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Becoming (time) and/or Being (space) Art Teacher: A Spatio-temporal Look at the Culture of Student Teaching in Art Education

Becoming (time) and/or Being (space) Art Teacher: A Spatio-temporal Look at the Culture of Student Teaching in Art Education

in the singularity of things and the instants of their origins and understandings, no two becomings-art-teacher were the same. To reiterate, Deleuze focused on the individuality of each person, thing, or event and how it is perceived and experienced at that moment, not assuming a pre-existing unity with other items of its ilk or with other persons in the same preservice art program. Rather, Deleuze’s “conception of difference seeks to privilege the individual differences between them” (Stagoll, 2005, p. 73), and this is especially plausible in the context of the unique circumstances of a particular art student teacher’s production of self as art teacher. I studied each participant’s individual experience of the process of student teaching through their retreats and advances between the events of art student and art teacher. Now that I have provided this cursory explanation of how I used the Deleuze|Guattari concept of becoming to frame the chaotic process of art student teaching as a temporal unhinging or between- ness, Justin will discuss how Doreen Massey’s use of space and place provides yet another means of understanding how art student teachers can negotiate the culture of student teaching.

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“How Will You Do This?” Infusing Multiculturalism Throughout Art Teacher Education Programs

“How Will You Do This?” Infusing Multiculturalism Throughout Art Teacher Education Programs

If students receive only one course that infuses multicultural ideas, understanding, and practices within art education, the knowledge they gain potentially dissolves, especially since their understanding of the multicultural discourse has barely been developed. There must be significant immersion in this topic from all directions in order for multiculturalism to eventually be seen as an inherent component within art education. To generate the comprehension essential to create and implement an inclusive, culturally responsive classroom pedagogy, students must be continually immersed in art education courses that identify critical multiculturalism as essential to teaching. To analyze the personal, introspective aspect of this study, my teaching process, I revisit the “reflect” stage of this action research. Even as a researcher of critical multiculturalism, I was often uncomfortable infusing multiculturalism into the methods class. My struggle can be attributed to personal fear of knowing that racial lenses shape ideas about “good” teaching (Pollock, 2008) and that Black women usually do not fare well within this framework of identification. Initially, I did not want to acknowledge how my identity influenced how students would receive information. My fear also affected what I did and did not teach; my omitting White privilege from the class conversation is an ideal example of this. However, once I recognized and allowed my positionality to guide my instructional decisions, I was much more effective in my teaching. Positionality is critical in creating authentic spaces for learning and discussing culture (Desai, 2000). According Merriam, Johnson- Bailey, Lee, Kee, Ntseane, & Muhamad, (2001), positionality can be associated with race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, gender or any microculture. It acknowledges that your understanding of the world is subjective to your place within it. Positionality places biases at the forefront of conversations and fosters more genuine

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Interpreting and implementing the IB Learner Profile in an internationalised school in China: a shift of focus from the ‘Profile as text’ to the ‘lived Profile’

Interpreting and implementing the IB Learner Profile in an internationalised school in China: a shift of focus from the ‘Profile as text’ to the ‘lived Profile’

Given that a defining characteristic of international education is, or should be, an intercultural and global focus, teachers and school leaders should be aware of the role that individuals and schools play in facilitating, reproducing or even challenging the idea of international mindedness. Researchers also need to be responsive to the central role of educational stakeholders in interpreting and implementing international mindedness, as embodied in the Learner Profile. However, the current literature on the Profile tends to focus on either the Profile as text (Cambridge; 2013; Tarc, 2009; Van Oord, 2007, 2013), which over-emphasises the regulatory nature of the Profile as reinscribing normative western behaviour, or the Profile in relation to the perceptions of stakeholders, thereby losing sight of the actual Profile as a document (Beek, 2016; Cause, 2009, 2011; Chatlos, 2015; Lai, Shum & Zhang, 2014; Wang, 2012, 2013, 2015; Wells, 2016). This article adds to the growing literature on the Learner Profile by attempting to find a middle ground between these two positions. In order to achieve this aim, I present how Sophie (a pseudonym), an IBDP art teacher in an internationalised school in Shanghai, China, not only reshaped the Profile according to her beliefs about teaching and learning, but also resisted what she perceived to be patriarchal and westernising discourses by (re)presenting the attributes as a piece of art. The term ‘internationalised school’ here corresponds to Hayden’s (2016) term, Type C non-traditional international school and refers to nationally focused schools that offer international curricula to local indigenous elites. In contrast, Type A schools have been defined as traditional international schools serving transnational elites and Type B as ideological international schools that seek to make the world a more peaceful place through promoting greater intercultural understanding and international cooperation (Hayden, 2016). Findings suggest that future research should focus on both the Profile as text (as presented by the IB in official documents), and also what I call the lived Profile (as interpreted and implemented by individuals). Tentative recommendations for professional development are also made that include synthesising the Profile as text and the lived Profile.

