Artisans and craftsmen are known as individuals with special skills for manual production of products. They are gifted so much that they can make products from simple materials. This sector provides work to majority of people in the developing country but most of these people live in poverty . Their works include paintings, arts, weaved cloth, carpentry, furniture works, earth work like pottery, cane work like basket, metal works, dress making, hair making, shoe or sandals making, plumbing, goldsmith, brass smith, carving, drum making and more. Most of these artisans and craftsmen go through apprenticeship before setting up their own shop. Few go through training in vocational schools whilst very few attain their skills from higher institutions like the poly- technics and universities. Majority of artisans and craftsmen in Ghana are on a small scale and very few are en- trepreneurial in their work. The study therefore seeks to explore the entrepreneurship determinants of Artisans/ craftsmen in the Kumasi Metropolis.
13 Read more
The study was aimed at investigating the major challenges confronting the manufacturing sector, in particular master craftsmen. The study was carried out in the Tamale Metropolis. The target s, welders, electricians, blacksmiths, etc, and a total of 200 artisans were sampled using the simple random method. The results revealed that majority (97%) of the master craftsmen lack the requisite financial support to boost their firms business. Rate of expansion of business was also slow as slow in terms of growth. Lack of access to market was another major constraint to the master craftsmen. It was concluded that most Master Craftsmen lack financial support to enable them expand their businesses. In view of the increasing youth, as well as graduate unemployment, it is evident that the manufacturing sector is capable of only if it is given the necessary attention it deserves. It was recommended service training to enhance their technical and managerial skills. They should also be given financial support, irrespective of the size of the firm, to booze it.
Conch Shell decorating can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization 5 . West Bengal is famous for the unique form of its arts and crafts. One of the most exclusive and most beautiful forms of art practiced in West Bengal comprises of the conch shell craft. It is an extremely sophisticated and delicate craft of West Bengal. Conch fashioning i.e. cutting and polishing of conch to make bangles, to make shells suitable for blowing purpose etc is a main business in Orissa and West Bengal. There are about 3, 00,000 conch shell artists and traders in West Bengal and Orissa 6 . The sankha industry is profitable considering high demand for sankhas not only in Bengal but also in Odisha, Bihar. Conch shells are used in two significant ways in Bengali tradition. One is in the form of the bangles worn by married women, and the other is using the whole shell to blow into it, during religious ceremonies. The conch shell bangles suggest the marital status of a woman. The craftsmen belong to the Sankhakar community. These products have aesthetic, cultural, creative and religious values. In addition to these, this industry can play a great role in generating employment and income.
12 Read more
there are currently around 40 active timber producers. In fact, since he was a bachelor there were 500 wood boat makers on Sewangi Island. "Because usually the talent to make wood is hereditary, like me who continued the work of parents, and parents said he also continued from my grandfather," said Salimi.Buyers of jukung now use jukung only for paddy and fishing activities. And not as a primary means of transportation anymore. Jukung in the current condition cannot be used maximally to support the daily life of the Banjar people in South Kalimantan, so that it has an impact on orders for djoekoengs that continue to shrink. Especially with the rapid development of road infrastructure and modernization of land transportation modes in South Kalimantan. As a result, some craftsmen choose to turn their heads to become construction workers or other unskilled workers. In the past five years, Jukung sales averaged 10 jukung units a year. Jukung buyers are usually in the August-December period after the rice harvest season.Salimi and several other artisans remain painstakingly persevere to pursue their profession as a jukung industry craftsman despite the lack of buyers of jukung. The profession as a boat maker has to be maintained until now. Salimi, admitted that in a month he could still sell between two or three boat units, both types of djoekoeng and klotok, which are usually run using the Dong Feng engine. Selling prices for jukung and klotok depend on their size and dimensions. Jukung size is 6 fathoms long (1 fathom is equal to 1.8 meters) and 1.60 meters wide is sold for Rp. 13 million, with a production period of 20-30 days. The profit gained from the sale is usually Rp 3 million to Rp 5 million per jukung sold. The profits from this sale are used to meet the needs
