This projects design and execution was underpinned by viewing the ArmedForces Community through a 'Human Rights as perspective' theoretical framework (Harvey 2018 3 ) which acknowledges that human rights values need to accurately reflect the current needs of our communities (see, Walgrave 2018 4 ; Gavrielides 2018 5; Van Ness 2018 6 ). Likewise, the identification of the struggle for recognition and active participation in society for communities such as the ArmedForces community in terms of access to social justice was key (Fraser 1995 7 ) to informing this project design. The methodological approach adopted to the evaluation of the project activities were underpinned by these notions and tied directly to the aims of the impact and process evaluation methods detailed in the remainder of this section.
‘Women empowerment’ is the ability to the exercise full control over one’s actions. The last decades have witnessed some basic changes in to status and role of women in our society. There has been shift in policy approaches from the concept of ‘welfare’ in seventies to ‘development’ in the eighties and now to ‘empow- erment’ in the nineties. This process has been further accelerated with some sections of women becoming increasingly self-conscious of their discrimination in the several areas of family and public life. They are also in the position to mobilize themselves on issues that can affect their overall position.
As was stated at the beginning of Ireland’s military historiography and the synthesis of the same manifest by A Military History of Ireland, illustrates Ireland’s diverse and lengthy military history. This exists both within the context of the battlefield but also in the ‘social and political’ context of everyday life and society; to this expansive historiography can also be added the Crimean War. It not only impacted Irish society within the military history sphere, principally through recruitment, but also through its role (and the role of military warfare more generally) in shaping and influencing Ireland’s and Irish society’s relationships with the British ArmedForces and even the British state, monarchy and empire during the union period. As a consequence of not only the Land Wars and Home Rule agitation in Ireland, but also the Indian Mutiny, the wars of Italian reunification, the US Civil War, the Franco-Prussian War and the Boer War, both the Irish population and the Army underwent a substantial politicisation in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The Crimea War represents the pinnacle of Ireland’s relationship with the British Empire and the last popular surge in Irish recruitment as well as enthusiasm for the military before the First World War. 93
Dr Mark Wilding Lecturer, Social Policy, University of Salford; Associate, Sustainable Housing & Urban Studies Unit. Mark has nine years of postdoctoral university teaching experience in the UK and South Korea. During this time, he has researched a wide range of policy areas including employment, housing, social care, and social enterprise, among others. His work has drawn on research methods including focus groups and semi-structured interviews, along with quantitative analysis of both primary and secondary datasets. This work has been published in high level journals including Administration & Society; Policy Studies; and Policy Sciences; and he has also presented at numerous international conferences. Mark has produced policy evaluations and reports for local and central government and non-profit organisations in the UK and South Korea. He was on the editorial team of Korean Society and Public Administration for five years until 2016 and has acted as a peer reviewer for a range of journals including Journal of Public Policy; Asia Pacific Law Review; and International Review of Public Administration.
At the global level, there has been considerable concern over natural disasters. Even as substantial scientific and material progress is made, the loss of lives and property due to disasters has not decreased. In fact, the human toll and economic losses have mounted 2 . A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Currently, involvements of armedforces to aid civil authority in various events are continuously rising. Given their professional training and spirit to deliver and assist the communities, the armedforces always become the first choice of any state civil authorities in the event of disasters. The role of the armedforces in disaster management is globally well recognized. Their ability to work under adverse ground and climatic conditions is an unusual attribute to help to civil authority during disasters. Government, civil society and all other stakeholders have incredible faith and believe that all types of disaster can be efficiently handled by the armedforces. The Indian armedforces are one of the most dedicated professional and modernized armedforces in the world. They are always in a state of operational readiness to move quickly to any disaster affected area. Besides, NDRF also played an important role in rescue and relief operation in all major disasters in the country; in fact their service during the disasters reduces the pressure on the armedforces. The armed force will continue to play a vital role in disaster response as they are the core of the government’s response capacity in major disaster situations.
Bright, young and energetic men and women make up the bulk of manpower in the armedforces. Recruitment is voluntary, which implies that every citizen of India is eligible to be a part of it, provided he/she fulfils the specified criteria for selection. Caste, region or religion, do not come in the way of the selection process, thereby making it a heterogeneous work place. Personnel retire earlier than many other government sectors, to keep the armedforces team, young and dynamic. Manpower in each of the services is broadly divided into ‘Commissioned officers’, ‘JCO’s (Junior Commissioned Officers)’ and ‘Other Ranks’ based on their qualifications and seniority.
The 56% of staff feeling confident about working with members of the ArmedForces community increased to 96% on attending the training; 72% of staff reported having cascaded their learning from the training via a full staff briefing, meeting, training day or memo - thereby increasing the numbers of front line agency staff with an awareness of ArmedForces community related issues.
