A case study to evaluate GCPs was conducted at Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T). The university provides both distance education and graduate certificates to a wide array of students (Evans, Murray, Daily, and Hall, 2000). Distance education at the university (previously known the University of Missouri - Rolla) was started through the campus’s Video Communications Center in 1985 in collaboration with the National Technological University (NTU). Established in 1984, NTU was one of the first accredited "virtual" universities to provide distance education to students nationwide. In 1994, Missouri S&T and the UnitedStatesArmy began a program of intensive study taught by university faculty at a local Army facility that allowed officers to earn university graduate credit leading to a certificate in military construction management, followed by a Master’s of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering (EMSE). The first group of students completed this program in the spring semester of 1995, and since its inception, over 1,000 officers have earned a Master’s in engineering management through this program (Daughton, 2007). Different GCPs offered in the Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering at the Missouri University of Science and Technology are given in Table 1.
j. World War II. High Explosive Bombs. When World War II began in September 1939, the standard UnitedStates filler for high explosive bombs was trinitrotoluene (TNT). On 5 June 1940, the UnitedStates released 8,000 metric tons (9,000 short tons) of TNT to the British under Lend Lease. This came out of a manufacturing surplus of only about 9,000 metric tons (10,000 short tons). Most of the war was fought by the UnitedStates with bombs standardized in 1941.The earliest departure from TNT for the fillings was RDX, an explosive known for its great power and brisance but generally considered too sensitive. The British had developed a method of using beeswax to desensitize the RDX, and used this filler with terrible effect in the 2- ton "blockbuster" bombs dropped on Berlin in April 1941. During the following summer, Air Marshall Arthur Harris had pressed for large-scale production of RDX in America. The UnitedStates Navy was also interested in the explosive because of its effectiveness under water, especially in ; ,nixture with TNT and aluminum called torpex. But the UnitedStates Ordnance Department, while willing to start production for the British and the Navy, held back until May 1943 on the use of RDX in its AAF (Army Air Force) bombs, and then adopted only a less sensitive mixture with TNT known as RDX Compositon B. This first significant change in bomb- loading came about as a result of AAF insistence that the large fragmentation bombs developed in 1943 would need the greater power of RDX Composition B to burst their thick walls with the greatest effect. Henceforth, Composition B was used in only about 40 percent of the general pupose bombs. The reasons were twofold. First, the short supply caused by competition between RDX, and high octane gasoline, and synthetic rubber for production facilities and, second, the tendency of Composition B to detonate high-order without fuze action under the shock of impact. RDX was more prone than TNT to prematurely deflagrate (decompose rapidly without detonating) when employed in delayed-action bombs dropped from high altitudes. In the war-long argument over the relative merits of blast and fragmentation, the pendulum now began to swing back toward blast partly because by 1944 the AAF would have aircraft capable of delivering larger and heavier loads. After 1943, the new aluminized fillings were of far greater interest than either RDX Composition B or ednatol. Until WW II, the use of aluminum in explosives had not been extensive. Tests in 1941 in England had failed to indicate any significant difference between aluminized explosives and amatol or Composition B. In
The suppression of prostitution is an established policy of the Department of the Army in its program for the welfare of personnel, the development and guidance of character, and the control of venereal disease. The policy applies to all overseas commands as well as those commands within the continental UnitedStates. It is the responsibility of all commanders to secure compliance with this policy. All practices that can in any way be interpreted as fostering or condoning prostitution will be prohibited. Violations will be handled through appropriate disciplinary actions. Identified houses of prostitution will be declared off-limits to all US military personnel. Action taken in this connection will be coordinated with proper authorities of the other services. In the UnitedStates, the civil authorities have complete control over the suppression of prostitution off the military installation. The policy of suppression is accomplished through cooperation with civilian law enforcement agencies and health organizations. Full cooperation will be given civilian and other government agencies engaged in the suppression of prostitution and the elimination of sources of venereal infection. Where local authorities fail to cooperate, the commander may appeal to higher authority to negotiate improvement of conditions. The
This study has several limitations. Injuries treated in urgent care centers, physician offices, or on athletic fields that do not present to an emergency department are not captured by the NEISS database. The number of head traumas is likely to be underestimated, particularly minor head traumas, of which a substantial portion are treated in an outpatient setting . Therefore, the re- sults presented here may not be representative of all head traumas in the UnitedStates. The NEISS coding guidelines for coding internal organ injuries to the head is relatively nonspecific and may include cases where no explicit diagnosis of head trauma was made . Furthermore, the NEISS database only includes the most severe diagnosis for each case, even if multiple diagnoses are present in ED records. Cases may have been ex- cluded from this study when head trauma was, in fact, present . The use of ICD-9-CM as a gold standard for validating the NEISS case definition used is also a limitation, as ICD-9-CM codes have long been criticized as a flawed means of disease classification, especially in cases of traumatic brain injury [40, 42, 43]. Development and assessment of a new bridging matrix between the NEISS and the ICD-10-CM coding system may be bene- ficial in developing a better working case definition for head injuries, as previous efforts with ICD-9-CM codes demonstrated promising results . Despite these limitations, the strength of this study lies in its large, nationally representative sample and the concordance of its results with other studies utilizing large administra- tive datasets [11, 12].
