A self-developed closed-ended questionnaire was used to collect data from the primary school teachers. The questionnaire was categorised into section A, B, C & E. Section A was about their demographic characteristics. Section B was about the grades teachers obtained in visual arts during their training in college while Section C was on the availability of teaching and learning resources for quality delivering of primary school creative arts curriculum. Section D part of the questionnaire highlighted the relationship between teachers’ academic achievements of the teachers in visual in college and their subject matter competency. Finally, section E portion of the questionnaire was on influence of availability of teaching and learning resources on quality delivering of primary schools creative arts curriculum. Fivefold Likert scale type of questionnaire such as Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), None, Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD) was employed. Before scoring, the Strongly Agree (SA) and Agree (A) categories were integrated into an Agree group, whilst the Strongly Disagree (SD) and Disagree (D) were added to form a Disagree
The preliminary studies by Ssegantebuka (2014) during the acquaintance visits to the teacher colleges indicated that even though teacher education programs use a similar visual arts curriculum, tutors from different NTCs exposed pre-service visual arts teachers to differ- ent content areas in which they are knowledgeable. This was also evident in the graduates of DSE programs from different NTCs who possessed and exhibited varying content and peda- gogical skills in art areas from the different schools where they taught (Ssenyondwa, 2012). Breitenstein (2003) observes that if art education pre-service programs vary in content and pedagogical instruction, then graduates from these programs may vary in their knowledge and ability to teach art. It is also observed that some content in the VAC in NTCs does not clearly relate to the content in secondary schools. Visual Arts tutors concentrate more on 2D art and teach comparatively little of the 3D art. Moreover, the field of the 2D art which they teach is not adequately covered. Tutors expose pre-service visual arts teachers to drawing (still-life and nature), multimedia, graphic design, painting and textile decoration, and omit human figure drawing, printmaking, and weaving. The medium of expression in the areas of 2D art that the tutors teach is predominantly pencil, leaving out many important dry and wet media which would equip pre-service visual arts teachers with the knowledge of media. This is likely to deny pre-service visual arts teachers the opportunity to get exposed to appropriate content knowl- edge, techniques and media. Thus, the products of this kind of teacher preparation are limited in practical and in theoretical knowledge.
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Work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly identified as essential to helping creative arts students’ transition from university into the creative industries workplace. Off-campus activities, such as work placements, play a major role in educating work-ready graduates. At the same time, increasing enrolment numbers in creative arts education put pressure on institutions, in particular on campuses in regional areas where the local creative industry sector is usually small and unable to provide enough relevant work placements. Viable alternatives were explored by investigating on- campus WIL activities in creative arts education and how to offer students the opportunity to develop work-ready skills on-campus. Consequently, community and industry partners in various roles (e.g. client, industry advisor/mentor) were directly integrated into the creative arts curriculum and trialed over a period of two years. The benefits and insights gained by students through undertaking a client-based project and contact with industry professionals were investigated and are discussed in this exploratory study. (Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 2015, 16(1), 25-38
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Alan Reid is Professor Emeritus of Education at the University of South Australia where he has been a teacher and researcher, as well as holding administrative positions such as dean of Education and director of Research Centres. his research interests include educational policy, curriculum change, social justice and education, citizenship education and the history and politics of public education. he has published widely in these areas and gives many talks and papers to professional groups, nationally and internationally. Alan is interested in the contribution that educational researchers can make to education policy, and so has been involved in policy development at the state and national levels. At the State level this has included a secondment to the South Australian department of Education and Childrens’ Services (dECS) to promote a system-wide culture of research and inquiry; and a Ministerial appointment to review the senior secondary education in South Australia. At the national level, he was the 2002-3 dEST National Research Fellow and was based in the federal department of education (now dEEWR) in Canberra for twelve months where he conducted research on the national curriculum and provided policy advice.
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The process of curriculum reform undertaken at the case study school and presented herein was by no means perfect. However, according to Wiggins, R (2001) ‘an integrated curriculum is not a panacea. Under the best of circumstances, integrated teaching gives students more opportunities to make connections that lead to deeper understanding’ (p. 44). This statement highlights the ultimate value of interdisciplinary curriculum: the benefit for students. This benefit lies in the real world nature of interdisciplinary curriculum in which the focus is on developing deeper understandings through the exploration of connections.
