Asian Values

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Asian Values and Liberal Democracy

Asian Values and Liberal Democracy

Joseph Chan is one of the scholars that explored the concept of a democracy based on Asian values rather than western liberalism. Chan claims that western liberals too easily portray the arguments in favor of Asian values as excuses that serve to justify the authoritarian regimes and their human rights abuses in the region (Chan, 1997 p. 35). Chan argues that the primary motive for creating the narrative of a democracy based on Asian values is to create a long- term vision for democratic states that would both protect human rights and empower cultural traditions. By opening up the discussion to different perspectives on human rights, Chan argues that the Asian values debate strengthens the campaign for human rights rather than protecting its offenders (Chan, 1997 p. 36). Chan makes the distinction between human rights violations that are motivated by the self-interests of regimes and human rights issues that are based on the cultural values of the society. In the case of many East Asian societies, freedom of religion, sexuality and expression are often motivated by traditional values that are deeply rooted in the social fabric of the people. Chan argues that concepts such as freedom, human rights and democracy almost always sound appealing when they are missing. However, there is often much less consensus on how these concepts need to be implemented into actual policies and institutions. Promoting these liberal values and the implementation of democratic reform will come with various complications, including the pace of these reforms and potential popular resistance based on traditional values. Most people would agree with the concepts of freedom, human rights and democracy in the general sense but often have strong disagreements about what those concepts would entail. While Chan favors democratic reform and bolstering human rights, he argues that these reforms must be implemented in such a way that they are in balance with the traditional values entrenched in that society (Chan, 1997 p.38). The degree of protection of an individual’s interests in the form of rights should be considered in relationship to the effects caused on the interests of others (Chan 1997, p. 38).
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BICHARA: WESTERN HUMAN RIGHTS AND ASIAN VALUES

BICHARA: WESTERN HUMAN RIGHTS AND ASIAN VALUES

The roots of this concern may be traced to the humanist traditions of the renaissance, to the struggle for self-determination, independence and equality that has taken place,[r]

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Globalization, Asian Values, and Economic Reform: The Impact of Tradition and Change on Ethical Values in Chinese Business

Globalization, Asian Values, and Economic Reform: The Impact of Tradition and Change on Ethical Values in Chinese Business

Fighting international corruption and bribery in the 21st century is a "con- cern that corporations and governments must face as national boundaries become increasingly blurre[r]

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The claims of 'Asian values' and 'Asian democracy' : some implications for international society, with special attention to Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia

The claims of 'Asian values' and 'Asian democracy' : some implications for international society, with special attention to Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia

He argues that, in comparison to other regions, Southeast Asia always challenges the expectations and explanations of democratization, since it is difficult to isolate the preconditions [r]

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was found that people who adhere more closely to Asian values tend to be less socially responsible. This finding might seem counter-intuitive at first glance, but it is perhaps less surprising once the concepts of Asian values and social responsibility are further examined. If we consider collectivism as a core component of Asian values, a person who subscribes closely to Asian values is likely to lean towards being more collectivistic on the individualistic-collectivistic continuum, but the collectivism might be directed at the familial unit and not the society in general. Thus, while people who adhere more closely to Asian values tend to be less socially responsible, they are still more likely to be deterred by online shaming because they fear the effect it would have on their family’s reputation. Bringing shame upon the family is seen as not being filial in Asian cultures.
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APPLICABILITY OF DEVELOPMENT JOURNALISM: AN APPRAISAL