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Essay on Playfulness and Play in Children’s Art Class: A Reflection Based on Winnicott

Essay on Playfulness and Play in Children’s Art Class: A Reflection Based on Winnicott

DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.102024 304 Creative Education two and puts himself in a “meta-posture” (Metra, 2006). For Vygotsky (2013), it is as though the child would be a head taller than himself. While making art, children take the plunge to illustrate their experiences of the world with the seriousness of any child at play. They gather what little knowledge of the world they have and the few perceptual motor processes they possess. In addition, they gather some mental representations and representations of space they possess, as well as their little vocabulary of graphic forms, in order to symbolize visual data (Baldy, 2010). “Probably they can do this because the plunge is less of a plunge to them, since they live so much of their lives, through play, in a state where dream and external reality are fused” (Milner, 2010: p. 108). Play creates the child’s zone of proximal development. While playing, the child always puts her/himself above her/his average age, above her/his daily behaviour, which is the best position for learning. When the learner is unable or refuses to play and to allow the intermediate area of experience to unfold, art learning may become pointless and possibly out of his/her reach, the learner remaining in an insensitive and aesthetically blind mood. It follows that the art teacher must bring the learner in a position of being able to play with her/him, in order to overlap their two areas of playing and set a learning space that opens a privileged, aesthetically oriented communication channel.

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The role of transformative leadership between teacher and student in the context of the senior secondary art studio

The role of transformative leadership between teacher and student in the context of the senior secondary art studio

One of the participants from the same school also mentioned that he realised he needed his teacher’s expertise, although he felt that some students could avoid establishing the type of collaborative relationship he had with his senior art teacher. Another participant stated that the communication with his senior art teacher was a two way process: “... if I had a problem with anything I would be able to talk to him about it and it’s good to have that relationship – you have to be the kind of person to take advantage of it though” (School B). Another aspect to this theme was the identification of themselves as artists, which one participant revealed when discussing time management in relation to his work: “I think you find with all artists and musicians and stuff nothing gets done until the final minute” (School B).

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National Curriculum Framework 2005, Constructivism and Inclusion in the Face of Indian Film

National Curriculum Framework 2005, Constructivism and Inclusion in the Face of Indian Film

At the end part he reintroduces the child to his first love by organizing an ‘open’ painting competition & gifts him his confidence in front of those who had dismissed the little kid. Ishan’s transformation has a magical effect on his father as well as the other teachers in the school. The ending where the child acknowledges his art teacher is heart rendering. The subtitle of the movie is: ‘Every child is special’. That is the major theme of the movie. The title and the subtitle together throw light on the technique employed in the movie: it’s part art and part documentary. Rather, there’s quite a bit of lecturing by art teacher, which is not really admissible in good art. Art persuades us through subtle suggestions. That magical effect suffuses the last part of the movie and overflows to the audience. The effect is palpable, in fact. While Ishan’s father breaks down into weeping, realizing his guilt in not providing the needed attention to his son.

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Intertwined: An investigation into
becoming an artist and teacher

Intertwined: An investigation into becoming an artist and teacher

four glowing prac reports. On paper, I can see that I really did present as a promising future teacher. I ticked all the boxes for what should make a great art teacher. I made my own artwork, albeit very little over the past two years. I worked hard, and had an open mind to criticism and change. But there was this knot in my stomach and still a nagging sense of doubt. Like everything I’d done in practice was never 100% what it would really be like in the reality of a teaching job. In my mind, I couldn’t class it as a genuine experience because I’d always had my colleague teachers’ support and guidance every step of the way. When something didn’t quite work, they told me how I could improve it. They were able to anticipate things that I was completely oblivious to. The reality of teaching on my own, and being responsible for my own classes would be very different to this. Regardless of what my reports and grades reflect, I realise that none of that mattered if I didn’t believe I was ready. I was afraid of what would come next and angry with myself for feeling this way.

