In this paper, the chaotic system is highly sensitive to initial values and parameters of the system the security relies on a secret key along with the image encryption technique. Chaos is known for randomness, so it is highly secured. We used the randomness property of chaotic scheme i.e **Arnold** **cat** **map** and Henon **map**. The key value is generated using henon **map** and pixel shuffling is done using **Arnold** **cat** **map**. The process of decryption is same as encryption the same key is used for both the processes. This process will help to secure the data and unauthorized people cannot access the data.

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The proposed method is an image scrambling using the Rubik’s cube algorithm. This is compared with the **Arnold** **cat** **map** method. In the proposed method the image can be partitioned into a lot of 54 unit blocks and thus form a number of Rubik’s cube. To apply this Rubik’s cubic algorithm, the basic process unit can be a pixel, small block, or macro cell. For example, if the image is partitioned as pixels, then there will be 54 pixels in that Rubik’s cube. An image can also be partitioned based on 3*3, i.e. 9 pixels as a small block. In Arnolds **cat** method, only the pixel wise scrambling can be done. The shear and modulus operation is applied to each and every pixel. Rubik’s cubic method divides the image into its basic processing units and each of the 54 units are chosen sequentially to form a Rubik’s cube for the purpose of scrambling. Here scrambling can be done to images of any shape and size. **Arnold** **cat** **map** method limits the process only to square area images.

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The research that relates to our paper present a survey of using chaotic systems, where some of them focus on using the chaotic system in image and other in audio speech, and some in both. The research that discuss the chaotic system in audio speech as : In [2] Mahmoud F and Osama F. present in their paper a comparison between encryption techniques of audio speech signal, which are different based on 2-D chaotic **map** algorithms, which are used with time domain and transform domain, they use logistic 2D **map**, Henon **map**, Baker **map**, and Standard **map**. The research that discusses the chaotic maps in the image as Pooja Kathil, et. al.in [3] analyze the encryption techniques of the digital image by using chaotic maps. And they focus on approaches to cipher the image by using chaotic maps. Because of the defects of image encryption techniques, They use chaotic maps to enhance these techniques. In [4] J. Gayathri and S. Subashini summarize the encryption method used for an image that uses the chaotic system, and then they discuss the efficiency constraint and security. Priya R Sankpal, and P A Vijaya, in [5] focus on their survey on the chaotic methods that used in image encryption, In [6] Ephin M, Judy Ann present a survey of different choose-based encryption techniques used in image encryption. Er. Ankita, and Maneesha in [7] present chaotic maps used in image encryption and decryption, they study different chaotic maps as sine **map**, **Arnold** **cat** **map**, tent **map**, and logistic **map**. Garima T. and Nishchol M. in [8] present the encryption method based on chaotic maps. They analyze the image encryption algorithm and present a comparison between them according to different parameters . Zankhana M and, Hiren V, in [9] present a review on some chaotic techniques used in encrypting the Geological image, they use Chaotic Series and logistic Maps, and they compare the results with AES algorithm. Chetana S. et.al in [10] present Chaotic secret writing scheme

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This paper proposed image encryption scheme based on chaos diffusion and a share masking structure. The **Arnold** **Cat** **Map** is employed to shuffle pixels positions. The Visual Cryptography structure is employed to cover the secret image of the shuffled positions. This cover then is encrypted by using again **Arnold** **Cat** **Map**. Experiments and quantitative analysis show that the proposed method has good results in security, storage space, and computational time.

In this research paper, we have analysed existing ‘Image encryption based on Independent Component Analysis and Arnold’s **Cat** **Map**’. The proposed ‘hybrid independent component analysis based on **arnold** **cat**-**map** and with reversible cellular automata based image encryption technique gives better results as the speed is increased This paper has shown comparison existing image encryption technique on the basis of parameters like SDR,PSNR, execution time and computational speed. This proposed image encryption technique shows better results as compared to existing technique. However, in this paper we have not considered the DNA based image encryption techniques to improve the results further. Therefore, in near future we will modify the proposed technique by using the DNA based image encryption techniques.

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We propose a new chaotic **map** based two phase image encryption/decryption scheme in hardware implementation using Verilog code with an external secret key of 48-bit. Here, two different chaotic maps, namely **Arnold** **Cat** **Map** and 3D Logistic **Map** are used in confusion phase and diffusion phase respectively. In the proposed encryption method pixels are shuffled in confusion phase using **Arnold** **Cat** **Map** and in diffusion phase pixel value manipulations are done through bit-plane shuffling using 3D Logistic **Map**. Figure 14 shows the original image, encrypted image, decrypted image and its respected histograms. To check the robustness of the ciphered image we have tried to decipher the encrypted image by changing a single bit of the original secret key, but the original image is not retrieved and the correlation between original image and wrongly decrypted image is also quite lower. Finally, we can conclude that the proposed method can be implanted for real-time encryption for confidential gray scale image files.

