The growing sensitivity to the technologies on Wall Street is clear evi- dence that the electrical/electronics industry is one that will have a sweep- ing impact on future development in a wide range of areas that affect our life style, general health, and capabilities. Even the arts, initially so deter- mined not to utilize technological methods, are embracing some of the new, innovative techniques that permit exploration into areas they never thought possible. The new Windows approach to computer simulation has made computer systems much friendlier to the average person, resulting in an expanding market which further stimulates growth in the field. The computer in the home will eventually be as common as the telephone or television. In fact, all three are now being integrated into a single unit. Every facet of our lives seems touched by developments that appear to surface at an ever-increasing rate. For the layperson, the most obvious improvement of recent years has been the reduced size of electrical/ elec- tronics systems. Televisions are now small enough to be hand-held and have a battery capability that allows them to be more portable. Computers with significant memory capacity are now smaller than this textbook. The size of radios is limited simply by our ability to read the numbers on the face of the dial. Hearing aids are no longer visible, and pacemakers are significantly smaller and more reliable. All the reduction in size is due primarily to a marvelous development of the last few decades—the integrated circuit (IC). First developed in the late 1950s, the IC has now reached a point where cutting 0.18-micrometer lines is commonplace. The integrated circuit shown in Fig. 1.1 is the Intel ® Pentium ® 4 processor, which has 42 million transistors in an area measuring only 0.34 square inches. Intel Corporation recently presented a technical paper describing 0.02-micrometer (20-nanometer) transistors, developed in its silicon research laboratory. These small, ultra-fast transistors will permit placing nearly one billion transistors on a sliver of silicon no larger than a finger- nail. Microprocessors built from these transistors will operate at about 20 GHz. It leaves us only to wonder about the limits of such development. It is natural to wonder what the limits to growth may be when we consider the changes over the last few decades. Rather than following a steady growth curve that would be somewhat predictable, the industry is subject to surges that revolve around significant developments in the field. Present indications are that the level of miniaturization will con- tinue, but at a more moderate pace. Interest has turned toward increas- ing the quality and yield levels (percentage of good integrated circuits in the production process).
The Laboratory-based Environmental Gamma Spectrometry is a multidisciplinary research tool for detection and measurement of activity and energy in different radionuclides. The state of the art Environmental Gamma Spectrometry is High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, Cooling System, Shielding, the associated processing electronics, Gamma acquisition and analysis software. Although there are many other components that constituent the system, the performance and ability of the system mainly depends on the right choice of the detector. Therefore, the characteristic parameters such as MDA, depends on detector resolution, background energy and detector efficiency, appropriate cooling and shielding arrangement should be taken in consideration while selecting a detector for a specific application. Moreover, detector types like coaxial, well-type or broad energy as well as dominant carriers n-type or p-type also essential. The system optimization can be done through CSS, thickness of windows, dead layers and absorption process. The efficiency of the detector depends not only on gamma abundance but also on geometric effects and coincidence summing. Monto Carlo simulation of the system for incomplete charge collection module may enhance the system performance. The sample metrics and sample geometry affect the performance of the Gamma Spectrometry in the same way. The associated processing electronics must be wide flexibility and good agreement with detector system. The standardization and accreditation of the acquisition and analysis software should be maintained.
The electrical solution turned out to be more cost effective. Early digital electronics systems were based on magnetically controlled switches (or relays). They were mainly used in the implementation of very simple logic networks. Examples of such are train safety systems, where they are still being used at present. The age of digital electronic computing only started in full with the introduction of the vacuum tube. While originally used almost exclusively for analog processing, it was realized early on that the vacuum tube was useful for digital computations as well. Soon complete computers were realized. The era of the vacuum tube based computer culminated in the design of machines such as the ENIAC (intended for computing artillery firing tables) and the UNIVAC I (the first successful commercial computer). To get an idea about integration density, the ENIAC was 80 feet long, 8.5 feet high and several feet wide and incorporated 18,000 vacuum tubes. It became rapidly clear, however, that this design technology had reached its limits. Reliability problems and excessive power consumption made the implementation of larger engines economically and practically infeasible.
Before the 1960s, semiconductor engineering was regarded as part of low-current and low-voltage electronic engineering. The currents used in solid-state devices were below one ampere and voltages only a few tens of volts. The year 1970 began one of the most exciting decades in the history of low-current electronics. A number of companies entered the field, including Analog Devices, Computer Labs, and National Semiconductor. The 1980s represented high growth years for integrated circuits, hybrid, and modular data converters. The 1990s major applications were industrial process control, measurement, instrumentation, medicine, audio, video, and computers. In addition, communications became an even bigger driving force for low-cost, low-power, high-performance converters in modems, cell-phone handsets, wireless infrastructure, and other portable applications. The trends of more highly integrated functions and power dissipation drop have continued into the 2000s.