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Unraveling the Yarn: Self-Reflection, Critical Incidents, and Missteps Leading to Continued Growth as a Culturally Sensitive Art Educator

Unraveling the Yarn: Self-Reflection, Critical Incidents, and Missteps Leading to Continued Growth as a Culturally Sensitive Art Educator

reflection contributed to my growth and evolution as a culturally sensitive educator. A cursory reading may have left some to conclude that I evolved from a considerably insensitive person with minimal levels of teaching competence, to one that just recently awakened to any sense of awareness to issues of cultural diversity. I hope that is not the case, as the incident described in this article only represents a small snapshot of my early teaching practices and who I was as a beginning art teacher and young adult. A more comprehensive view would reveal that I chose to work at McCarty Elementary among several other options in different socio-economic communities, that I was honored with an award for teaching excellence during my time there, and that I have always been proud to learn and explore Mexican cultural traditions with Monica and, now, our two young children who are experiencing a border consciousness (Gómez-Peña, 1989) of their own in a household of mixed heritages.

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A Research on the Art Needs of Music Teacher Candidates

A Research on the Art Needs of Music Teacher Candidates

Through art education, it is aimed to educate the students as individuals that finally can gain the ability to express themselves within artistic ways, take responsibility to recognize, to learn about, to protect and hand down their own culture to next generations, and obtain advanced virtual perception. It is also intended to make them as individuals who are respectful to the world cultural heritage, and can become creative and imaginative adults. In order to achieve these goals, it is important to integrate art education into all levels of education most properly and without any interruption. Especially today in which technology rapidly develops and mechanization brings out some problems it is necessary to prepare children to be able to express themselves in different artistic ways for a blessed and productive generation (Buyurgan-Buyurgan, 2007).

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Perception of Elementary Education and Art Education Teacher Candidates towards the Aesthetic Concept

Perception of Elementary Education and Art Education Teacher Candidates towards the Aesthetic Concept

Practices should be performed to interpret artworks in visual arts education courses aimed at aesthetic being an artistic concept with teacher candidates of the Pre-school Education Department. This training process should not be only in one semester in the third grade but also in both semesters of 3rd and 4th grades. Such arrangements may facilitate the formation of artistic likes of teacher candidates and it can also make it easier for them to understand the point of view of the artist. As the Pre-school education is the first step of the child to start his/her education life, the teacher's sensitivity to art and aesthetic can ensure that the child is related and sensitive to art from the very first childhood. Course contents and activities can be created about ensuring that teacher candidates of the Primary Education realize different aspects of art. Teacher candidates can be set to carry out applied studies at museums, art galleries and painting and sculpture workshops in order that they can apply them to their future students. It has been observed that the Art Education Department’s students who take art education courses intensively accept the concept of aesthetic as the beauty in the nature and feeling of pleasure the most; on the other hand, they cannot associate it with philosophy. An elective course with this name can be arranged in the related undergraduate programs. This will help them to understand the background thinking of the artwork, to distinguish concepts between the beauty in the nature and the beauty in art, and to constitute a cognitive aesthetic understanding in students. In addition, activities that enable art educator candidates, who can serve as art counsellors in museums and galleries or in different units of state institutions, to perceive the historical and cultural structure of the environment they are in and to recognize discrepancies in environmental planning should be included in curricula.

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Evaluating Population Origins and Interpretations of Identity: a Case Study of the Lemba of South Africa

Evaluating Population Origins and Interpretations of Identity: a Case Study of the Lemba of South Africa

The process of creating this work of art has been arduous. There are many photos of im- mediate as well as extended family under the old, oak tree as it stood beside the house. I spent hours searching through old albums belonging to my grandmother, mother, and me. I was able to find photos from the 1930’s to recent history, all taken under that oak tree. There were miss- ing links that some of my cousins were able to fill with their own family photos, still mostly un- der that oak tree. There were more outdoor photos before flash photography became common. I was forced to include a few indoor photos in order to include all the family and in order to doc- ument some important moments in time, but each photo is cut from templates that I made from actual leaves from the seedlings of the old oak. The collaged leaf-photos are in clusters based on the period of time and the part of the family that they represent. I did not even come close to completing the collage-painting before the house was demolished, but I was able to get a series of videos of the demolition taken both by cousins, who were able to be there near the beginning of the demolition, and by friends and me after school when the last walls were coming down.

