Architecture, sound and music

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Objective Prediction of the Sound Quality of Music Processed by an Acoustic Echo Canceller

Objective Prediction of the Sound Quality of Music Processed by an Acoustic Echo Canceller

In this model using these perceptual measures was found that they have the lowest median generalization error of the various audio samples that are tested. The median interclass correlation(ICC) rating predicted by this architecture is high (i.e r=0.97) which is much better than the previous methods. As previously used models like noise loudness had lowest median generalization error and the other perceptual measures like WinModiff & Rnonlin are sensitive for the modulation difference between clean and processed audio signals. By using this results and analysis it is concluded that this system has more accurate prediction of subjective quality ratings of audio samples. This model suppresses the acoustic feedback and makes the hearing aid comply with a number of additional requirements like allow fit to target, withstand tonal sound sources ,withstand changes to feedback path and also it reduces the development cost of new hearing aid. Because of these features this model is applicable in hearing aid, video and audio signal processing.
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Mathematics‎, ‎Music and Architecture

Mathematics‎, ‎Music and Architecture

Between the two steps, “do1” and “do2” have infinite sound, but the sounds are musical, which together create delightful intervals, or, in other words, they are persuasive and pleasing when played continuously. These intervals always have special mathematical proportions that can be generalized in other arts. The fourth and fifth distances, namely, “fa / do” and “sol / do”, are the most reliable distances that are common in all steps because they are normal [14]. From the composition of the notes, there are relatively short sentences that are pleasant to hear. A music sentence may be very beautiful, but not enough. It is not enough to express a sentence alone to express and convey emotions, and it is necessary to combine sentences, speeches, and essays to be useful to the listener and to call it “piece” in musical language. A tune, song, melody, a relatively short piece of distance between the notes and the beat, and the one that is identical and identifiable to the listener [14]. If architecture is considered to be the application of proportions in spatial volume, then music can be considered as the application of proportions over time. The ratio of frequencies to each other carries a pleasant or unpleasant effect on humans. Therefore, the study of the relatives, which are the factors creating beauty, is necessary.
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Grandchildren of Experimental Music - Performing the Compositional Act by Creating Intriguing Situations in Which Musical Sound May Occur

Grandchildren of Experimental Music - Performing the Compositional Act by Creating Intriguing Situations in Which Musical Sound May Occur

This piece was my contribution to a large-scale hour-long show made in collaboration with German theatre artists Ludwig Abraham and Daniel Verasson. It was conceived as a theatre piece specifically for the empty art museum in Marburg, Germany. It is about how talking about music can be made into a musical experience. I achieve this through the real-life percussive accompaniment of a squash game, emphasising how this leaves the players out of breath, thus breaking up their speech. An explanatory text highlights this point at the end of the piece, taking the maxim “talking about music is like dancing about architecture” as a point of departure. This line has been attributed to many different people including Laurie Anderson, Miles Davis, Frank Zappa, Clara Schumann, Elvis Costello, Steve Martin and Thelonious Monk. However blogger Garson O’Toole concludes on Quote Investigator that American comedian Martin Mull probably came up with it first (O’Toole, 2010).
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The Sound/Music Dilemma: Why Is It That All Music Is Sound but Only Some Sounds Are Music?

The Sound/Music Dilemma: Why Is It That All Music Is Sound but Only Some Sounds Are Music?

Region 2  contains pieces which have low to very high sound complexity. Th ese pieces are culture specifi c and understanding them deeply depends on the specifi c musical environment the listener was exposed to. Also, understand- ing these works depends on the amount of musical expertise specifi c to a cer- tain culture a listener has. As a consequence, it is possible that some listeners can understand very complex works in one part of region 2, while not being ca- pable of understanding easier works pertaining to other parts. Furthermore, the farther one gets from the centre, the more diffi cult it becomes to understand the pieces. Hence, fewer people can understand them. However, in theory, every person, if exposed to the specifi c culture and provided with the proper train- ing, can understand all of the pieces within region 2. Th is is possible, since this region, although complex and highly culture-specifi c, still respects the musical cognitive constraints. Most of the music ever written is contained here. For ex- ample, Western and Indian classical music as well as jazz all belong to region 2. Between region 2  and 3  we  have the horizon of unintelligibility. Th e hori- zon of unintelligibility is a blurred line that demarcates the boundary between pieces which can be potentially understood and pieces which simply cannot. Of course, the horizon of unintelligibility depends on individuals; however, since
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Instrument Identification in Polyphonic Music: Feature Weighting to Minimize Influence of Sound Overlaps