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images across the world over the transmission media, it has become essential to secure them from leakages. Due to the exceptionally desirable properties of mixing, sensitivity to initial conditions and parameters of chaotic maps; chaos- based encryption has recommended a new and efficient way to deal with the problem of fast and highly secure image encryption. The implemented image encryption scheme consists of an 80-bit secret key and uses chaotic **map** like **Arnold** **Cat**-**Map** and Logistic **Map**. The initial conditions for the chaotic maps are derived using the 80-bit secret key. In this cryptosystem, permutation-diffusion architecture followed by an efficient diffusion scheme is implemented. This scheme consists of two diffusion procedures, with a supplementary diffusion procedure padded after the normal diffusion. In the supplementary diffusion module, the control parameter of the selected chaotic **map** is altered by the resultant image produced after the normal diffusion operation. As a result, a slight difference in the plain image can be transferred to the chaotic iteration and bring about distinct key streams, and hence totally different cipher images will be produced. Therefore, this scheme can remarkably accelerate the diffusion effect of the cryptosystem and effectively resist differential attacks. Our project objective is to provide high level of security and satisfactory encryption speed for practical secure image applications.

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He earned £300 a month from his Evening Standard ‘Books and Persons’ column.9 This made him the highest paid journalist in Britain at the time – indeed Bennett speculated that the column[r]

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number of them, this is mainly because of the nature of their state transition matrix, while one can have infinite roots of α the other can only have a finite number of roots of α . We found that the solutions of the Discrete time Hill’s equation are nonoscillatory if and only if the corresponding ( α β , ) parameters belongs to the 0-th **Arnold** tongue.

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The **Arnold** Chiari Syndrome should be suspected in neonatal period when child presents apnea. This apnea can lead to death due to the vocal folds palsy with compression of the brain by myelomeningocele. In older children may appear with gradual weakness of upper extremity. Vandertop et al. , in their study, pre- sented 21% of their cases patients with a myelomeningocele and symptomatic Chiari II malformation [8]. Park et al, found that 18% of their patients with myelomeningocele developed signs of the Chiari II malformation despite good control of hydrocephalus [9]. The diagnosis is made by nuclear magnetic reson- ance revealing myelomeningocele. As soon as the diagnosis is made and in

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In some cases polymorphism within a species can lead to errors in identification, unless the populations/subspe- cies are geographically isolated and there is no polymor- phism within each population. The wolf sequences available on GenBank were of C. lupus lupus and C. l. chanco, and not C. l. pallipes (Indian wolf ) and the diges- tion patterns did not match. Similarly the rusty spotted **cat** sequence on GenBank is perhaps from Sri Lanka. These explanations need to be verified with additional sequences from individuals within populations as well as from individuals across different populations of each spe- cies. On the other hand, the house **cat** (Felis silvestris catus) and Asiatic wildcat (Felis silvestris ornata) are closely related, occur together and have identical sequences for the 16S rRNA region that we used for the RFLP. Since these two cats can potentially hybridize, we suggest the use of nuclear markers for further resolution. Furthermore, hybridisation between closely related spe- cies of felids is known to occur, and this is a potential drawback of a technique using only mtDNA [15]. More studies at the population level for each species are

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Abstract — Digital watermarking is a method for protecting copyrighted materials such as digital images. This paper introduces a new color watermarking scheme based on non- overlapping Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) with circulation. First, dual color host image and watermark are decomposed into R, G and B components, respectively. Scrambling the three components of watermark by **Arnold** chaotic **map** and divided them into b×b non-overlapping blocks, respectively. The three components of original image are divided into equally-size and non-overlapping blocks. Second, performing an SVD transformation on all of blocks, the singular values (SVs) of each watermarking block are added to each SVs of original same color block separately with circulation. Extracting any consecutive b rows and b columns of watermarked image blocks can get complete watermark information. Experimental results show the proposed scheme can effectively resist large degree of geometric attacks and compound attacks, and it is also strongly robust against common image processing attacks.

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Plasmid pCAT3M a gift from the late George Khoury contains the CAT gene and a simian virus 40 SV40 polyadenylation site, but no eucaryotic promoter element 29.. The exact genome map loca[r]

finite smoothness), so no real-analytic perturbations can vanish on A. Consequently, methods of [20, 21, 82] are not applicable in the analytic category (in the crucial part that concerns removing the barriers to diffusion by a small perturbation). On the other hand, the proofs of the present paper hold true for the case of C k maps as well. Remark 3 The symplectic diffeomorphism Φ can be a Poincare **map** of a certain cross- section Σ for a Hamiltonian flow inside a level of constant energy. We do not need to assume that the Poincare **map** Φ is defined outside a small neighbourhood of the invari- ant cylinder A in this case: the global stable and unstable manifolds of A, as well as the global strong-stable and strong-unstable foliations on these manifolds are defined by continuation of the corresponding local objects by the orbits of the Hamiltonian system. As above, one defines scattering maps by the orbits homoclinic to A. One can easily adjust the proof of the two main theorems in order to show that if the Poincare **map** Φ and the scattering **map** (maps) for some Hamiltonian system satisfy the assumptions of theorem 1 or 2, then a generic small perturbation of the Hamiltonian function H in the space of real-analytic Hamiltonians leads to creation of orbits that connect U − to U + .

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Taken together, our kinetic analysis of correct nucleotide incorporation catalyzed by the G64S 3D pol suggests that the 3-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for nucleotide inco[r]

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incubated at 30 °C; reactions were quenched at the indicated times by addition of EDTA to a final concentration of 50 m M. The solid lines[r]

Reactions were initiated by addition of 3D pol and incubated at 30 °C; reactions were quenched at the indicated times by addition of EDTA to a final concentration of 50 m M. Products wer[r]

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Template Switching Is the Primary Pathway for Formation of Products Greater than Unit Length—The use of a template- switching mechanism by 3D pol to produce products greater than unit le[r]

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