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Simply put, one’s intention does not govern the response. If something one says or does hurts another person, that pain is not erased because one did not intend to hurt another. “Do no harm” is only an effective strategy when one can identify the harm one is doing. White supremacy relies on the cloaking of violence toward non-white persons as normalized. White supremacy in art/education relies on the normalization of whiteness in arts curriculum and pedagogy: a normalization that is inherently violent (Ighodaro and Wiggins, 2013). White people, if we are not willing to critically analyze what and how we were taught about the world, our intentions do not matter. If we are not willing to acknowledge that what we achieve is always at least in part to our unearned privilege of whiteness, our intentions do not matter. White teachers, if we cannot be truthful with ourselves about how white supremacy has influenced our teaching in order to actively combat the negative impact of white supremacy in art/education, we continue to enact violence on our students.
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Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the trends and characteristics of the educational objectives and contents related to robotics in the curricula for elementary, middle, and high school students in Korea. Based on the revised national curriculum, this study analyzed the trends and characteristics of educational objectives (or achievement criteria) and their contents. The results of this study are as follows. First, the word “robot” was found among the “Practical Arts” subject taught in elementary schools, within that of “Technology and Home Economics” in middle schools, and within “Technology and Home Economics” and “Engineering technology” in high schools. In the recently revised curriculum, Informatics included robotics-related terms such as “microcontroller” and “in/output device” for the first time. After the word “robot” was first used in the 2007 revised national curriculum for “Engineering technology”, which is an elective subject in high schools, the number of robotics-related terms gradually expanded in the stated educational objectives and contents characterizing the curricula for elementary, middle, and high schools. Second, elementary and middle schools have focused on both lower and higher order thinking skills in robotics-related educational objectives, while high schools have focused only on lower order thinking skills. In addition, the types of knowledge covered by the educational objectives were mostly classified as conceptual and procedural. Third, the robotics-related educational contents in elementary schools increased independent of electronics technology, and a greater emphasis was placed on software education. In middle schools, robotics-related educational contents were included in those related to manufacturing technology, but not in the recently revised curriculum. Mechanical Engineering was the first elective subject in high schools to include “robot” in the automation section of the curriculum, but such contents were not included in the recently revised curriculum. Conversely, in high schools, the subject area of “Technology and Home Economics” included more
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I do not mean to suggest that the role of a school in cultivating the virtues of tolerance is necessarily limited to its formal curriculum and the way in which it engages students with arguments that defend the importance of these virtues. In section 4, I shall consider ways in which schools that are diverse in terms of their religious composition may fare better at cultivating the virtues of tolerance than schools that lack such diversity because of the opportunities that the former provide for encounters between students from different religious groups, both inside and outside the classroom. Furthermore, socialisation that takes place beyond the curriculum, informed by the ethos of the school, that is, the beliefs and values that govern or influence interactions within it, not all of which are under the control of the school, may also have an important role to play in fostering these virtues. 14
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In the music-infused unit, Whites and non-Whites performed equally (see Table 3). I believe the lack of difference in performance is due to students being able to bring in experiences from the popular youth culture to the classroom culture. Duncan-Andrade and Morrell (2000) state that, “Hip-hop music and culture are a logical bridge between popular culture and the school culture. Given its academic nature and cultural relevance for many urban youth, hip-hop music may provide the necessary cultural frame from which to start effective discussions of literature and literary terminology” (p. 8). It is from this theory that I gained my interest in testing the use of music, including hip-hop, in a poetry unit. I believe in the teacher coming to the student, instead of waiting for the student to come to the teacher. And I think that connecting school curriculum to the real world is a teacher’s primary goal. “If the ultimate goal is for students to be able to analyze complex literary texts …hip-hop music can be seen as a bridge linking the seemingly vast span between the streets and the world of academics” (p. 22)
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Indeed, the Curriculum Guidelines writes that this is ‘a guide for teachers to inquire into ways to make use of [ideas for] a course of study’ (ibid, Introduction-1). 37 Thus, the period saw the field of education gaining in autonomy from the field of power: the collection code moved towards the dominated pole of education (because the Curriculum Guidelines had no legal force), whilst integrated codes moved towards the dominated pole of the field of education. In terms of drama in schools, this resulted in leading some teachers to introduce drama to their educational activities – e.g. drama and Japanese language (Saida, 1952), drama and seikatsu tsuzurikata (life essay-writing) (Tomita, 1958), drama and social studies (Higuchi, 1950; Hikabe, 1950), 38 and seikatsu geki (drama for life) (The Editorial Department of Kaneko-shobo, 1952). Thus, the method position of drama moved towards the dominant pole of the field of drama in school. The difference between the Taisho Liberal Education Movement and the 1947 and 1951 Curriculum Guidelines is that the latter promoted the American type of progressive education: they placed more emphasis on the group and society: ‘It is necessary for children, who live communally with others, to develop qualities and abilities vital to solve problems in life and improve the quality of life’ (MOE, 1951, Chapter 1-2).