Instrument Identification in Polyphonic Music: Feature Weighting to Minimize Influence of Sound Overlaps

We have provided a new solution to an important problem of instrument identification in polyphonic music: the over- lapping of partials (harmonic components). Our solution is to weight features based on their robustness to overlap- ping by collecting training data extracted from polyphonic sounds and applying LDA to them. Although the approach of collecting training data from polyphonic sounds is simple, no previous studies have attempted it. One possible reason may be that a tremendously large amount of data is required to prepare a thorough training data set containing all pos- sible sound combinations. From our experiments, however, we found that a thorough training data set is not necessary and that a data set extracted from a few musical pieces is su ffi cient to improve the robustness of instrument identifi- cation in polyphonic music. Furthermore, we improved the performance of the instrument identification using musical context. Our method made it possible to avoid musically un- natural errors by taking the temporal continuity of melodies into consideration.
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A Critiqueon Digital Transformation Of Music Production Using Virtual Sound Technology (VST)

A Critiqueon Digital Transformation Of Music Production Using Virtual Sound Technology (VST)

assists to the composer to render a music with less human interference. These VST plays vital role in rhythm section, it can reproduce the native instruments without using the live instruments. The synthesing programs utilizes the acoustic properties of live instruments and it generates new composition of user defined notes. The VST based synthesizer as shown in figure 1.1

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The Sound of Money: Securing Copyright, Royalties, and Creative "Progress" in the Digital Music Revolution

The Sound of Money: Securing Copyright, Royalties, and Creative "Progress" in the Digital Music Revolution

The Obama administration, the Congress, and the courts should recognize that the best federal innovation policy for promoting our nation's musical knowledge and cultura[r]

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Exploring visual representation of sound in computer music software through programming and composition

Exploring visual representation of sound in computer music software through programming and composition

None of the above description of the software is provided to the audience of the MoE pixels work. When the work is accessed (see Figure 3.1), only three words appear on screen: the title (punctuated with a colon) at the top; a hyperlink to 'reload' the webpage (thus resetting/re-randomising the Flash element) at the side; and, at the bottom, the word 'about...' hyperlinks to general information about the HCMF MoE project (text similar to that given at the start of §3.1). In withholding instruction and description of the work, the aim is to engage the imagination of the audience who are invited (by implication) to explore the screen and discover the sounds. The specific connections that I have made between concepts, sound-files and visual representations may or may not be identified, and it is of no consequence if they are or not. There is no 'correct' way to interact with the system and so no one (who can see and/or hear, and is able to control a mouse-point on screen) ought to feel excluded from participation. Talking to Duncan Chapman and Heidi Johnson (of the HCMF) about the work, during its development, I would often use the term 'Flash toy', but the word toy is in no
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Music. Common Requirements for All Bachelor of Music Degrees. 122 College of Architecture + The Arts Undergraduate Catalog

Music. Common Requirements for All Bachelor of Music Degrees. 122 College of Architecture + The Arts Undergraduate Catalog

To qualify for admission to the program, FIU undergraduates must meet all the lower division requirements, complete 60 semester hours, and be otherwise acceptable into the program. Music students at the University come from a wide variety of academic backgrounds from Florida, other states, and countries. Because of this diversity, the faculty of music gives basic preliminary examinations in order to assist the student in eliminating any deficiencies: 1. Music History - consisting of all periods of history. 2. Music Theory - consisting of sightsinging, melodic and harmonic dictation and written harmonization and analysis. All transfer music majors entering Fall 2011 or later must satisfy the FIU Global Learning requirement by taking IDS 3336 Artistic Expression in a Global Society – GL and MUH 3514 Music of the World – GL.
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Kaili, the homeland of 100 festivals: Space, music, and sound in a small city