10. There is little doubt that Hamas is, at a minimum, an organized armed group given that it is the elected authority in Gaza and possesses a structured military force. Whether Hamas is a political authority within the state of Palestine is obviously a more complex and controversial issue. Rather than grapple with this difficult question, this article will explore both possibilities - that Israel and Palestine were involved in an international armed conflict and, the alternative, that Israel and Hamas were engaged in a non-international armed conflict. This has the advantage of allowing for greater breadth of analysis, providing the opportunity to examine the status of online collectives such as Anonymous under international humanitarian law when they become embroiled in armed conflicts of different legal classifications.
charge” may not be considered as a condition to deprive that unit or estab- lishment of its protection. Thus the Convention remains silent altogether as to whether weapons may be mounted on these units. The same situation arises when looking at the provisions dealing with military medical trans- ports, including medical aircraft. Finally, whereas the principle that military medical personnel may be armed is recognized by the quoted provision, the text provides no guidance as to the applicable limits, if any, in terms of type of weapons they may be provided with, nor in terms of the circumstances in which they may be used. The updated Commentary discusses in which way the law on this question, left unaddressed by the First Convention, has developed, and also analyses the implications of the arming of military medical personnel, units and transports has in terms of the entitlement to display the distinctive emblem of the Geneva Conventions. 48
Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 923 Ciezadlo (2013) provides a historical guide to the current crisis in Syria. He explains that there is interplay between the forces of class, religion, politics and ethnicity. In the late 1970s Sunni Islamists, led by Baath’s old rival, the Muslim Brotherhood, unleashed a campaign of suicide bombings and assassinations that killed several hundred officers and civil servants. Many of their targets were Alawites, the Muslim minority to which the Assads belong. Historically, Syria’s Alawites were among the poorest of the poor. But during the country’s decades as a colony of France, many of them found a path out of poverty through the military. Alawites continued to use armed service to rise in influence after Syria won independence.
(thus equally those who have not borne arms). The non-obligatory nature of these principles has nevertheless proved to be a heavy limiting factor in their effectiveness. On the initiative of UNICEF, with financial support from the Commission through the thematic funding of DG ECHO, and with the participation of a large number of actors, these principles have just been revised to take into account the lessons of the many experiences of the last decade, to include the new international legal norms and to extend their area of application beyond Africa to the whole world. They are now called the "Paris Principles – The principles and guidelines on children associated with armedforces or armed groups" – February 2007.
interviews. They were often intertwined, pushing the individual towards homelessness, and were associated more often with the older respondents. Ex-service people with mental health problems can be divided into two types: older people, who may have been in the armedforces for many years, seen much active service, and be suffering from post- traumatic stress disorder; and young early leavers who may have come to the armedforces with psychological ‘baggage’ from their childhood. Post- traumatic stress disorder may be associated with heavy alcohol use, and may persist undiagnosed for many years. Some respondents suffered from a range of mental health problems other than post- traumatic stress disorder, which may have originated prior to their time in the armedforces. Two respondents had dual diagnoses of post- traumatic stress disorder and another mental health condition. Relationship problems could be caused by long periods of absence, a key feature of military life. Post-traumatic stress disorder could also lead to relationship breakdown after leaving the armedforces. Bereavement, occurring when an ex-service person is already struggling with problems such as alcohol misuse and post-traumatic stress disorder, can be acutely devastating.
Terrain, organisation and tactics: Naxalism thrives in the hilly and plateau areas of the thinly populated Central India which has little in terms of roads and telecommunication or socio-economic infrastructure. Jungles and perennial streams provide safe sanctuaries for the armed groups to operate from, who draw sustenance from sympathetic villages and the voids of state machinery in development, basic education, health care, law enforcement, transportation or employment. This void has helped the Naxals to practically run a parallel govt. in the area. Their ‘camps’ or ‘hide-outs’ are located not too far inside the jungles, close to water sources and village trails, secured by a network of informers for early warning, and shifted at frequent intervals. The key command and control organ of the CPI-Maoist is the Central Military Commission (CMC) which is headed by general secretary Ganapathy. However, it is now believed that Nambala Kesava Rao alias Basavanna is the ‘lynchpin’ of the CMC.
Sheffield City Council, along with Rotherham, Doncaster and Barnsley Local Authorities bid successfully for a Covenant Fund grant, under 'Priority 3: Strengthening of Local Government delivery of the Covenant' to enable a work stream including Sheffield Hallam and York St John Universities. This document presents the findings from the first of four community capacity building components of the South Yorkshire ArmedForces Covenant project. As the first of two reporting outputs- this current report contains the results of the research project component 1: 'Consultation and Mapping survey research', which is underpinned by a newly emerging 'human rights as perspective' theoretical framework. See section 2 for methodology and theoretical framework details. The second reporting output will be published in July 2019 and contain the results of an evaluation of the York St John Military awareness training, an evaluation of the Covenant group's Action Planning activities and a profile of the South Yorkshire ArmedForces Covenant model.
Latvia has announced that it would raise the level of combat readiness of some parts of its territorial defence forces by 2018 (one company from each battalion, 18 in total). In Estonia, the TDF staff has been raising the number of mem- bers who keep weapons at home (the target proportion is 70%). Lithuania, Latvia and Esto- nia have been investing in special forces, whose rapid reaction may prevent an escalation of conflict in the event of provocation or sabotage (without the need to involve regular troops). The Baltic states have also updated their mili- tary exercise scenarios. These now include tasks concerning the prevention of unconvention- al threats such as urban warfare, defence of critical infrastructures, co-operation with local authorities, airborne assault and elimination of saboteurs by special forces. The Baltic states have started testing some elements of partial mobilisation of reserves, as in the case of Esto- nia’s Sill military exercise (May 2015), in which 7000 reservists were called to participate. (4) Development of military infrastructures. The Baltic states have increased investments in the development of military infrastructures and
The study participants were selected from a range of different outpatient departments from King Salman ArmedForces Hospital and King Khaled ArmedForces Hospital which are now one hospital under the same administration using a simple random sampling technique by a trained research assistant. This is done through a computer- generated process in which each of the patients is assigned a number, after which the requested sample would be chosen at random. The dependent variable (AMR knowl- edge among study participants) and independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics, factors leading to anti- biotic resistance, different diseases that can be treated with