6 The investigation of the architecture of Iranian traditional housing revealed that these buildings are less the result of personal desires and more the illustration of purposes and desires of groups for an ideal environment. This is because the factors forming space and combinations in these residential environments are the dreams of humans of an ideal life and also what fulfills cultural and social needs of extended families living in them. But the process of modernism created a new set of relationships within houses. It means that the meaning of family changed with a change in the role of children (Aries, 1973). This is because in the extended families in pre-modern era, the relationships between parents and children were limited and the foundation of family was based on ethical and social principles rather than emotions (Muncie et al., 1995). After some fundamental changes had occurred in modern time, children became the center of attention which led to the formation of a stronger bond between them. After the emergence of this phenomenon in the modern world, housing changed from the center of social life into a context for improving people and nuclear families’ private life. These functional changes cause the relationships among men and women and children to be affected to a great extent. On the other hand, the structure of Iranian families that consists of the quality and quantity of family, the relationships inside a family, value and cultural backgrounds, and so on, resisted some of the changes brought about by universal modernism. It means that in the past, tradition had the power of a law in Iran that was respected by everyone. This respect was because of a consensus. Unlike the structure of modern Iranian families which have preserved their main structure due to preserving traditional values, Iranian modern housing has lost its conformity with the structure of the residents. Therefore, reanalysis of culture seems to be necessary in the design of the constructed residential environments in order to the fulfill higher needs of residents and their culture.
It is important to recall that there are numerous additional Great Kiva structures similar to Casa Rinconada at Chaco. Every Chacoan Great House in the canyon save two incorporates one or more Great Kivas. There are additional isolated Great Kivas along the south side of the canyon at multiple locations, including one across from Wijiji (29SJ 1642) and one in Fajada Gap (29SJ 1253) that have not been excavated, or assessed by archaeoastronomers. While construction details of excavated Great Kivas vary, nonetheless the core components of a “kiva as cosmos” model, including accurate alignment to the cardinal directions are frequently present. Some archaeologists today view the Great Kivas as a manifestation of communal social space in the context of monumental architecture, in part as a mechanism for reinforcing and maintaining communal cosmological views. The Great Kivas are also demonstrably a developmental outgrowth of the housing structures of an earlier age, the pithouses of Basketmaker times. As such, in addition to incorporating cosmological references, Great Kivas may also provide implicit ancestor veneration in an architectural form (Van Dyke, 2007a: 122-128).
Since the housing (and most agricultural buildings and production facilities) were constructed to the standard forms, the role of bespoke architecture tended to be limited to special buildings such as culture houses, some schools and kindergartens and occasionally hotels or other special structures - especially if the kolkhoz was well off. These made use of the talents of local architects who only had the possibility to develop and apply their design ideas under such conditions, sponsored by the state. When these buildings were designed and constructed in the late 1970s or 1980s there had been considerable debate about the direction of Estonian architecture in the Estonian SSR and an exhibition to look at this held in 1978 in Tallinn considered the direction of Modernism an in the Estonian context and what building forms might be adopted . The result in part at least was that some new approaches emerged and fresh directions going into the 1980s up to the collapse of the system. Modernism and later some dabbling with what is recognisably post-modernism emerged in forms of buildings designed by these architects. These led to a wide range of distinctive buildings which can still be found all over the Baltic landscape in a way not found elsewhere in the former Soviet Union .
Additionally, the Kanuri ethnic groups are located in Borno and Yobe states of Nigeria. They are the third largest ethnic group in the region. Nupe ethnic group are found in north central Nigeria with over a million populations residing in Niger state with a majority practicing Islam (Austin, 2008). While the Tiv ethnic are located in Benue state, north central with a large number of the people practising Christianity. Meanwhile, the Gwari ethnic also known as the Gagyi are often regarded as a minority ethnic group. However, they are next to the major five in population size and predominantly found in Niger and Kaduna states, and natives of the Federal capital Territory cohabiting with other ethnic groups. Apart from the Tiv that have larger population as Christian faithful, the remaining five ethnic groups are predominantly Muslims. The region enjoys abundance of relatively flat land across most parts with vegetative cover that ranges between savannah grassland around the central region to slight dry land at the northern coast. Laterite earth material, straw and hay which are gotten after crop harvest are commonly used as building materials at the country side across the region. However, modernisation has enabled the use of contemporary building materials in vernacular architecture in these places. The major occupation of the larger population is farming and craft work. Inter-ethnic marriages, social events, education and commerce are contacts that unite these ethnic groups.
