restricted by construction expense and urban outline planning etc, road network optimization can only be conducted under certain constraints. While traffic networks provide service for travelers, the demand on the networks is different for different travelers and in different conditions. In one case, minimal traffic resistance is valued, while in another travel time reliability is stressed. And both cases will be considered in optimization designing in this paper; hence the network design model established is a bi-level program. The upper program guarantees the minimal generalized travel cost in overall traffic network system with limited budget and the lower realizes equilibrium distribution with user optimization principle. The model is formulated as ：
Five strategies for physical activity promotion within the workplace emerged from the present research. These included structures broadly described as targeting active travel, information about physical activity outside the workplace, facilities and onsite opportunities, sedentary behaviour and information about physical activity within the workplace. Five common profiles of promoting physical activity in 308 worksites across England were also identified. This research could be used to advise worksites with limited resources dedicated specifically for employee physical activity on the likely best course of action. Where feasible, facilities and classes should be provided onsite as this was associated with the most positive behavioural outcomes. The more common practices of promoting active travel or reduced sedentary behaviour were associated with some increases in physical activity but additional strategies may be needed to increase the proportion of the workforce meeting MVPA guidelines.
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Roman state's interest in Anatolia BC It extends to the third century. In the countries under its rule, the Roman religion was officially accepted by Christianity. Sovereignty continued into the 4th century. The head of the gods was "Jupiter". The diversity and confusion of the gods has caused the reaction of the Romans. The worship of the emperor became more important than the worship of the other gods. Emperor worship was founded by the decision of the senate. Caesar became the God of the State. Augustus and the other gods follow him. This is the natural consequence of the temples built in the name of these obliging gods (Bayladı 1998). In temple architecture, the effects of Greek and Etruscan architecture are seen. There are 8 columns on the short side and 15 columns on the long side of the rectangular planned temple which covers an area of approximately 2 thousand square meters from the Roman Temples of Anatolia to the Temple of Ankara Augustus. After the spread of Christianity, the temple was transformed into a church. There are 6 columns on the short side and 11 columns on the long side in the temple of Athena and Apollon on the side. Column heads are in corint style (Figure 11), (Akyıldız 1997).
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Throughout most wars that targeted memory and identity, systemic demolition of some buildings, architectural heritage, and landmarks occurred and sometimes urban areas were removed completely. This happened in cases of obliterating a certain civilization and replacing it with another. “The first step in liquidating a people is to erase its memory. Destroy its books, its culture, its history” (Kundera, 1999). In history we have a lot of examples such as: the destruction of the Library of Alexandria by the Romans in 48 B.C, the demolition of lots of cities and countries during World War I and II, conflicts between Muslims and Hindus in India over 1947-1991, and the destruction of the Tibet heritage by China during 1949- 1950. In addition to lots of violent acts against symbolic buildings such as libraries, mosques and bridges in Yugoslavia over 1991-1999, the destruction of Buddha statues in Bamiyan (in Afghanistan) by Taliban in 2001, the attack on World Trade Center on the ninth of September 2001, and finally the demolition of the Shrines in Mali in July 2012. Those buildings are targeted and destroyed due to their moral value and what they represent of cultural memory at the community or people’s level. According to Bevan Robert, the author of “The Destruction of Memory”: “This is the active and often systemic destruction of particular building types or architectural traditions that happens in conflicts where the erasure of the memories, history, and identity attached to architecture and place-enforced forgetting-is the goal itself. These buildings are attacked not because they are in the path of a military objective: to their destroyers that are the objective" (Bevan, 2004).
knowledge. Like an ethnographer, the Rockefeller Foundation’s Alan Gregg sought to know a foreign society through application of his own observation and interaction with local informants. But he also arrived in Russia with preconceptions based on his own and the Foundation’s experience elsewhere and also conditioned by the purpose of his visit: to determine whether and how to spend his sponsor’s money. As with Arosev, whose papers permit David-Fox to compare his thoughts in the field (Arosev’s diary) with retrospective reporting (his fiction), Gregg’s reporting on Russia also reflected the impact of his field experience. Gregg in the field thought Russia was knowable, but the further away from Russia he traveled, both in time and distance, the less confident he became about his knowledge. This is the challenge of the field, of displacement, of travel itself: “’Travel’ denotes more or less voluntary practices of leaving familiar ground in search of difference, wisdom, power, adventure, an altered perspective,” writes Clifford. 31 Yet the
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More consequentially, our access to the local population was severely limited and managed. Due to security considerations and logistical arrangements, we needed special permission to leave the compound. Travel to all meeting sites was with a heavily armed escort – standard UN protocol in Darfur, which some of our civilian interlocutors also saw as interfering with their own work with the local population. Our local interlocutors were brought to us by our escorts, and the interviews were conducted in the presence of armed UN personnel. When the problematic aspect of this was mentioned in a meeting with an IDP women’s group, it was pointed out that our armed escorts were under strict instructions to never leave us out of sight. If we had not done embedded work with the UN but could choose our security providers, it would have been easier to develop our own security protocols and ask our armed escorts to wait outside the building. This episode re- confirmed the problematic acquisition of sensitive data found in UN reports.
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In the modern software design, almost company try to isolate development layer and database layer by using some language similar to SQL or pattern to handle this isolation task, like Active Record and Microsoft LINQ. By using active record on relational databases, the object data is stored in-memory with functions to do main tasks on database (select, insert, update and delete). Any table or view in database will be wrapped into class in active record architecture.