Anant Agarwal is Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined the faculty in 1988, teaching courses in circuits and electronics, VLSI, digital logic and computer architecture. Between 1999 and 2003, he served as an associate director of the Laboratory for Computer Science. He holds a Ph.D. and an M.S. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, and a bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from IIT Madras. Agarwal led a group that developed Sparcle (1992), a multithreaded microprocessor, and the MIT Alewife (1994), a scalable shared-memory multiprocessor. He also led the VirtualWires project at MIT and was a founder of Virtual Machine Works, Inc., which took the VirtualWires logic emulation technology to market in 1993. Currently Agarwal leads the Raw project at MIT, which developed a new kind of reconfigurable computing chip. He and his team were awarded a Guinness world record in 2004 for LOUD, the largest microphone array in the world, which can pinpoint, track and amplify individual voices in a crowd. Co-founder of Engim, Inc., which develops multi-channel wireless mixed-signal chipsets, Agarwal also won the Maurice Wilkes prize for computer architecture in 2001, and the Presidential Young Investigator award in 1991.
Ethiopian goat-herd named “kaldi” noticed ardent behaviour of his goats after eating the beans from a coffee plant, coffee art on the other hand started developing in late 1980s and became more popular with development of latte. Latte art is a method of preparing coffee by pouring steamed milk into a shot of espresso which results in a pattern on the surface of latte. Latte art is pursuit of a skilled person commonly referred to as a barista and involves various complex techniques to result in an itemized pattern, because of the effort involved, a cup of latte with a pattern costs around 10 times the cost of regular latte. The aim of this paper is to make an economical latte art machine that could take up the role of a barista and print text along with patterns not only on latte but on other variants of coffee too. This would expunge the need of a skilled person for this particular job, cut the cost and would make latte art reach even the smallest coffee shops.
In the world of sparkies, it can be useful to multitask. One way to do this is by the art of multiplexing—that is, using fewer inputs to drive more outputs. Take a look at the example in Figure 3.43 . In this case you can enable current to go through L 1 and L 2 by putting a low signal on pin 1 and a high signal on pin 2. Due to the diode nature of the LED (think one-way valve) with a low on pin 1, putting a high on pin A or B will illuminate the appropriate LED. Reversing pins 1 and 2 will enable L3 and L4 to be illuminated. Repeat this process fast enough and to the human eye the LED will appear to be continuously lit. In this example we use four pins to talk to four LEDs, just to keep things simple, but increase the number of LEDs in each bank and you will quickly see how fast the number of LEDs you can talk to increases compared to the pins used. With three LEDs per bank, you have ﬁ ve pins running six lights; with four you have six pins running eight lights, and so on. If you have two banks of eight, you will have 10 lines controlling 16 LEDs! That is handy, especially when I/O is critical on that project where the PHB told you no, you can’t have that more expensive micro with all the extra I/O. Remember, though, this slick applica- tion relies on the fact that the diodes pass current in only one direction.
The primary aim of the material in this text is to provide the fundamental analytical and underpin- ning knowledge and techniques needed to success- fully complete scientific and engineering principles modules of Degree, Foundation Degree and Higher National Engineering programmes. The material has been designed to enable students to use techniques learned for the analysis, modelling and solution of realistic engineering problems at Degree and Higher National level. It also aims to provide some of the more advanced knowledge required for those wishing to pursue careers in mechanical engineer- ing, aeronautical engineering, electronics, commu- nications engineering, systems engineering and all variants of control engineering.
The content of this chapter will reveal an interesting and very positive side of the study of a field such as electronic devices and systems—once the basic behavior of a device is understood, its function and response in an infinite variety of configura- tions can be determined. The range of applications is endless, yet the characteristics and models remain the same. The analysis will proceed from one that employs the actual diode characteristic to one that utilizes the approximate models almost exclu- sively. It is important that the role and response of various elements of an electronic system be understood without continually having to resort to lengthy mathematical procedures. This is usually accomplished through the approximation process, which can develop into an art itself. Although the results obtained using the actual charac- teristics may be slightly different from those obtained using a series of approxima- tions, keep in mind that the characteristics obtained from a specification sheet may in themselves be slightly different from the device in actual use. In other words, the characteristics of a 1N4001 semiconductor diode may vary from one element to the next in the same lot. The variation may be slight, but it will often be sufficient to val- idate the approximations employed in the analysis. Also consider the other elements of the network: Is the resistor labeled 100 exactly 100 ? Is the applied voltage exactly 10 V or perhaps 10.08 V? All these tolerances contribute to the general be- lief that a response determined through an appropriate set of approximations can of- ten be “as accurate” as one that employs the full characteristics. In this book the em- phasis is toward developing a working knowledge of a device through the use of appropriate approximations, thereby avoiding an unnecessary level of mathematical complexity. Sufficient detail will normally be provided, however, to permit a detailed mathematical analysis if desired.
To the matter of fact, these Artifacts invite the direct observation, through simple outlined forms, vivid earthy colour- combinations and presence of energetic rhythmic and repetitive ornamental pattern that creates a mesmerizing world of make-believe visuals. Looking forward to experiment following the assumption that, the „visuals‟ has the power to enhance immediate attraction, and then to implant the desired concept, idea or story in the mind of their viewers especially a child. To evaluate the impact of folk and tribal art on early childhood learning, we organized the a series of Art- workshops that made us participate to sense the harmony close to the forest and the rhythms of nature. Hence, we named these extended, workshops as "RETURN TO NATURE".