Well-designed public places are vital to liveable cities (Goldhagen, 2017). Liveable cities contain “attractive public spaces [with] walkable, mixed use, higher density neighbourhoods that support a range of green infrastructure and [public] transport. [They also accommodate] affordable housing, vibrant, exciting, sociable, human- scaled pedestrian experiences” (Ooi & Yuen, 2010, p. 3). Public places set the tone of a city, provide the city with character, and as the spaces where life takes place, they offer a “constantly changing sequence of experiences [in which] people are the generators” (Halprin, 1963, p. 7). Liveable cities therefore require empowered communities, so that although we may rarely think about why a public place is designed the way it is, the qualities of the built environment profoundly affect the way we think, feel and act, as well as our sense of belonging in a particular place (Casey, 1993; Lynch, 1960, 1981; Relph, 1976; Tuan, 1977). Skillfully designed places convey deeper messages about our self-identity in the city as well as our perceptions of others (ibid). As highly complex environments, public places need to accommodate a wide range of values while engaging their communities in their design and development (Gehl, 2010, 2011 ; Gehl, Gemzøe, Kirknæs, & Søndergaard, 2006; The Danish Government, 2014; UN-Habitat, 2016b).
These four houses, No.6-7-8-9, used a shell structure without any pillars or walls and were the cheapest ones exhibited (Fig.12). There might be problems with the quality of the living environment in them, but they were the ultimate low-cost housing type aimed to shelter from the rain and wind. Additionally, house No. 60, with its pre-cast hollow blocks for walls, was an attempt at low-cost construction through the use of a foaming agent, which expanded the cement concrete to the extent of 70 % over its original volume (Fig.13). Furthermore, hollow blocks have greater insulation capacity and are better protected against moisture. 1) Analysis
Of course, all this is possible in theory. As Hillier and Penn pointed out in the same article, "In the first (social housing) case, we integrate from community consultation, through local authority planning and housing management to design and build. At the same time we pro- vide a tool for long term monitoring so that as time goes on the effects of successive changes can be continuously reviewed. A virtuous circle than then be established in local authority housing design and man- agement," (ibid., p.363). Likewise, in the case of buildings, "We again integrate knowledge of the product and its functioning to link be- tween occupancy and organisational studies, health studies, environ- mental monitoring and systems of evaluation through to design guid- ance. Again, we leave a tool for the facilities manager to monitor the progress of the organisation in terms of how it is getting on with its building," (ibid., p.363). In practice, this might prove to be quite difficult to achieve for although the computer might hold the key to organising the disparate bodies of knowledge that intelligent building modelling requires in terms of the common ground of its spatial morphology, the interpre- tation of that information requires spatial understanding. This replicates for the next genera- tion of facilities managers, the selfsame problem that Schon described earlier for the novice designer. To use the tool to evaluate the syntactic moves that had been made at the design stage, a planner or facilities manager would need to have internalised the theory of space syntax, simply in order to recognise its effects. Interpretation is something that many post- graduate architecture students find quite challenging even after a year of full time study. Unlike design, evaluation cannot rely on intuition. It has to be based explicitly on theory. The architecture of the ordinary
Many design decisions can have safety or security implications. Some of those decisions includes means of escape in the case of fire, fire alarms, and limitation of fire spread; the installation and location of heat producing appliances and associated flues and storage tanks; and the design of stairs, ramps and guards. The health and safety of people involved in the construction and maintenance of social Housing are one of the most important topics in the design of social House. Designers should consider ‘safety in use’ requirements for apartments in social housing so minimize the risks of accidents in the home. They also should remember the physical needs of children and the infirm. Attention to security can reduce the risk of stealings and burglaries. The designer should focus on security issues depends on the nature and location of the social housing and the degree of vulnerability of the prospective residents. The decisions of designers on security measures do not adversely affect the safety of the residents; for example they should not limit the means of escape in the case of fire or other emergency. Here we suggest some tips about security in social houses. The layout of the social house should prevent unauthorized access from public areas to back gardens; the designers should use a form of building which give it more security. Terraced houses; secure side access to the garden with full height gates; avoiding sharing passageways are some ways of increasing security. If this is not possible, the designer should sure that access points are adequately secured and public areas are overlooked; locating external features, such as drainpipes or low roofs, in a way that does not facilitate easy access to upper floor windows; ensuring that all external doors and windows are adequately fixed and that the windows from bedrooms can be easily opened from the inside. The construction of all new social housing must include a means of escape, window sizes