Kaili, the homeland of 100 festivals: Space, music, and sound in a small city

The trails of these amplifiers and their users also continued together well beyond the summit of Apple Hill. Following the end of a choir session, a core group of members would often walk downhill together, as they headed towards late-morning activities which ranged from household chores to playing mahjong. Sometimes the music continued as they slowly walked down through the park, with the sole portable instrument (dizi) accompanied by amplified singers. Usually the group stopped playing upon reaching the park entrance – after around twenty minutes – and I had a sense that this represented a perceived and lived boundary for some. But not so for others. Auntie Liu, a dancer and singer at Apple Hill, took me with her friends to a restaurant-cum-mahjong joint close to the park. Since she did not play mahjong, the two of us spent the better part of the session practising recent additions to the choir repertoire, 161 reading from scores, and singing along to mp3s downloaded by her son on to her amplifier. Another retired choir singer, Zhang Xi, who used to work with the Sinopec Group, appeared to be inseparable from his device. One evening, I encountered him sitting on a bench along Beijing Avenue, near my hotel, listening to music from his amplifier and enjoying the night scene (kan yejing). Another day, on a climb up Small High Mountain (Xiaogao shan), a local scenic spot just outside of the city, I heard Zhang Xi before I saw him, as his amplifier extended his acoustic space and musical tastes into the wider environment. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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Audible ecosystems and emergent sound structures in Di Scipio’s music: Music philosophy helps musical analysis

Audible ecosystems and emergent sound structures in Di Scipio’s music: Music philosophy helps musical analysis

music, he starts directly from the result: “Est-ce bien nécessaire d’analyser les œuvres à partir de leurs procédures ? Je pense qu’il est préférable de les analyser en tant que résultats. Je me suis moi-même très vite aperçu en analysant Webern à partir du comptage des notes de la série que cela ne me donnait pas de clé. Ce qui m’intéresse par exemple dans le premier mouvement de la Symphonie opus 21, ce n’est pas de voir que les douze sons ont été respectés, ou qu’il s’agit d’un canon, mais pourquoi on n’entend pas le canon, pourquoi il disparaît sous la sensation harmonique” (“Is it useful to analyze the works according to their procedures? I think that it is preferable to analyze them as results. I took conscience while analyzing Webern that counting the notes didn’t give any key. What interests me for example in the first movement of the Symphony op. 21 it is not to see that the twelve notes have been respected or that we have a canon, but to see why we do not hear the canon, why does it disappear under the harmonic sensation”, our translation) (Boulez in Albèra, 2003: 10). For an analytical proposal of Webern’s Symphony “beyond” the analyses of the compositional structures, see Solomos, 1998.
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Sound Business: Great Women Of Gospel Music And The Transmission Of Tradition

Sound Business: Great Women Of Gospel Music And The Transmission Of Tradition

draws upon the music’s dual orientation toward the culture and commerce. In the mid-1960s the Chicago Art Ensemble coined the term “Great Black Music” which jazz composer, artist, and scholar George Lewis views “as an intervention in an ethnicized canonization process, an assertion by the subaltern of authority to determine who and what is ‘great.’" If jazz has traditionally constituted a masculine context for working out 7 representational politics, gospel music has provided a shared space in which women and men together cultivate musical mastery according to an African American system of values. What needs to be emphasized here is that contrary to many other fields, in gospel music, “greatness” is often ascribed to African American women vocalists, musicians, and composers. This is important because I believe that it reflects the longstanding function of gospel music as what Patricia Hill Collins calls a “Black female sphere of influence” in which African American women have been able to craft “independent and oppositional identities” for themselves and exercise unencumbered creativity on their own terms. 8 Broadly speaking, my dissertation also addresses the ways in which ideas about musical greatness are circulated in writings about gospel music and among communities of believers. Thus throughout the following pages, the recognition of intersecting gender and race ideologies tied to the constructions of greatness in gospel music informs my study on the musical lives of Jackson, Franklin, and Clark Sheard.
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INSTALLATION AND OPERATIONS GUIDE. Qt SOUND MASKING PAGING MUSIC