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In contrast to these optimistic expressions of the value of art, is the idea (the legacy, perhaps, of an era of tight budgets and high stakes testing in schools) that art and especially children‟s drawings are less important in society and in schools than the core academic subjects such as mathematics, science, and language arts. To underscore the last point, some states provide bonuses or increase salaries for math and science teachers who are better able, governments think, to prepare future technologically proficient workers to compete with the rest of the world. To establish the significance of art as a cognitively demanding pursuit, a project called Harvard Zero was begun in the 1970s. Perkins and Leondar (1977), two researchers involved in this project, believed a cognitive approach to the arts involved certain assumptions. They thought our experiences are influenced by a “knowledge base” or what we know (p.2). The knowledge base impacts and in turn is impacted by how we come to know the world, whether through perception, action or a reaction. Thinking, in their view, is both process and knowledge. They
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itoring System with RFID & SMS Notification. The existing usual going in and out of the school, that to be monitored by using the protect at the gate every time they went to ey are being monitored with the aid of the guards and checked their identification cards.This is the foremost goal of our machine RFID tags should be worn via the Students and they will simply skip thru the and saved the file of their time in and time out to the database. SMS notification is used to mother and father of the students particularly in Enhanced Curriculum in the Arts Program two to without problems monitor the entrance and exit of the students.The Student Notification is without difficulty process in which the Coordinator will use the computer and the machine to Monitor the Students. The effects of the software evaluation performed have met the goals of the researchers and therefore priceless
Economic impact. Beyond the school impact, the arts provide skill sets demanded by a 21st Century job market. Howard Gardner (1999), published theorist of multiple intelligences, explains, “people are creative when they can solve problems, create products, or raise issues in a domain in a way that is initially novel but eventually accepted in one or more cultural settings” (p. 119). Educators and policymakers who view schooling as job preparation note the rise of the creative class and the economic impact to a generation of creative young adults suggesting that an education should foster problem solving, creation, and conceptual understanding in an effort to graduate creative students (UNESCO, 2009; Robinson, 2007). Simultaneously, Americans for the Arts surveyed future employers and found that 85 percent of employers seeking creative employees were having difficulty finding quality candidates (Lichtenberg, Woock, & Wright, 2008). As jobs shift out of the manufacturing sector, 21st century workplace skillsets include many of the researched benefits of an arts education in their descriptions. This job sector and market projection suggests the need for creativity as a part of schooling. Creativity starts with the impulse to develop meaning (Anderson & Milbrandt, 2005). This is valuable for the workplace, but more critically as a life skill.
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The fourth evaluation aim included exploring the potential of the expressive arts as a vehicle for carrying current school curriculum knowledge and for achieving broader educational targets. It is clear that the impact reported by artists, teachers and pupils was overwhelmingly positive, and there is some evidence of impact on broader educational targets such as engagement with learning. Indeed, by the second year there was growing evidence that ICLs could be effective for most subjects provided that the level of goals was appropriate for the pupils. Throughout this report, a recurrent theme has been viewing the AAC project as one way of translating constructivist accounts of learning into practice in ways that are consistent with principles expressed in the Curriculum for Excellence. The many different strands of evidence point in the same direction: the ICLs engaged the pupils, they were reasonably effective in enhancing understanding of academic and artistic content – but there is not sufficient evidence to say that the ICLs were more effective for these purposes than other approaches derived from constructivist research. Many ICLs served the function of illustrating abstract concepts, which abound in physics and chemistry, for example by representing them in another, art-related way. The notion of bridging analogies (e.g. see Bryce & Macmillan, 2005) helps to explain why some ICLs might have been no more, or even less, effective for this purpose than other approaches to developing understanding. Many writers (e.g. Bryce & Macmillan) point out that, if analogies are to be effective bridges between concrete illustration and the abstract understanding that is necessary for progress, they need to be carefully chosen.