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Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

This postulation hinges on the premise that translation is a bilingual communication context and its schematization is normally supposed to entail the representation and mergence of two inter-dependable and unilingual communication processes. In effect the process of translation involves a two-flow communication process: a first one in SL (from the original author to the translator) and a second one in the TL from the translator to the receiver(s) in the targeted language (Komissarov 1996; Reiss 2000; Endong et al 2013; Perez and Wilson 2006; Prashant 2000; Jossey-Bass 1998). Komissarov (1996:84) corroborates this fact in his observation that the phenomenon of translation has to be looked upon from a dualistic point of view since the message (the context, the meaning) is first encoded (given form) in another language and then decoded (received, understood) and only then transcoded (given another form) into another language. It is here, in this process of transcoding, that the crux of translation is to be found because translation skill (translation art, craft), in my opinion, is nothing but the skill of matching the patterns of two different languages against the background of one and the same objective: extra-linguistic reality structured differently by two given languages. Based on the observation above, translation (and the translator by implication), is the “conjunction” linking the two interdependent communication processes. Though the translator is at the end of the preliminary communication process (among the audience in SL), he is not considered a “real” receiver. Agbogun (2012:155) corroborates this view in his assertion that:

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Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

Indians managed to live happily in the times of material scantiness; they used their social institution and social system to protect themselves from external insecurity and establish conditions for internal security. Indian oral literature was developed to a high extent (stories, poetry, music, rituals, prayers). Praying would last even several hours until words were pronounced without mistakes, and this was necessary as Indians feared that magic wouldn't work and that community would be left without the food necessary for life. Navarre Scott Momaday, born in 1934. in Lawton, Oklahoma occupies a special place in the literature of American Indians. Being an autochthonous member of a minority group, he knew what problems, out of many that Indians had, should be given a special emphasis in his literary works. His work is founded on the oral tradition that has been nurtured by many Indian peoples. He realized that the stories developed from the tradition of the Kiowa tribe, he belonged to on his father's side, were fragile and that they would, if they weren't put down, be left at the mercy of time and become forgotten and lost. Having lived in rural areas, in reservations with beautiful nature, he gained experience through the languages of different tribes, but he was also acquainted with the strife that is torturing Indians even today – the identity problem; the young have their own idea about their identity, but the whole world conspired against them wanting them to be what they don't want to. As a writer, teacher, artist and narrator, Momaday dedicated his life to preserving oral tradition and the other forms of Indian culture. His deep interest and erudition are frequently attacked by comments from the American West, because it is not easy for Americans to criticize their own flaws. His novel The Ancient Child (1989) is about the split identity of a painter, of Kiowa origin, who was raised as a white. In the novel The Way to Rainy Mountain, through retelling the Kiowa tribe legends, he indicates their belonging to American cultural heritage. The common characteristic of all Momaday's works are poetic style and recognizable figurativeness. Today, N. Scott Momaday is a visiting professor at the Universities of Princeton and Columbia; he was the first professor to teach American literature at the University of Moscow. He is the author of thirteen books - novels, collected poems, literary critics and works on Indian culture. His first novel House Made of Dawn (1967) brought him the Pulitzer Prize.

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Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

Ximena Cuevas (1963) is one of the leading Mexican video filmmakers. Her videos have been shown at international film and video festivals, such as Sundance and the New York Film Festival. She has been invited to speak at many events, such as the one organised by the Pacific Film Archives in San Francisco, the Museum of Contemporary Art in San Diego and the Guggenheim in New York and Bilbao. Her videography boasts works such as Las 3 muertes de Lupe (1983-84), Noche de Paz (1989), Corazón sangrante (1983), Un Dios para Cordelia (1995), Cama (1998), Marca Registrada (2001), Turistas (2001-2002), Planetario (2002) and Tómbola (2003) (Figure 3.1.), which is a documented action on television where she questions the contents of the goggle box. The aesthetics of Corazón sangrante are linked to Mexicanidad or the sense of pride of being Mexican, where she follows one of the artistic traditions of Mexican culture and plastic arts. Her contributions to the field of video-installation are also remarkable. In Si la bomba cae (2000), one enters into an "environment" of panels in the Vasarely-style with screens where pirate videos are being shown. In 2009, she produced a video entitled Anatomía de mi universo, which was an exercise for the “Anatomy of Video-art" classes, where her closest secrets were shown visually and with sound. She is one of the most acclaimed video filmmakers. In 2001, MOMA in New York purchased nine of her videos for their permanent collection and it was the first time that this institution had acquired the work of a Mexican video filmmaker (Medina & Debroise, 2006).