APPLICABILITY OF DEVELOPMENT JOURNALISM: AN APPRAISAL

the relationship between the fast Asian economic development and the Asian cultural values. The concept has been debated largely in the areas of human rights, democracy, freedom of expression, and the relationship between cultural values and development. Whether there exists an "Asian model" of journalism that could be said to reflect Asian values as espoused increasingly by leaders of some Asian nations, notably Singapore and Malaysia (Schidlovsky, 1996). What are Asian values? Does the Asian press cover Asia differently than does the Western press? Is good Asian news coverage different in character than good Western news coverage? Are there common characteristics of Asian society that should be, or can be, reflected by Asian media? What is the role of the media in society? (Schidlovsky, 1996). Answers to these questions differ based on the need for journalists to immerse themselves in the language and culture of countries from which they were reporting. Although media practitioners and scholars were widely divided over Asian values and their existence in journalism, a consensus was reached regarding the need to identify certain universal values deeply rooted in the Asian context and to promote them in the professional sphere (Masterton, 1996). These values are truth, objectivity, social equity, and nonviolence. Although universal, these values have been prioritised in Asia when Asian countries confront the following issues: (a) market practices in conflict with journalistic integrity and professional standards, (b) interference by the boardroom in the newsroom, ( c) lack of adequate dialogue and network mechanisms to allow journalist in Asian countries to exchange news and information independent of existing Western or government agencies, and ( d) government interference in editorial functioning through various forms of censorship in the name of nation-building and national security (Masterton, 1996, p. 172).
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Investigating the extent to which British Indians draw upon Asian Indian and British Caucasian cultural values in brown good purchase

Investigating the extent to which British Indians draw upon Asian Indian and British Caucasian cultural values in brown good purchase

This research assessesthe extent to which British Indians draw upon Asian Indian and British Caucasian cultural values in the purchase of a brown good, using statistical analysis to iden[r]

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Bone growth during puberty and the effects of exercise and calcium on bone mass accrual

Bone growth during puberty and the effects of exercise and calcium on bone mass accrual

Group characteristics, anthropometry, bone mass, body composition and dietary intake values for Asian and Caucasian pre- and early-pubescent girls at baseline and after 10 months of ca[r]

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Scottish Health Survey 2008 2011: Equity groups topic report

Scottish Health Survey 2008 2011: Equity groups topic report

The ethnic group categories which have been used in this report are:  White, British  White, Irish  White, Other  Mixed  Asian, Indian  Asian, Pakistani  Asian, Chinese  Asian, O[r]

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Trends in Globalization of Select Asian Countries

Trends in Globalization of Select Asian Countries

In this study we have constructed a composite index of globalization of select Asian countries during 1970-2014 by minimizing the Euclidean norm of Shapley values of indicator variables contributing to the overall index. As a consequence, the mean expected marginal contributions of constituent variables to the overall index are approximately equal and thus, the overall composite index represents the constituent variables optimally. We call this index the Almost Equal Marginal Contribution (AEMC) index. We find that AEMC index and the KOF index of globalization are highly correlated (Pearson’s r=0.982). We find that Singapore, Cyprus, Israel, Qatar, Malaysia, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, Kuwait, Bahrain and Japan have done very well and scored above 0.7. At the other end, Yemen, Tajikistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Iran, Nepal and Myanmar have scored below 0.5. Trends in globalization are increasing in general, but the rate of globalization, which accelerated after 1991, lost is momentum after 2007. Disparities in globalization, as measured by Gini coefficient over the countries under study, were more or less constant up to 1985 but after that they started declining.
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Absolute and estimated values of macular pigment optical density in young and aged Asian participants with or without age-related macular degeneration

Absolute and estimated values of macular pigment optical density in young and aged Asian participants with or without age-related macular degeneration

In contrast, the estimated value, for which the influ- ence of cataract was mitigated, was measurable in most of the participants, and also in aged eyes with or without AMD if, at least, they had satisfactory BCVA in the current study. Moreover, the AMD-related eyes exhib- ited lower levels of MPOD in estimated value, consistent with a previous report [12]. Eyes with AMD in the fellow eye may have a condition more closely approximating the AMD eyes than the otherwise healthy group (other than cataract), although the AMD lesion had not yet developed. In fact, AMD-fellow eyes are regarded as “risk eyes” [3, 4]. Measuring estimated values may enable the collection of more data from aged and/or AMD patients, which will enhance the study and contribute to a more profound understanding of pathogenic processes related to macular pigments.
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Nutritional ecology of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and human wildlife interactions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Conservation Ecology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