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that creative and cultural learning “supports attainment in all subjects including in literacy and maths”, and that research showed that “taking part in arts activities at school can make up for early disadvantage in terms of: likelihood to progress to further education; employment outcomes; and more general benefits, like participating in society through volunteering and voting”. She added that cultural capital gained through engagement with the arts contributed to social mobility, and that the arts could benefit communities by helping those who “have gone off the rails” or are “suffering from mental illness”.
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Our results correspond to previous studies showing that participants value these courses and perceive beneﬁts for communication and professional development. 3,5,8 Similar to most previous reports, our results are qualitative, and in- terpretation is limited by small numbers and lack of a control group. The institution requires that participation in educa- tional research must be optional, introducing potential self-selection bias. We chose a retrospective pre–post self- assessment strategy to mitigate the risk of response shift bias, which is encountered in traditional pre–post self-assessment designs when the learner’s understanding of the construct being measured changes as a result of the intervention. Al- though subjective impressions of the course may have con- founded the respondents’ self-assessment of speciﬁc skills, the retrospective pre–post strategy allows for a self-assessment of learning, rather than capturing learner reaction alone. 9 The results provided useful feedback on residents’ perception of the value of this pilot project in developing the skills assessed. An expanded evaluation instrument utilizing both traditional pre–post and retrospective pre–post assessment approaches could be used in future studies to minimize the limitations to validity of each approach taken separately, and might provide additional insights into the eﬀect of the curriculum on clinical reasoning.
questionnaires with more personal reflections. Design of data collection tools was particularly influenced by the evidence from the literature on the conditions associated with effective arts- education partnerships and perceived outcomes for pupils, teachers and artists (ACE, 2004; Harland et al., 2000; Harland et al., 2005; Ofsted, 2006; SAC, 2008; SEED, 1999, 2000). The questionnaires, interviews and video diary schedule posed questions about the early stages of the project, the process of implementation and reflection on apparent outcomes for participants.
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Although these documents and debate were part of the context of how this project is framed, this research report does not unpack the specific details as to the sequencing of the Visual Arts curriculum suggested in the Shape of the Curriculum (2011) document. Rather, this project looks beyond just the Visual Arts to use the techniques and skills of the medium to engage students in content areas outside of “the arts”. Flying Arts believes that the merging of curriculum in this way has great potential to promote and locate the specific ways in which the arts engage learners in order to achieve critical and connective knowledges outlined in the Introduction of the curriculum document. Flying Arts posits that rich and deep learning activities may be developed through the consideration of collaboration between teachers and artists in the generalist primary classroom, and be inclusive of students at all stages. Currently, the only statement of the consideration of cross- curricular use of the arts can be found in the above document under the heading “Links to Other Learning Areas”:
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measurements aligned to the curriculum in use. Value-added measures could include relevant data such as charter school students’ high school graduation rates and graduation on-time data, completion of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate courses, over-all high school GPA, SAT or ACT scores, and college admissions. It makes sense to also create additional accountability measures tailored for the differences inherent in charter contracts. While an additional assessment and accountability tool for EAST Charter School would necessitate addressing the rich knowledge base within the curriculum, a charter school employing the Expeditionary Learning curriculum would require a completely different assessment tool to capture the students’ project-based, real-world learning outcomes. A single, standardized assessment may make it easier to compare the student learning between traditional and charter schools, it does not provide an accurate or complete reflection of the learning opportunities available to students through a charter school education. Other accountability tools are necessary to balance the scale of charter school autonomy and accountability.
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This study employed purposive and snowball sampling techniques to obtain relevant information for study. The purposive sampling was used to select only heads of visual arts department in the target population. Purposive sampling comprises recognition and selection of participants or groups of participants that are expert and up-to-date with a phenomenon of interest. Snowball sampling technique was employed to trace senior high schools which used to offer textiles in the target population . The snowball sampling technique was employed because getting information about the senior high schools which used to offer textiles was difficult for the researcher. Snowball sampling is a technique of collecting data to access specific groups of people when the target population cannot be found in a particular place . In this sampling technique, the researcher asks each subject to give him or her access to his colleagues from the same population .