From the way I have exported previously, we start from the premise that the Brazilian city is no longer a collective good. The contemporary city in Brazil is nothing more than a private product to be consumed by its citizens to fuel the real estate market (the companies), and as justification uses the economic development and the generation of jobs. We no longer only consume in the city, but we consume the city as a business. A real estate product that generates surplus value and capital, sold as status, form of living, working or even generating exclusion and, consequently, informality, inequality and fragmentation of the territory. In this sense, in the relation between capital and labor lies the logic of the production of industrial surplus value in which the accumulation of capital goes through the exploitation of labor. Important in this point of the text, let us begin to understand how these changes can be observed in the production of Brazilian cities, from the point of view of the production of housing for several income classes. Shimbo (2012) gives an overview of the recent history of the confluence between State, market and financial capital, starting in 1986 with the dissolution of the National Housing Bank (BNH), to the housing policies implemented by the Lula government in the 2000s, the approximation between financial capital and the real estate sector in Brazil, and its implementation in the second half of the 2000s. The author shows that since the 1990s legal and institutional mechanisms have been established in the country in order to consolidate
believed to have been built by the King of Nagpur Raghuji Bhonsale, after his victory over fort of Deogarh in Chindwara near Nagpur (Vaidya, 2001). Shri Ram temple known by various names such as Ram Mandir,Ram dham and Ramtek fort Temple is located on the Ramagiri hill at Ramtek,. The historical temple, Constructed atop the hill at an elevation of 345 mt from land is to be more than 600 years old and is dedicated to lord Rama along with Sita and Lakshmana (Vaidya, 2001). The temples has been evolved as a Religious place for pilgrims where we can see variety of Temple Architecture of the Maratha period.
This is the way to address the history and the value of reviewing their creation of components, demonstrate clearly their creation environment Architecture is known that factors that affect physical of the formation and organization of these factors is Architectural space is seen, heard, sensed, measurable, among the factors that can be felt, we effectively identify the remodeling, we cannot see, cannot feel, but Belief, the architecture consists of belief, there in the creation of thought, space, to the construction, decoration, structure effect sufficiently be unprocessed, of beliefs originating from architecture to reveal it was Religious architecture is one of the most important factors shaping. To examine the effect of the architecture of religious concepts, architectural structures of meaning attached, forms, by proportion will contribute to the explanation of these factors is likely quite be useful for determination of parameters will be the guide for new designs. For this purpose, a wide from the history of civilization in Anatolia and contains the required architecture composed, so that the window is open to the influence of religion on Anatolia take as a work area, in terms of our experience on the practice, it is extremely Anatolia, which bears on the many cultural riches, civilization dating back thousands of years into the past, where there are also beliefs that make up the
of Christian culture, but also the history record of the communication between the western culture and local tra- ditional culture in Yan’an area. In this paper, we fist analyze the situation of Christianity in Shannxi and we get the conclusion that there are totally 23 churches in the modern Yan’an areas, where the Christian church number is 12 and the Protestant church is 11, respectively. Then we mainly discuss the architectural style, interior space design and architectural landscape of the church architecture in Yan’an area. As for the architectural style, Rome architecture style and Gothic architecture style are representatives of the church architecture in Yan’an area. In regard to interior space design, it generally conforms to the western architectural tradition while it differs in de- tails with Chinese traditional plants, patterns and habitations. Owing to the unique geological landforms, loess characteristics, climatic conditions, native culture and traditional settlement location, the architectural landscape of church architecture in Yan’an area inherits the Chinese traditional theory. Furthermore, these churches present the principles of mountain adherent to the local construction site selection principle and churches in Yan’an area are towards south.
SlovakEdu, o.z. the answers “cold country” and “four seasons”. The representations in the cluster labelled “Culture” included references to the once-famous duet T.A.T.U.; some students commented on the dissimilar nature of Malaysian and Russian cultures. As in the earlier survey, the category “People” contained references to the appearance and perceived character of Russian people (e.g., “good looking people”, “friendly people”). The category “Language” mostly consisted of the images describing Russian as “different” from languages familiar to the respondents, such as Malay and English. Some students commented that Russian was a “difficult” or “funny” language. The smallest categories of images were “Political situation” and “History”. It should be noted that some of the images in the cluster “Political situation” were outdated (“USSR”, “communist country”). As in the previous study, there were no images that could be placed in the category “Religion”.