Nutritional ecology of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and human wildlife interactions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Conservation Ecology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

A version of Chapter 5 has been published [Koirala RK, Ji W, Aryal A, Rothman J, Raubenheimer D. 2015]. Dispersal and ranging patterns of the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) in relation to their interactions with humans in Nepal, Ethology Ecology & Evolution 28:221-31. I have conceptualised the project, reviewed literature and drafted the manuscript. Raubenheimer D, Ji W, Rothman J, was the supervisory authors on this project and was involved throughout the project in manuscript edits. Aryal A contributed in manuscript edits including figures and map preparation.
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PubMedCentral-PMC5509409.pdf

PubMedCentral-PMC5509409.pdf

Several strengths of the study include recruitment of a relatively large sample size, use of a randomized experimental design, and control for experimenter effects and participants’ adherence to manipulation instructions. Analyses exploring Asian cultural values as a moderator of the effects of the ER strategies add a unique cultural angle to this study. Several limitations should be high-lighted. First, the results of this laboratory study may not be generalizable to coping with negative situations in daily life. Future research should examine the effects of the ER strategies as they are naturally employed in daily life. The training instructions provided are also only an analogue of how the respective ER strategies are taught in the context of psychotherapy. Further, use of self-report methods to assess emotions and strategy adherence is subject to biases. Future research should examine the use and effects of the ER strategies using multiple modes of assessment (e.g., the think-a-loud procedure and psychophysiological measures). Lastly, the study recruited a predominantly Chinese, Singaporean undergraduate population, which limits the generalizability of the findings to other demographic groups as well as clinical populations.
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An Asian Drama: The Asian Relations Conference, 1947

An Asian Drama: The Asian Relations Conference, 1947

This liminality also allows us to cast a critical gaze on two major inflections of decolonial thought: anti-Westernism and a trenchant romanticism of alternatives. Anti- Westernism often serves as a lament for the absence of alternatives and further self- critique. The cohesion of Bandung was achieved partly because it evaded discussions on difficult matters, or, as Itty Abraham has noted, already assumed them sorted within the framework of statehood. 30 The ARC, despite its resolve to not discuss political matters, ended up discussing some of the most important political issues facing the decolonised world, such as intra-Asian colonialism, the uses of pacifist foreign policy in the wake of colonialism, the citizenship rights of the diaspora, and, quite remarkably, the question of women rights. Predictably, the Conference also evaded some other important political questions – China-Tibet, being one – but it is important that Tibet was invited despite China’s objections. Indeed, the romance of decolonisation met the reality of statehood in the Conference, quite literally. While the promise of a new beginning was being cele- brated in conference halls of Delhi, its violence was evident on the streets of the same city. Communal tensions were high and the city was under curfew for several periods during the Conference. Indeed, the public expressions of high ideals by the Indian dele- gates were interspersed with concealed concerns over the imminence of a civil war in the country. 31
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Indigenous environmental values as human values