.......................... (4) In above equations (1) and (4), INC stands for monthly income of the karigars, WOHR is daily working hour, OSLEV stands for levels of ostagars (i.e., the master craftsmen or commission agents), DURNW is duration of embroidery work throughout the year, AGE simply stands for age of the karigars, MARST is a dummy variable representing whether the karigar is married or not, EDUN is a dummy variable representing karigar’s level of education which has been categorized into six groups viz. EDUN 0 = illiterate, EDUN 1 = lower primary (up to fourth standard), EDUN 2 = upper primary (fifth to eighth standard), EDUN 3 = secondary but below madhyamik or tenth standard, EDUN4 = Madhyamik (i.e., tenth standard), EDUN 5 = Higher Secondary and above, TFINC is total family income, TFAMEM stands for number of total family members, CHSTFYR represents the number of children belonging to six to fourteen years of age group, PERLN is a dummy variable representing whether the karigar has taken personal loan or not, MGEN is a dummy variable representing whether the family belongs to Muslim General category or not, MOBC is a dummy variable representing whether the family belongs to Muslim OBC (Other Backward Class) category or not, EMOCHD is a dummy variable representing whether head of a family has taken embroidery as his/her occupation or not, ASSVAL is valuation of asset owned by the karigar family, ELDMB represents the number of elderly member in the family, WORKM is number of working male in the family, WORKF represents number of working female in the family, CONPCR is a dummy variable representing whether the payment system based on contractual piece rate or not, ALTJB is a dummy variable representing whether there exist alternative job opportunity before the karigar or not, EDNHD means education of the head of the family and measured in a six point ordered scale with values 0, 1, 2,..,5; where, 0 means illiterate or without any formal education, 1 means education up to lower primary or fourth standard, 2 means education up to upper primary or eighth standard, 3 means
11 Read more
rural artisans which augments the income generation capability of rural artisans in India. The initiative of the SARAs Fair was pioneered by the Ministry of Rural development (MoRD) during the year 1999- 2000 for encouraging rural products and enhancing the potential of rural artisans' products. SARAs (Sale of Articles of Rural Artisans) Fair is a milestone verdict of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, for marketing of their rural products produced by the rural artisans and Self Help Groups under the Swarnjayanti Gram SwarozgarYojana scheme. SARAs Fair is the gateway to explore the opportunities for the rural artisans who are actively involved in Swarnjayanti Gram SwarozgarYojana (SGSY) scheme of the Ministry of Rural Development. SARAs Fair has been a customary conducting the yearly exhibition -cum sale fair display event effectively happening since 1999. The MORD in association with the Council for Advancement of People's Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) organized the SARAs Fair during the India International Trade Fair (IITF) initially in India in the year 1999 at PragatiMaidan, New Delhi. In fact SARAs was promoted as an umbrella brand for promoting all the rural products. This event displays a extensive collection of products manufactured by the rural artisans, craftsmen. SARAs Fair focuses to create revolutionary marketing strategy for promoting rural manufacturers, inaugurating the income opportunities for the rural artisans actively involved in the Swarnjayanti Gram SwarozgarYojana (SGSY) scheme. SARAs Fairs has created a convergent marketing platform for the rural artisans to meet the customers and to capture their requirements. SARAs Fair are considered as the channel to promote rural products made by the rural artisans. The SARAs fairs create an awareness and responsiveness for their products among the various consumers. This initiative will in turn helps the rural artisans to recognize their livelihood opportunities and institute links with the markets in urban and semi?urban areas.
12 Read more
during course of changing history. The cross currents inspire the creative impulse of our craftsmen. Further crafts are results of years of unconscious experiment and evolution; skills inherited and passed over generations from forefathers to sons and grandsons. The Handicrafts sector includes Clay, Metal and Jewellery, Embroidered goods, Stone, Glass and Ceramic, Papier Mache Crafts, Terracotta, Zari, Zardori, Artistic Leather Goods, Hand printed Textiles & Scarves, Shawls, Wooden crafts, Carpets, etc.