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) to direct the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estab- lish programs to provide grants to eligible entities (including local government units, redevelopment agencies, States, and Indian tribes) for site characterization and assessment of, and performance of response actions at, brownfields facilities. Absolves from liability for response actions bona fide prospective purchasers to the extent liability at a facility for a release or threat thereof is based solely on owner- ship or operation of a facility. Establishes limitations to liability for codisposal landfills (certain MSW or sewage sludge landfills that may have received hazard- ous waste and that contain predominately MSW or sewage sludge transported from outside the facility). Revises provisions regarding uses of Superfund. Authorizes appropriations from Superfund.
Compared with the Union , the government in Richmond made only a modest effort to supply chaplains to every unit of the army . As a result of this neglect, many Confederate army chaplains were unordained men with religious convictions that linked them to the Cause . These convictions, rather than religious instruction, often drove them to become army chaplains . State units, exercising a religious local option, began to look for men willing to join them and serve as chaplains . 7 Confederate President Jefferson Davis yielded his supervisory role to the will of the men of regiments and commissioned chaplains elected by the men .
The Interim Brigade Combat Team is scheduled to be operational in fourth quarter, fiscal year (FY) 2000. Its design gives the Army a rapidly deployable, highly mobile, survivable, and lethal force intended to fill the void between traditional heavy and light forces. Planners have incorporated the principles of velocity management, reach-back support, and regionally available commercial support to the maximum extent possible to reduce the brigade’s combat support and logistics footprint. Organic noncombat equipment has been drastically reduced with the expectation that the brigade will operate in an extremely austere environment until the theater matures. The existing ammunition support structure has been adapted to provide efficient and effective support. Elements tailored to support the BCT include the ATP and the BAO, a brigade-level element similar in structure and function to the DAO. These adaptations may be changed or modified before activation of the initial brigade.
The data are ﬁtted separating vector-boson-mediated processes, VBF and VH, from gluon-mediated processes, ggF and ttH, involv- ing fermion (mainly top-quark) loops or legs. 5 Two signal strength parameters, μ ggF f + tt H = μ ggF f = μ tt H f and μ VBF f + V H = μ VBF f = μ V H f , which scale the SM-predicted rates to those observed, are intro- duced for each of the considered ﬁnal states ( f = H → γ γ , H → ZZ ∗ → 4 , H → WW ∗ → ν ν ). The results are shown in Fig. 7. The 95% CL contours of the measurements are consistent with the SM expectation. A combination of all channels would provide a higher-sensitivity test of the theory. This can be done in a model- independent way (i.e. without assumptions on the Higgs boson branching ratios) by measuring the ratios μ VBF + V H / μ ggF + tt H for the individual ﬁnal states and their combination. The results of the ﬁt to the data with the likelihood Λ( μ VBF + V H / μ ggF + tt H ) are shown in Fig. 8. Good agreement with the SM expectation is ob- served for the individual ﬁnal states and their combination.