Indigenous environmental values as human values

Sustainability is increasingly seen as a problem of human values. As the opening quote of this paper pointed out, what we need is a new perspective, a new way of looking at the natural world that would entail higher respect for it. Research has discussed the adoption of biospheric values as supporting this perspective and as pathways to sustainability (Axsen & Kurani, 2013; Banerjee, 2002; Clark et al., 2003; Gärling et al., 2003; Hawke, 2012; Mercer et al., 2005; Schultz & Zelezny, 1998; Teel et al., 2007; van Egmond & de Vries, 2011). A global tendency is in place where biospheric environ- mental values are increasingly observed; attitudes towards the environment of entire societies are changing (Callanan, 2010; Kopnina, 2012); water values are changing in this direction within Australian society as well (Jackson, Stoeckl, Straton, & Stanley, 2008). Australian indigenous people can be repositories of such values and perspectives on the environment, hence the restoration of their values in water management––and more in general in environmental management––will sup- port Australian society’s journey towards sustainability (Hawke, 2012). Our case study adds to the body of evidence that indigenous environmental values can promote a more spiritual and respectful relationship with the environment. We also point out how to present indigenous environmental val- ues as human values, a change needed to overcome the cultural heritage paradigm and to strength- en the communication of indigenous priorities for management in co-management fora.
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Mapping young people's uses of technology in their own contexts: a nationally representative survey

Mapping young people's uses of technology in their own contexts: a nationally representative survey

Please just tell me the letter you see on this card [SHOW CARD K CODE ONE ONLY] 60-61 ASIAN or ASIAN BRITISH: of Bangladeshi origin A 1 ASIAN or ASIAN BRITISH: of Chinese origin B 2 ASIA[r]

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The attitudes of British Buddhist teens towards school and religious education

The attitudes of British Buddhist teens towards school and religious education

On respect for teachers: Findings in this study add weight and clarity to the conclusions of previous research (e.g. Thanissaro, 2016c that associated respect for those ‘worthy of respect’ and who have ‘helped us a lot’ with Buddhist identity) that being Buddhist, more than being Asian, corresponds with a respect for teachers – however, this was not the case of merely cowing to authority as Buddhist teens also were more inclined than teenagers in general to perceive that they were respected in return by adults. 2 Heritage Buddhists were also found to receive more respect from adults than convert Buddhists (Thanissaro, 2016a, 253, 255) 3 and were also more positive about education. Authority also
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A critical examination of the DSM as a multicultural diagnostic tool for depression among Asian Americans and Asian Indians

A critical examination of the DSM as a multicultural diagnostic tool for depression among Asian Americans and Asian Indians

Depression has been examined from a Western, Asian American and Indian American- cultural, specific point of view. The purpose of this paper was to examine if the DSM can be used as a multicultural diagnostic tool for depression. Research suggests that ethnic and racial minority groups are often underserved by the mental health system (Snowden, 1996; Lewis-Fernàndez & Kleinman, 1994). Language, social construction, family, age, gender and religion have all been found to be barriers to treatment among different cultures (Blackmore, 1998; Ramisetty-Mikler, 1993). After reviewing the literature a strong argument can be made for the DSM being used as a multicultural diagnostic tool, as long as clinicians have the appropriate understanding of different cultures and their belief systems.
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GSTM1 and null type of GSTT1 genotype was significantly associated with vitiligo GSTM1 , OR=1.494, 95% CI=1.126-1.981, P=0.005; GSTT1 , OR=1.318, 95% CI=1.130-1.537, P<0.001). In the

GSTM1 and null type of GSTT1 genotype was significantly associated with vitiligo GSTM1 , OR=1.494, 95% CI=1.126-1.981, P=0.005; GSTT1 , OR=1.318, 95% CI=1.130-1.537, P<0.001). In the

ies it is restricted to five small study among Asian and Caucasian. There is a need to con- solidate through more research than the future in order to reduce the generalization error. Therefore, further larger studies considering the gene-gene and gene-environment interac- tions could be required to provide a very pre- cise evidence for the association of GST poly- morphism and vitiligo susceptibility.

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Research about the Influence of Environmental Factors on Breeders Quality

Research about the Influence of Environmental Factors on Breeders Quality

Dissolved oxygen condition for aquatic flora and fauna and promote the processes of oxidation and mineralization of organic substances. The operating systems can take place daily fluctuations, leading to rapid deterioration in the DO, when developing excessive algae at high concentrations of nutrients, high temperature and salinity values [2]. In cyprinids basins to increase have provided at least 4 mg O 2 /l water, and in

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