Coconut waste is difficult to process; the raw materials are easily broken, cracked, and scratched, thereby diminishing product quality . Correctly identifying coconut and other woods would be beneficial to craftsmen working in sawmills and engaging in drilling, design printing, assembling, smoothing, and polishing of furniture or handcrafted products, and is also very important for meeting customer needs. Craftsmen are also able to vary their designs, and product function, color, texture, constituent materials, and decorations. Respondents who were skilled in identifying the characteristics of the coconut waste were able to incorporate them into a novel, high quality, and competitively priced products by combining the waste material with decorative materials , . The incorporation of these materials to convert waste into useful products requires innovative and environmentally sustainable technology . The ability to identify the characteristics of coconut waste was considered groundbreaking by coconut waste craftsmen.
Apart from tangible characteristics of timber, the Malay craftsmen also select timber based on its spiritual possessing, either a benefiting or cursing value. Kemuning and kenaung are regarded the most auspicious species because the craftsmen believe that they possess strong spirits that will accompany a weapon such kris, badek, kerambit or spear. A few craftsmen in Kelantan believe that this spirit is compatible with the iron blade. Hence, these timbers are reserved for creating hilts and sheaths of the weapons. As work begins, a craftsman cannot be definite on what style of kris hilt that a piece of kemuning or kenaung will finally become. Gradually, during the incision process, the timber reveals its grain, texture, and luster and only then the craftsmen know the hilt style the timber will become. The motifs on this hilt would be similar to large architectural components such as leaf of getamguri and jaribuaya, flower of ketumbit and keraknasi, these are shrubs or weeds commonly found in the Malay house gardens (Syed Ahmad, 1992; Ismail & Ahmad, 2001).
10 Read more
Moreever, in every large scale industry and especially in the big towns the system of advances which appeared to be as old as the industries themselves, precluded any attempt on the part of the operatives to improve their skill, for increased earning would merely go to liquidate the ‘bagi’. It was small wonder if under this system several minor industries had decayed. ‘Bagi’ was a debt, which an artisan owed to his master and which, when an artisan left one employer for another the latter had to by the custom of the trade, refund to the former and thus himself become the artisans creditor. 38
12 Read more
vendors (mainly artisans) have been forced to sell through middlemen, shopkeepers and/or re-sellers at lower margin. Thus their profits have been reduced substantially resulting in an economic disparity (Roett, 1998) because their products are low- priced. Their handmade products must compete with inexpensive manufactured goods (Raynolds & Bennett, 2015). There are a number of reasons for supporting the local artisan community, specifically supporting the Mexican community not only provides income and social equality, but as stated by the Fairtrade resources organization (2008), it contributes to the overall economic growth of the country. As a matter of fact, the Fairtrade represents a common term for identifying equality among the artisans of Querétaro which supports craftspeople in developing countries who are socially and economically marginalized. Part of the main issue of the discrepancy in competitive advantage is that artisans are intellectual challenged as they don’t have the educational background or Intellectual capability to negotiate or develop a better business plan. “Although artisans are highly skilled in their craft, poor education and illiteracy block new market access” (Raynolds & Bennett, 2015). Nevertheless, proponents of Fairtrade argue that the international trading system, as it exists today, has failed to embrace marginal groups of artisans from developing countries creating a prejudicial environment and a disadvantage for individuals lacking the capability to enter and compete in the market (Karunakaran, 2008). These producers often face steep hurdles in finding markets and customers for their goods. This is because Fairtrade can sometimes represent the difference between disintegration and survival for rural communities (Carlson, 2016).