compared to tenants express higher satisfaction with their living environment, they are socially more active in their living environment, relocate less often and contribute more to social stability of the neighbourhood. The research also showed that 86 per cent of American respondents believe that in terms of social security it is better to own an apartment than to rent one. 74 per cent of respondents think people should purchase an apartment as soon as they can afford it, whereas among respondents who rent an apartment 64 per cent answered they only rent an apartment because they can not afford one (Rohe et al., 2001). They estimate that the satisfaction level among apartment owners is higher (Rohe & Stewart, 1996). In the example of Baltimore they observed apart- ment purchasers and tenants and after a year and a half found that the apartment purchasers showed higher sat- isfaction than the apartment tenants (Rohe & Stegman, 1994). In a further three-year study Rohe and Basalo (1997) determined that even after a three-year ownership the apartment owners were still more self-satisfied than the tenants. They defined the self-satisfaction as the combination of common satisfaction with life, apart- ment and neighbourhood (Rohe & Stewart, 1996). From this we can assume that a high percentage of owner-occupied apartments positively affects the participants’ expressed satisfaction (apartment ownership rate in Slovenia is 80% and in Japan it is 60%). Table 4 showsthe results of multivariate analysis of variance re- garding the cultural identity/affiliation to culture and number of children in a joint household.
Mixed mode method is used in data collection which is qualitative and quantitative approach. Primary data will be collected through quantitative approach mainly includes unstructured interview, site analysis and qualitative approach, the observation. Meanwhile, in order to understand more about Chinese opera and its architectural requirement as well as Chinese architecture, literature review is used as one of its primary method. Data collected through qualitative method for example literature review, journal articles, reading materials or books, internet-based articles and thesis done by alumni will be used as a secondary data to support the primary data. The design related case studies were used as well. Besides, the data collected from the field visit is further synthesised and analysed. Hence, through the analysing and synthesising of the data, the design principles and development of Chinese opera cultural centre are defined.
One final set of comments is worth pointing out. The original site of the AID organization has a logo that includes a drawing of Mahatma Gandhi. No participants with the Anglo-American interviewer made a reference to this image. Two participants in the other group made references to this image ("Father of Nation's image is good" and "I like Gandhi's image"). It is this type of culturally specific comments that international usability evaluation is intended to obtain. Yet, by ignoring the influence of culture in the usability evaluation methods, usability engineers are bound to miss identifying these culture-specific usability issues.
As can be seen from the presented examples, there is no one recommended procedure that would ensure social participation. Probably more interesting examples could be found across Europe, but they all should meet common guidelines within the EU. The main dif Þ culty is the need to maintain the legal framework that results from the long tradition of the competition, based on the anonymity of the participant. The social participation in the case hampers the preservation of this condition, hence various attempts to modify the exist- ing formulas. It seems that there is a need to work out a clear regulation that would allow both values to be maintained. Perhaps separate study is needed to de Þ ne which method is the most effective and should be recommended. It seems certain that the participation should be consultative for a jury’s work, which consists of professionals and is able to balance contradictory arguments and make the Þ nal independent decision. Architectural competitions with social participation would allow then to obtain even better, properly selected design solutions. It seems that such a tool would be a high quality instrument positively in ß uencing the building culture in Europe.
There is a long history of evaluation and academic research on the social impact of culture on societies(Carnwath & Brown, 2014; Taylor, et. al, 2015 ). The influences of Hadhrami culture in Indonesian people and vice versa are concrete and perceptible. The impact of intercultural communication between Hadhramout and Indonesia is precise on various life aspects in Hadhrami community today, such as food, dress, architecture, and language in particular. In the past, Hadhramies lived a simple life in all their life fields due to the availability of essential needs of life as a kind of contentment and maybe the lack of financial means, so they did not need to import anything from the outer world accept few things such as needles. Thus, for instance, they dressed white loincloths and shirts which were locally hand made. After their communication with the outside world, the colored clothed have appeared. The food as well based on the harvest of their farms. Also, there were only two meals a day of dry grains and dates and the source of water from the houses‘ wells. Recently, rice and different recipes of food were brought from India and Southeast Asia, so by the passing of the time, rice became the main meal in Hadhramout. However, when the migrants returned to their homeland, they transferred the culture of other countries that they used to live in. Most of those migrants have renovated their old houses and some build new houses with different architectural styles.
Since Allah (God) created the human being on earth, he started searching for convenient logging to himself against the natural challenges and various risks which are around him every way. In same time he was continued the search for other human basic needs, he had developed high living standards terms, through old times up to current dates in the contains which are included in the house (Ismail, 1988). Housing has been classified as a universally second most important human need after food. In a literal sense, a house is a place where provides a person with warmness, shelter, security, and its physical nature as the place where the institution of family is patronage, also it reflects a person’s identity, living condition, human values, aspirations, future expectations and one’s social, economic and cultural identity (Thushara, 2013). The public housing was established to provide decent and safe housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing comes in all sizes and types, from scattered single-family houses to high-rise