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Creating effective invited spaces : putting the lens on early childhood teacher education practica : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

Creating effective invited spaces : putting the lens on early childhood teacher education practica : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

Introducing the student teacher into the new learning setting through involving them in authenticated tasks is seen as starting this collaborative process (Richter et al., 2013). Associate teachers who involve student teachers in the routines of the setting can support building a strong foundation for relationships (Casperan & Raaen, 2013). Within this partnership both associate teachers and student teachers also create a dialogic agency in each other (Matusov, 2001). Creating a dialogic agency means they work together to accomplish common goals, but also rely on each other to share and contribute experiences and learning. This kind of working together could evolve into a more holistic based delivery of learning experiences for themselves and that of others (Korthagen, 2004). A dialogic agency can also prepare both individuals for the complexities and diverse nature of the educational settings they will undoubtedly encounter during their teaching service ahead (Lu, 2010); and present an effective pathway to creating invited spaces.

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Teacher Opinions on Use of Self Regulation Strategies at Science and Art Centers: Turkey Sample

Teacher Opinions on Use of Self Regulation Strategies at Science and Art Centers: Turkey Sample

where educational strategy of grouping is considered for the gifted, gifted students receive education a few days of the week and can improve their skills. These centers were constructed as institutions where children can be taught in the fields of science and art. [14] states, “Science and Art Centers aim to ensure that gifted students become aware of their skills and improve their capacities to use them at maximum.” There are 66 BİLSEMs in Turkey [15]. BİLSEMs are managed within the body of Directorate General of Special Education and Guidance Services under Ministry of National Education. At these autonomous educational institutions, preschool, elementary and secondary school students received education pursuant to the related directive. However, according to the recent amendment, gifted students on secondary school and secondary education levels receive education [14]. Gifted or specially-talented students attending these centers continue their basic education at institutions of formal education with their peers. In parallel with their formal education, such students study individually or in groups with their gifted peers from other schools and branch teachers in the field of ability for which they are gifted at BİLSEMs. A modular program was developed in consideration of interdisciplinary relations in line with the student-centered understanding of education at these centers. Studies carried out at BİLSEMs are created in the guidance of teachers and in accordance with the individual learning principle. Courses taken by the gifted students are not granted credit in the context of general education [15].

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Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

The cartoons I have analyzed use haunting images and captions to picture contemporary sub-Saharan African realities with power and wit. They provide an opportunity to explore postcolonial responsibility in a supposedly independent and progressive region that remains entangled in the vicious cycle of underdevelopment (Brennan 1990, 63). The inventive devices used “to get their messages across despite censorship and repression” may spark desirable change, especially if the affected parties can see, read and understand the message and aesthetic of this graphic art, which is a witting call for overdue social, political, and economic reforms (Mason 2007). However, viewers must exercise extra care because of the possibility of complex and multiple meanings of images, such as “Elections in Zimbabwe” which portrays political corruption in postcolonial Africa but also contains some ambiguity resulting from the volatility of representation and inevitable variations in interpretation and meaning. Additionally, cartooning “is a product of certain social and historical circumstances and certain power relations, and cannot escape their influence” (Strinati 2005, 99). For instance, cartoonists working for government-owned presses may be allies of the state as agencies of mass mobilization in favor of the leadership. Their works may thus be used for nationalist propaganda or for the promotion of ideas that may not always be popular. This is particularly true when the cartoonist belongs to the same political community as the officials he is supposed to lampoon (Duus 2001, 981). The cartoonist may also be used by the government against the people, especially political opponents. In addition, cartoons may express the artists’ own ideas and sentiments. In such cases, the message and aesthetic of political cartooning, which are supposed to serve as indices of the artist’s level of consciousness, may become subjective and even partisan. Andy Mason xv reports a confession by renowned political cartoonist and staunch supporter of the South African liberation

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Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

Manifest Orientalism: Roots of the Teacher Centered Approach in Canonical Art History Texts

In recent years, people have gradually realized that not only can art therapy be helpful for people with developmental disabilities, but it can also provide people in general with a venue to release stress. In fact, while art therapy can be beneficial to people of all ages, it is especially useful for children and adolescents (Malchiodi, 2010). Art is a natural form of communication for children because it is easier for them to express themselves visually than verbally. Art making has also been shown to enhance cognitive abilities, improve social skills, and encourage self- esteem in school-age children. Students with emotional or psychological issues need adapted art curricula and nonconventional teaching approaches (Bush, 1997). Given their educational and professional experience, art educators are uniquely qualified to implement therapeutic art activities into their classes. How, then, could art therapy activities help students experience effective learning, better social interactions, strong self-identification, and self- efficacy? Bush (1997) claimed that art therapy activities are especially effective in encouraging flexibility of self- expression because they can play with various kinds of art materials. Through studying art-making processes and the results, researchers have been able to draw inferences regarding students’ affects and behaviors. This is because students’ artwork reveals their thoughts and interactions with friends and families in their everyday lives.