27 Read more
The age-old traditional terracotta crafting has been kept alive by those professionally skilled household workers. The study presents an account of this community with a view to identify the factors leading to its deterioration. It also attempts to focus on aspects of the socio-economic conditions of the artisans. In addition, the nutritional status of the community had also been dealt with. The findings of this study have considerable relevance to evaluate the socio-economic conditions and standard of living of terracotta workers. The educational status and literacy rate among the artisans was quiet encouraging. The industry was prosperous when raw materials were available abundantly and the competitions from other industries were less pronounced. Lack of space for maintaining and preserving the craft items from weather, high price of the natural colored soil, inadequate working capital, lack of modern training, poverty and occupational health hazards has made the situation more vulnerable. Provision of raw materials at reasonable price, financial assistance, skill development programs, outsourcing, regular health check-up are the demand of the society.
Kotagede is a regency located 5 km southeast of Yogyakarta city. Kotagede was the center of Islamic Mataram Kingdom. Despite many silver centers (Table 1), Kotagede is one of Indonesia’s reputable silver craft center. It has become one of important tourists destination when travelling to Yogyakarta. The making process of silver jewelry in Kotagede remains traditional with typical Mataram Kingdom design. In the past, silver craft was developed to fulfill the needs of jewelry and other accessories to the King. In the 16th century, with the increase in silver crafts demand, the Dutch Government built a special institution to maintain the quality of silver craft. The silversmith can be found everywhere in Kotagede. Most Kotagede’s silver craft ornaments are influenced by batik cloth motives. Silver crafts prices vary depending not only on size and weight, but also the artistic carving, complexities and difficulties. This industry is up and down since the demand is changeable. Currently, the industry is not as profitable as in 1970-1990 where silver craft market was at peak. The silver industry in Kotagede Yogyakarta is still surviving even though the number of craftsmen is decreasing. Alternative strategies should be taken to increase market attractiveness in silver crafts from Kotagede.
14 Read more
Fishing in a responsible manner means taking a quantity that cannot jeopardize the renewal of fish stocks, whether they are pelagic, demersal, coastal or offshore. Artisanal fishing, which is diverse and comprises several trades, corresponds to an evolution of the traditional activity of the subsistence fishery . It takes place both on the continental shelf (between 8 and 12 km from the shore) and offshore (between 5 and 10 km beyond the slope). Some coastal towns such as Abidjan, Assinie, Grand- Bassam, Grand-Lahou, Jacqueville and Fresco are used as benchmarks to indicate fishing areas for marine craftsmen (Figure 1). Thus, sector A1 corresponds to the continental shelf of the maritime portions located in front of Abidjan, Grand-Bassam and Jacqueville. Fishing takes place in this area with canoes equipped or not with ice crates during the months of January to April and from August to October. In sector A2, fishing takes place at sea level in May. This sector is the area offshore, in front of the same cities as sector A1. Sector B corresponds to offshore waters, in the maritime portion in front of Grand-Lahou (Gd-L.) and Fresco. Fishers operate in this area only during the months of June and July. The offshore waters in front of Assinie represent Sector C, where fishing occurs only in November and December.
. One of the historians of that time, Muhammad Olim, in his work ―Tarikhi Khuton‖ wrote about the ―Andijan people‖ who served Muhammad Yokubbek and noted that among the ―Andijan people‖ there were 2 thousand people in Yorkend, Kuchor - 6 thousand, Turfon - 2 thousand, Urumchi - 8 thousand people [43: 142]. Russian sources indicate that the total number of Andijan residents exceeded 500 thousand people. A lot of information about ―Andijan people‖ is also in the works of Robert Shaw, Forsyth, who were considered agents of England [44: 132; 45: 224]. The study of the activities of merchants and artisans called ―Andijan people‖ who played a serious role in the trade relations of Central Asia, in particular, the Kokand Khanate with China and East Turkestan, is one of the most important issues in the history of Central Asia. The study of this issue on the basis of new sources and a new approach will be of particular importance in studying the history of trade relations in Central Asia.