If a captain is not selected for separation, then the captain is evaluated for selection for BZ promotion. If the officer is selected for BZ promotion, then the captain is delayed until promotion to major. This delay is simply the average pin-on point to BZ major (typically 8.75 years from commissioning for the base-case model) minus the officer’s assigned years of service. Since it is possible for SOF captains to receive a years of service assignment greater than 8.75 years, thus creating a negative value for time served as a BZ selected captain, the maximum years of service was set to 8.5 years. Historically, SOF officers typically do not exceed 8.5 years of service before entering SOF; however, a fitted distribution may assign an extremely small number of officers a value of years of service greater than 8.5 years. Therefore, the simulation would select the minimum amount between the randomly generated years of service or 8.5 years. Using the 8.75-year mark minus the assigned years of service ensures that an officer selected for BZ promotion is promoted to major at the 8.75-year mark from commissioning. For officers who are selected as PZ officers, they follow a similar approach as BZ captains but are delayed until the 9.5-year mark, the number of years that majors pin on from their commissioning date. For those captains not selected for promotion to major, they receive a random time to separate from the Army that is based on the date of the selection results release. Again, this time is based on historical data for non-selected captain losses. The selection rates for BZ captains to major are based on the average of BZ selections for the past three years and is set as a deterministic value for the simulation. As in the spreadsheet model, CA and PO use a 5% BZ selection rate and SF uses an 8% selection rate. CA and PO used the 80% guideline for PZ selection to major and SF uses an 85% selection rate.
12-27. Command planning and documentation As discussed in Chapter 6, detailed integration and documentation of the programmed force centers on the management of change (MOC) window. The Army uses this period to update and create MTOE and TDA documents. These documents officially record decisions on missions, requirements for or- ganizations, and authorizations for personnel and equipment. TOE and BOIPs are the source of per- sonnel and equipment requirements for MTOE units. a. The process begins with the Command Plan (CPLAN) guidance message, released by HQDA (ODCSOPS) at the start of the MOC window. CPLAN guidance sets the focus for the MOC win- dow, establishes documentation priorities and ac- tions, and provides force structure allowances (FSA). MACOM CPLANs reflect the current and projected force structure of each command. CPLANS normally contain only military manpower. After HQDA review, DCSOPS publishes an ad- justed Master Force (MFORCE) and an associated civilian annex reflecting the approved plan. The ad- justed MFORCE provides the basis for resourcing personnel and equipment in the draft MTOEs and TDAs.
demographics, to decide what type of infrastructure to implement. However, there is a set standard for both distance (100-600 miles) and population density requirements. At first, each region of the UnitedStates should be treated as its own separate system. The focus should be to connect only the highly populated cities with as few stops as possible, continually reducing travel time and increasing reliability. The German system was not implemented in this way; much more emphasis was placed on avoiding bottlenecking, making the system accessible for both passenger and freight travel. This has resulted in a less-vulnerable system in terms of the rail lines always being used, yet has also resulted in lower economic success compared to France and Japan because of lines being placed in low populated areas.
thought to create social structures as barriers to violence. An example of social structures as barriers to violence is the American aphorism that democratic countries do not go to war against each other. The development of barriers that restrict the use of force is then another way to interpret liberalism. Ironically the opposite is also true, liberalism can induce the use of force. Vietnam and the first Gulf War are examples of the U.S. projection of moral values, based on the philosophy of liberalism, that resulted in the UnitedStates participating in combat. As liberalism matured the idea of neoliberalism emerged and provided a counter the ideas of neorealism. Neoliberalism challenged the concept that anarchy drives nations to seek balance of power via competition. Instead of anarchy equaling balance via competition, neoliberalism views anarchy as a means to create a network of interdependence between nations that fosters relationships that build on cooperation and mutual interest. 115 The competing philosophies of liberalism and realism gave birth to an academic field of study know as International Security Studies (ISS).
Histoplasmosis, a systemic fungal disease caused by His- toplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum (15), is an important health problem worldwide. Although the majority of cases present as a mild to moderate flu-like disease requiring only supportive therapy, approximately 5% of patients develop a more serious pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease that can be life-threatening if diagnosis is delayed or if treatment is not initiated rapidly. Histoplasmosis is most prevalent in the mid- western states of the UnitedStates (27–30), although smaller regions of endemicity are scattered throughout most of Latin America (17, 22, 24). The disease is one of the most common systemic mycoses in Brazil, where epidemiological surveys car- ried out by use of the histoplasmin skin test indicate that this mycosis is endemic in all areas surveyed (9). These data suggest that the numbers of cases of histoplasmosis in Brazil may be underestimated and that the areas of endemicity are more widespread than previously thought.