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Interdisciplinary Approach to Emotional Intelligence of Teacher of Musical Art

Interdisciplinary Approach to Emotional Intelligence of Teacher of Musical Art

Abstract: The article focuses on the significance of the methodological knowledge as a foundation of any scientific research, in which the function of the research tools is performed by methodological approaches. The concept and the logic of the pedagogical research were based on the requirements of the general methodology and the specific one, the philosophical principle of the universal relationship and a complex of theoretical methods, viz.: the method of the study of scientific literature, the method of citation, the method of analysis, the method of generalization, and the method of historically conditioned philosophical analysis. In the process of studying the scientific literature, analysing the methodological positions of the leading scientists, citing their papers, it was found that the role of the interdisciplinary approach to the study of complex systems becomes more important at the present stage of the development of science; the essence of the interdisciplinary research in the field of education was revealed and the relevance of that research was substantiated as an indicator of the above field's qualitatively new level of development; it was proved that education needs a change in the specifics of the pedagogical research towards a fuller application of the interdisciplinary methodology. The application of the historically conditioned philosophical analysis has made it possible to find out the historic roots of the phenomenon of the emotional intelligence and to analyse its essential substance in the ontological and epistemological aspects. As an object of the psychological analysis, the emotional intelligence is represented as a complex psychic entity, whose scientific status is defined as a new type of cognitive capabilities based on the unity of the cognitive-affective processes of the human psyche. In the context of the social aspect, it has been established that the emotional intelligence belongs to the general structure of the social intelligence, whose characteristic feature is the efficiency of the interpersonal communication. The pedagogical aspect of the study of the emotional intelligence is outlined by various contexts. It has been concluded that the formation of the emotional intelligence of a future teacher of musical art as a professionally significant quality should be investigated in an interdisciplinary aspect for the purpose of obtaining a complete and comprehensive characterization of that phenomenon.

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THE ART OF SUPERVISION: ROLE OF SUPERVISORY SKILLS IN DEVELOPING TEACHER CAPACITY

THE ART OF SUPERVISION: ROLE OF SUPERVISORY SKILLS IN DEVELOPING TEACHER CAPACITY

Capacity also involves professional capacity i.e. referring to skills in teaching or pedagogy, especially effective teaching. The skills possessed by an individual teacher is what distinguishes them from other individuals. These skills also involve teacher’s ability to plan (DiPaola & Hoy, 2008). With either weekly, monthly or yearly planning, it enable the teachers to carry out lessons as planned. Teachers need to have knowledge of the subjects and pedagogical skills which are the various techniques in delivering the content of the subjects taught according to the ability of the students. Teacher capacity concept also emphasizes that a teacher needs to possess the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to become an effective educator as mentioned by Cochran-Smith, Feiman-Nemser, and McIntyre, (2008) (as cited in Krim, 2009). In order to be an effective educator, teachers need to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes to fill various roles and meet various professional responsibilities. Capacity building or capacity development is an approach to the concept of individual competence development through; 1) Understanding barriers that limit the execution of the realization of their development goals, and 2) increase existing capacity so as to enable them to achieve measurable and sustainable results (Sergiovanni & Starrat, 2007). In the context of teacher capacity development, this development refers to all possible efforts to improve the teaching and learning competencies of teachers in the classroom that will ultimately improve student performance. Capacity and supervision enhancement (Sergiovanni & Starrat, 2007), is a re-acculturation process of the existing norms and practice in schools. To increase teachers’ sense of responsibilities, they need to be given encouragement and guidance. This re-acculturation process will be more successful if teachers and supervisors collaborate in creating a learning community. Hence, capacity building in education involves the development of human resources especially teachers, systematic planning, organizational infrastructure that supports the function of schools as well as external agency support. All these aspects should be mobilized collaboratively to improve teacher capacity towards the improvement of teaching and learning process (Hopkins, 2001).

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