Clearly this was a hard fought battle. A Cairns Farmer weighed in, writing: “I would like to point out to our friends in the South that we also have our rights.” 82 Another cane grower thought the demarcation line between north and south might be closer to Cairns than was usually imagined, proposing that a “colour line” could be drawn at Townsville. 83 A Cairns Farmer accused the southern pot of calling the northern kettle black. Multi-racial communities were not confined to northern Australia. A Cairns Farmer reminded readers that Australia was dotted with ‘Chinatowns,’ with a conspicuous presence of Chinese merchants and artisans in cities and regional towns across the continent. 84 Another correspondent alerted readers to the presence of Anglo-Indian workers on Victorian onion farms. 85 Queensland Parliament was told that in “New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, they would find more aliens than in Queensland…and yet they talked about a ‘White Australia.’ People in Victoria should look out their own doors.” 86 While the Post reminded readers that “North Queensland voted solidly for Federation, placing her interests unreservedly and with blind faith in the hands of the South.” 87 Queenslander Thomas Glassey told Federal Parliament that voters in his state had supported federation primarily because they wished to see an end to Pacific Island labour. 88 The Times thought that if federal authorities halted coloured labour, Queensland ought to secede, its “loyalty to the newborn Commonwealth [being] subject to severe strain.” 89 Loyalty to Britain was also subject to strain as its support for coloured labour prompted renewed calls for an Australian republic.
67 Read more
For the cause of cultural unity folk art is of great value. To understand folk art and tribal art we have an extensive collection of study. However, there are many works and researchs on folk art and Warli art. Therefore, it is essential to carry out a research on Warli art and artisans of Maharastra and its impact on contemporary tribal cultural development paradigm.
S’insérant dans le lieu commun de la transmission de génération en génération, des artisans choisissent de valoriser l’ancienneté de leur entreprise. Ceux-là veulent créer la confiance avec ce gage d’expérience et de solidité. L’ancienneté est évoquée par plusieurs procédés. L’un consiste à faire figurer la date de fondation, mais ce n’est pas le plus fréquent. Plus souvent, les artisans choisissent de se présenter comme le « successeur » ou le « fils», voire les deux, du prédécesseur. Quand le repreneur n’est pas de la même famille, on trouve la mention « ancienne maison… », suivie du nom de famille du précédent artisan. Avec ces références, une continuité est créée, au-delà du changement de personne, qui permet de profiter de la notoriété précédemment acquise par l’établissement. Voici par exemple, au milieu du siècle, ce charpentier de Cailly dans l’Eure qui se présente comme « Marcel de Criqueboeuf fils » à la tête d’une « maison fondée en 1869 » 13 . Plus au sud, en Touraine, et avant la
21 Read more
In brass casting, the casters most of the time work under sheds in aerated places with aluminium or corrugated aluminium roofing sheets and wooden long poles supporting the four corners to provide shade as (see Figure 1). The artisans normally work with locally made furnace popularly called “ebura” in the Asante Twi dialect see Figure 2. It is a thick clay walled mould in the shape of the letter “U”; at the bottommost part to the ground are several holes created, which serve as the mouthpiece to the air blower machine or sometimes bellows which are not mostly common. The average dimensions of a regular furnace come with a height of 24 inches, length of 65 inches and a breadth of 7 inches.
10 Read more
Licensed under Creative Common Page 625 The situation was no different when level of education was considered (table 3). For basic education, 78 out of 184, representing 42.4% did not refer to training manuals, and for the secondary/technical education, 20 out of 184, representing 10.9% admitted that they did not refer to any training manuals. There was no response for the tertiary option. For the drop outs all the 7(3.8%) out of 184 respondents did not refer to any training manuals. For those who had no formal education, 79(42.9%) out of 184 did not use training manuals. Altogether make a total of 184 out of a grand total of 194 respondents, representing 94.8%. The balance being those who had agreed that they used training manuals, and this is10, representing 5.2%. It was quite evident that most of the master craftsmen in their initial training did not use any manuals to enhance skills, and also most of them had no formal education. Therefore they could neither read nor write. More so, master craftsmen did not attend in-service or refresher courses to enhance and update their skills. Therefore the same mode of training was being imparted to the apprentices.
17 Read more