INSTALLATION AND OPERATIONS GUIDE. Qt SOUND MASKING PAGING MUSIC

It is important that the masking volume be set correctly to achieve the full effectiveness of the Qt 100 system. If volume levels are set too low, speech privacy will be reduced and workplace distractions will become more apparent. If volume levels are set too high, the masking sound could become a source of distraction. The higher the setting that can be used comfortably, the better the acoustic privacy. For a given open office design, including ceiling height, ceiling material and workstation panel height, we can define the masking volume required to achieve “normal acoustic privacy,” (i.e., normal voices are unintelligible yet audible). In an open office environment, the target background sound level is in the 45–48 dBA range, as measured 3 feet (0.9 m) above floor level.
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The effects of background music and sound in economic decision making: Evidence from a laboratory experiment

The effects of background music and sound in economic decision making: Evidence from a laboratory experiment

Thus, the previous experiments were con- ducted with the setting where the songs used as background music during the experiments had been accessible (i.e., purchasable and downloadable). This setting is inadequate since it leads to all sorts of difficulties with ex- perimental controls, in such a way that impres- sion towards particular songs was idiosyn- cratic among the participants. For example, some of the participants had or had not been familiar with the songs; they had or had not had prior personal images or preconceived opinions of the songs. If (some of) the partic- ipants had had prior personal images or pre- conceived opinions of the songs used as back- ground music during the experiment, it would more or less affect their behaviour. Lack of control with respect to how familiar the songs are may produce results that cannot be inter- preted clearly, as different participants may ac- tivate different mechanisms to the “same” mu- sical stimulus, with resulting differences in be- haviour (Juslin and V¨astfj¨all, 2008). Thus, pre- vious results more or less were biased by the familiarity effect.
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The smell and sound of sales : The effects of scent and music on the shopping experience of showroom visitors under various levels of arousal

The smell and sound of sales : The effects of scent and music on the shopping experience of showroom visitors under various levels of arousal

Much research is done into the effects of sensory marketing, but in many cases it was only focused on one sensory cue: music, scent, light, et cetera. However, several exceptions focus on the interactions between sensory cues. In the study of Matilla & Wirtz (2001) both music and scent were researched in a field setting: a small gift shop. In this research there were congruent and incongruent conditions, based on their level of high or low arousal. For music, a distinction was made between slow and fast tempo music. An essential oil reference book was used to select a relaxing and stimulating scent, which resulted in the scent lavender (low arousal) and the scent grapefruit (high arousal). This research showed that when scent and music are congruent based on their level of arousal, the consumers rated the environment of the store more positive. Also, other consumer responses like pleasure, approach behaviors, perceived positivity of the store environment, impulse buying and satisfaction were more positive than when exposed to the incongruent arousal conditions.
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Safe and sound: An investigation of risk homeostasis and the influence of music preference and exposure in a video game environment

Safe and sound: An investigation of risk homeostasis and the influence of music preference and exposure in a video game environment

In hypothesis 2a, it was expected that more weekly hours of listening to music would lead to a higher amount of risk-taking. This was tested using one-way ANOVAs. No significant effects were found, but an unusual peak in risk-taking occurred in the ‘4 – 6 hours’ group for speed and TTC. For DCM, although not significant, there was a general trend of more distance being kept with more listening hours per week. For this parameter, a peak occurred in the ‘4 – 6 hours’ group as well, but this time for careful behavior instead of risk-taking, showing an exceptionally large distance to the closest meteor. Due to the lack of significance and small and unequal group sizes, little to no conclusions can be drawn about this group yet. A possible explanation for the lack of influence of this this type of music involvement is its passive nature. An interesting follow-up for this research would be one using music practice in addittion listening as a variable for involvement. As many effects of music on the brain are related to its practice (Corrigall et al., 2013), this active involvement with music might be more directly related to human behavior than listening only. Seeing the substantial size of the ‘more than 6 hours’ group, including weekly involvement hours beyond 6 separately in the future could expand the spectrum and lead to more specific results. For now, no conclusive relation between exposure to music and risk-taking can be described.
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Pat Metheny: Composing to Exploit the Sound of the Guitar : a thesis submitted to the New Zealand School of Music [in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music]

