Aims and Objectives of this paper, which is an important area of clinical psychology, is to enhance the understanding of the students of the latest diagnostic classification of DSM-IV, used by professionals like, clinical psychologists and psychiatrists for diagnosis and treatment. This course would equip the students to do practice and research after more intensive practical training in future.
the sampled journals. As can be seen from Table 7, the integration of psychological concepts with that of work still holds true to the long history of interactive research that prompted the development of I-O psychology. A strong focus on individual inter- and intrapersonal experiences was found in this sample of psychology journals. This is evident by the three highest occurring themes: job search quality and re-employment, workplace relationships and work stress. These topics concur with previous research; for example, Bliese, Edwards and Sonnetag (2017) traced research on work stress in psychology back to 1917 and found that trends in work stress research are driven by interesting propositions created by I-O psychology theorists. Concurrently, with regard to the psychology concepts found in work-related themes overall, health and well-being were central to most articles, which were also found in current I-O psychology trends (Haynes, 2020) and previous research (Coetzee, 2019). Addressing mental health issues in a culturally sensitive manner is a 2020 research trend for the American Psychological Association (Weir, 2020). Cultural influences were considered across most themes found in this sample, highlighting the role and topic of diversity in I-O psychology (Coetzee, 2019). Thus, these work-related articles highlight the part of industrial psychology concerned with behaviour and functioning of employees in their work environment (Tiemann, 2019).
training in qualitative approaches. For example, there now exist two taught Masters dedicated to training in this field; Masters in Qualitative Methods and Health (University of Leeds), Qualitative Methods in Psychology (part-time, University of West England). However, there is still a shortage of academics able to supervise and examine qualitative research. A recent Learning and Teaching Support Network-funded workshop at the University of Leeds on ‘Developing Guidelines for the Supervision of Undergraduate Qualitative Research in Psychology’ revealed that, in Psychology departments where there was expertise in qualitative methods, this was most usually limited to one member of staff. This situation can lead to individual qualitative researchers becoming isolated from each other and difficulties finding appropriate internal examiners for research theses. The need to pool expertise and to create a forum to discuss mutual concerns was demonstrated by the popularity of this workshop in that it attracted 50 staff from 36 different institutions plus additional messages of support.
Arts integration. Arts integration has been defined by several key arts education institutions, all of which emphasize that arts integration focuses on connecting arts and core content standards with a focused outcome (Burnaford, Brown, Dougherty & McLaughlin, 2007; DeMoss & Morris, 2002). The Kennedy Center has also worked to establish the definition as a method of teaching in which the arts and core content subject meet evolving objectives in both subjects (Silverstein & Layne, 2010). Benefits of arts integration include gains in achievement and positive school climate, teacher collaboration and the use of inquiry-based, personalized learning, and the ability of students to convert abstract concepts to realistic meanings (PCAH, 2011). According to the National Research Council (2000) an “integrated curriculum offers opportunities for learners to apply concepts across domains and disciplines” (Seidel, et al., 2009 p. 33). The practice of making art becomes routine in history, science, reading, writing and math, and becomes an essential part of assessment (Rabkin & Raymond, 2009). This approach can be incorporated at little cost, and at varying degrees of implementation; an appealing strategy for schools.
• What do Constructivism and Positive Psychology , both movements of recent coinage, share? On some fundamental metaphoric assumptions, constructivism shares with positive psychology the humanist legacy, and an acknowledgement of the creative potential in human beings. Through practical approaches focusing not on the need of treatment and
In ﬂ uenced by positive psychology, cultivating charac- ter among children and adolescents has gained increasing attention in PYD. Character can be regarded as a develop- mental asset (Benson ’ s model), one of the 5Cs (Lerner ’ s model) and a PYD construct (Catalano ’ s PYD construct). To operationalize character, Peterson and Seligman pro- posed a “ Value in Action ” (VIA) model with 24 character strengths categorized into six dimensions, including “ wis- dom and knowledge ” , “ courage ” , “ humanity ” , “ justice ” , “ temperance ” and “ transcendence ” . 57,58 Scienti ﬁ c research showed that character strengths were not only strong buf- fers against a variety of adolescent psychosocial problems such as internalizing and externalizing problems, depres- sion and suicidality, 59 – 61 but also positively associated with life satisfaction, well-being, happiness and academic achievements. 62 – 64 According to Battistich, character emphasizes the commitment to contribute to one ’ s community. 65 Finally, the character perspective focuses more on the “ being ” of adolescents which is strongly upheld in Asian cultures. For example, Shek, Yu and Fu
The re are two general approaches to scoring in baske t tests . One involve s a com p l ex mul tivari a t e approach , where an assessor c onsid ers what the role pl ayer has done in a highly quantified way by analysing eac h i tem on the tes t through the use o f behavioural s coring categori e s . Thi s t echnique uses complex scoring sheets and require s the fo rmal training of assesso rs . The s econd metho d , i n i ts mos t extrem e form, i nvolves i nterviews wi th cand idates after compl e t ion of the in basket with a d iscussion o f some of the actions o f the c andidate on the t est . The assesso r as a resul t o f this process produces an overall rating o f the cand idate ' s perfo rmanc e . A l ess t ime consuming variant o f this second method i s fo r the assesso r to prov i d e the overall assessment without the interview . The se c o nd metho d , being less d emanding o f time , would appeal more to prac t i tioners and consequently is practical psychology : the o ther methods cannot real ly be regarded as such. One of the main a ims of this res e a rch is to ascertain if there is any substantial advantage in us ing a mul t ivariate actuarial approach compared to a s impl e overal l assessment of pe r fo rmance on the test . Bo th methods were used to sco re the in baske t test used in this research .