The current study addresses many di ff erent models of new physics, in particular those that predict the pro- duction of metastable massive particles with O(ns) lifetime at LHC energies, such as mini-split SUSY [11, 24, 25] or anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking (AMSB) models [26, 27]. A metastable gluino with a mass of approximately 1 TeV would be compatible with the measured Higgs boson mass ac- cording to mini-split SUSY models, which also predict squarks with masses of 10 3 –10 5 TeV, therefore making the gluino the only observable sparticle produced through the strong interaction at LHC energies. Results are presented assuming the production of R-hadrons as composite colorless states of a gluino to- gether with SM quarks or gluons and the subsequent decay, on nanosecond timescales, of the gluino to a stable neutralino and a q q ¯ pair . This search could, in principle, also be sensitive to the production of LLPs through weak interactions, but these models are not considered here as the cross-sections are much lower.
We acknowledge the support of ANPCyT, Argentina; YerPhI, Armenia; ARC, Australia; BMWFW and FWF, Austria; ANAS, Azerbaijan; SSTC, Belarus; CNPq and FAPESP, Brazil; NSERC, NRC and CFI, Canada; CERN; CONICYT, Chile; CAS, MOST and NSFC, China; COLCIENCIAS, Colombia; MSMT CR, MPO CR and VSC CR, Czech Republic; DNRF and DNSRC, Denmark; IN2P3-CNRS, CEA- DSM / IRFU, France; GNSF, Georgia; BMBF, HGF, and MPG, Germany; GSRT, Greece; RGC, Hong Kong SAR, China; ISF, I-CORE and Benoziyo Center, Israel; INFN, Italy; MEXT and JSPS, Japan; CNRST, Morocco; FOM and NWO, Netherlands; RCN, Norway; MNiSW and NCN, Poland; FCT, Por- tugal; MNE / IFA, Romania; MES of Russia and NRC KI, Russian Federation; JINR; MESTD, Serbia; MSSR, Slovakia; ARRS and MIZŠ, Slovenia; DST/NRF, South Africa; MINECO, Spain; SRC and Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; SERI, SNSF and Cantons of Bern and Geneva, Switzerland; MOST, Taiwan; TAEK, Turkey; STFC, United Kingdom; DOE and NSF, UnitedStates of America. In addition, individual groups and members have received support from BCKDF, the Canada Council, CANARIE, CRC, Compute Canada, FQRNT, and the Ontario Innovation Trust, Canada; EPLANET, ERC, FP7, Ho- rizon 2020 and Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, European Union; Investissements d’Avenir Labex and Idex, ANR, Région Auvergne and Fondation Partager le Savoir, France; DFG and AvH Foundation, Ger- many; Herakleitos, Thales and Aristeia programmes co-financed by EU-ESF and the Greek NSRF; BSF, GIF and Minerva, Israel; BRF, Norway; Generalitat de Catalunya, Generalitat Valenciana, Spain; the Royal Society and Leverhulme Trust, United Kingdom.
A search for squarks and gluinos in final states containing hadronic jets, missing transverse momentum but no electrons or muons is presented. The data were recorded in 2015 by the ATLAS experiment in √ s = 13 TeV proton–proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess above the Standard Model background expectation was observed in 3.2 fb −1 of analyzed data. Results are interpreted within simplified models that assume R-parity is con- served and the neutralino is the lightest supersymmetric particle. An exclusion limit at the 95% confidence level on the mass of the gluino is set at 1.51 TeV for a simplified model incorporating only a gluino octet and the lightest neutralino, assuming the lightest neutralino is massless. For a simplified model involving the strong production of mass-degenerate first- and second-generation squarks, squark masses below 1.03 TeV are excluded for a massless lightest neutralino. These limits substantially extend the region of supersymmetric parameter space excluded by previous measurements with the ATLAS detector.