Pat Metheny: Composing to Exploit the Sound of the Guitar : a thesis submitted to the New Zealand School of Music [in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music]

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Grandchildren of Experimental Music - Performing the Compositional Act by Creating Intriguing Situations in Which Musical Sound May Occur

Grandchildren of Experimental Music - Performing the Compositional Act by Creating Intriguing Situations in Which Musical Sound May Occur

legitimate music, this is legitimate performance. They can just come and make the real, the real new interesting art that I can only hint at. But yeah I do feel like I’m preparing the way, that I’m pointing out the direction that people should take: that people need to stop chasing commissions and erm, just making work to er, to please older people, people with money. And they do need to live a sort of monastic lifestyle, and they need to come with me into the desert and grow their hair long and to maybe smell bad and just really find out what it is about music and performance that’s essential. I mean I’m talking about a metaphorical desert here, I’m not actually out in the desert but I feel I’m in a sort of cultural desert. But like Jesus I go to the temple. I go to the temples of culture. I go to art galleries and I sit and read in the temple and then maybe my metaphorical mother and father say “Where are you Andy? Where are you? We can’t find you. We were looking for you.” And I say “No I was in my father’s house. I was learning about my father: art, music.” And they come and collect me and they bring me back. And then I start my mission. I go out into the world and I say “No this is the real art.” So maybe I’m a mixture. I’m a mixture between John the Baptist and Jesus and I’m combining those two approaches and making new work that’s dangerous but is effectively going to change the world perhaps not for the better. Because of course y’know, Christianity ushered in this, almost ushered in the Dark Ages erm, in a way. People, we had, there, there was the Roman Empire with erm, aqueducts and er, technological innovation and then there was the er, Christian revolution and then Europe kind of plunged into a dark age. And perhaps I’m going to plunge music and culture into a dark age. There will have been, there was computer music and there was the advances of these great composers in the Twentieth Century. And then Andy Ingamells came along, and came with a new vision of salvation for everybody. Everybody can be be a composer, everyone can be and artist. And then suddenly work becomes less technologically advanced, but better. Better and worse simultaneously, in the same way that Christianity made Europe both better and worse. And I think that’s really what I’m doing, although I’m aware of it in the way that perhaps Jesus and Saint Paul and John the Baptist were not aware of what they were doing.
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undergraduate and postgraduate Prospectus 2012 entry Foundation Degree in Music Production and Sound Design

undergraduate and postgraduate Prospectus 2012 entry Foundation Degree in Music Production and Sound Design

The Foundation Degree in Music Production and Sound Design is validated by Liverpool John Moores University and therefore students can progress to Level 6 study in the third year of the Popular Music Studies course at LJMU. Students can expect to graduate with the appropriate skills to seek employment within the music industry and its associated areas. St Helens College has a new £60m Town Centre Campus that includes the Music Technology department where students will benefit from the latest learning resources, studios and other facilities.

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Spectral Pitch Similarity is a Predictor of Perceived Change in Sound- as Well as Note-Based Music

Spectral Pitch Similarity is a Predictor of Perceived Change in Sound- as Well as Note-Based Music

The model and the results of Figure 2 are consistent with our hypothesis. Thus, as often observed, changes in inten- sity have large impacts on perceived change (the two rise together), while the influences of spectral parameters are much smaller. And as spectral flux increases, or SPS decreases (becomes more dissimilar), so perception of change increases. However, we should note that the spec- tral impulse response functions are slightly unrealistic, in that it is hard to alter SPS without influencing flux (although it is easier to alter flux without influencing SPS: e.g., by changing the intensity of either sound in the pair being compared). So, the impulsing variables in Figure 2 are not entirely orthogonal, and the interpretation of the figure must be taken cautiously. It is also important to recollect that Figure 2 describes the fixed effects compo- nent of the CSTSA model (that shared by the population of participants) but, given the random effects, the precise quantitative relationship between the predictors and the perceived change differs and thus impulse response func- tions (IRFs) vary quantitatively between individual partici- pants; and the model specifies this through its random effects.
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