A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is generally understood as a system comprised of interacting autonomous agents. Multi- Agent System is relatively a new paradigm in the field of computer science. This paradigm proposes solutions to highly distributed problems in self-motivated, open computational domains. Research on multi-agent systems has been mainly focused on functional properties such as coordination, rationality, and knowledge modeling. A very less attention is paid for the research activity on the nonfunctional properties such as performance, scalability and reliability of the MAS. However, as the MAS technologies have gradually matured in building many practical distributed applications, the research activities towards the non-functional properties of the MAS have become important, and it is now vital to pay attention to the issues of nonfunctional characteristics of agents.
Three use case representations are compared by reviewing the use case mod- eling from the viewpoints of its suitability as input to the graphical UI design and are presented in . It provides a tabular representation independent of the user interface style of identifying the use case elements to support User In- terface (UI) design within the framework of Unified Development Process as this provides an alternative notation to specify the behavior of the use case in . This article sets up a panel to discuss the features needed to extend UML to support system engineering and investigate the advisability and feasibility of the extensions with respect to audience’s opinion as they have diverse engineering system experience. The design and implementation of a prototype web service for performance modeling tools are implemented in a plug and play manner. It is used for analysis by reviewing information about web services and previous works on XML based performance model by demonstrating the experiment re- sult to show the viability of the model . It is interesting to use UML in vari- ous stages of the web services development process. Also, the non-functional requirements also can be modeled using UML. In , the authors presented a survey, mapping UML concepts with web services and classify various UML based approaches that are used to model web services.
In Tanzania, Payment for performance (P4P) has replaced a system of extra allowances to leadership positions, the Selected Accelerated Salary Enhancement (SASE) :6. Donors have been instrumental in intro- ducing P4P in Tanzania and the initiative to introduce P4P has taken place outside the established collabor- ation between donors who support the Health Basket Fund. Morgan and Eichler report that the Government of Tanzania “decided to implement a P4P scheme with- out the endorsement of the country’s health sector de- velopment partners” . Two important official documents on P4P were issued by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) in 2008: the Payment for Performance Strategy 2008–2015  and the Implementation Guideline Payment for Performance . It was stated that “the results-based bonus sys- tem constitutes an important programme strategy which will increase the ability to unleash the energy and creativity needed to address local challenges.” :1, hence indicating motivational as well as per- formance dimensions of P4P. The introduction of P4P in Tanzania takes place in the context of the Health Sector Strategic Plan III which states that P4P will improve both motivation and productivity of health workers :5.
applying Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods (Samad et al., 2019). In fact, MCDM is an approach in which decision makers (managers) can select the best website among several website based on multiple attributes (Erdoğan, Aydın, Balki, & Sayin, 2020; Fallahpour, Olugu, Moghassem, & Musa, 2014; Fallahpour, Olugu, Musa, Wong, & Noori, 2017; Nilashi, Ahmadi, Ahani, Ravangard, & bin Ibrahim, 2016; Nilashi et al., 2019). Ip et al. (Ip, Law, & Lee, 2012) utilized Ana- lytic Hierarchy Process with fuzzy numbers (FAHP) for assessingperformance of hotel website. They determined the most useful criteria for improving the website effectiveness in attracting tourists. As Woodside, Vicente, and Duque (Law, Bai, Woodside, Mir, & Duque, 2011) indicated, richness of content and ease of use are the most important factors to determine website performance. The literature shows that many studies have been conducted in this area; however, implementation of VIKOR, as a robust MCDM technique, under fuzzy environment is very rare in website performance evaluation. Accordingly, this study aims to develop a MCDM model for hotels’ website functionality evaluation through VIKOR under fuzzy environment.
In regard with the feedback mechanism, good teachers are skilled not only in instructional methods, but also in evaluation and assessment practices that allow them to gauge individual student learning and adapt activities according to student needs. This process should include both performance assessment and assessment of factual knowledge. Observations in Guinea and India found that teachers are very poorly trained in evaluation techniques, and the reality is far from the continuous evaluation procedures recommended by official programmes (Carron &Chau, 1996). Indeed, many teachers and educational systems continue to rely almost exclusively on traditional paper-and-pencil tests of factual knowledge that tend to promote rote memorization rather than higher order thinking skills (Colby, 2000). Quality education puts students at the center of the process; student achievement must be the educator’s first priority. Since educators exist because of students, this would seem self-evident. Perhaps because of the complexity of educational systems, however, teachers may not always believe in the school’s ability to help all students. For example, teachers interviewed in Guinea and Mexico had little awareness of the school’s role in pupil failure and drop out. Instead, they tended to blame the pupils and their family environment (Carron and Chau,1996).
To investigate the limitations of the EVM schedule indicators, a comparison to the more grounded metrics of the Critical Path Method (CPM) had to be conducted. CPM is a mathematically-based schedule network analysis technique to determine the critical paths and hence the project duration. CPM is more direct measure of time/schedule performance that consists of simple addition of activity durations to determine an overall duration. Because of the inherent calculations difference between EVM and CPM, situations could exist where the two methods provide conflicting information. For instance, if a schedule was gaining progress on non-critical, heavily weighted activities in EVM (relatively large budgets with short durations), EVM would show large amounts of progress while CPM would not show any. Erroneous information would potentially jeopardize a project, as it may misdirect leadership into making incorrect decisions.
extendibility in the network. This problem is caused when the network suitably follows the models given to it, but any small change in the models cannot be answered by the network. Yet, as Fig. 6 reveals, since the validation curve has not risen after several epochs, and has been fixed in its position, the performance of the network and its extendibility could be trusted. Moreover, the validation error curve and the test error curve are so similar, and so there would not be a major problem in terms of training. As seen in the figure, the best performance belongs to the 30 th epoch, which shows the best neural network could be established in this position. It should be noted that given the enough data presented (several years of precipitation in Birjand), the validation is reliable.
In conclusion, the results are promising for the use of SHERPA in predicting pilot error. Whilst more studies are needed to investigate different tasks, the current study shows that novices were able to acquire the approaches with relative ease and reach acceptable levels of performance within a reasonable amount of time. This supports the investigation by Stanton & Stevenage and is quite encouraging. The study also shows that HEI techniques can be evaluated quantitatively.
To manage resources effectively towards an intended outcome, public sector agencies need performance information about the programs they deliver. Such performance information permits an assessment of whether the expected outcomes and agency outputs are being achieved. Under the outcomes-focused approach to managing the public sector, elected officials, senior government officers and managers are required to make decisions considering what the government programs are achieving for the community. Managing requires long term strategic planning towards stated objectives while operating complex systems and processes on a day-to-day basis. Managing also requires reviewing activities and the outputs of activities to ensure that they remain appropriate for achieving the outcomes expected by government.
This research project was aimed to investigate the impact of reward package on employee’s performance in Nigerian Banks. In the globalised environment, it is of important to ensure a rewarded/motivated workforce because employees are the only asset that appreciates in value over time, thereby directly contributing to organisational performances. Employee reward package has been a major problem in the banking industries, due mainly to poor salaries and pecuniary benefits such as transport allowances and bonuses. The main objectives of the study were todetermine the effects of organizations reward package on workers’ productivity and to ascertain the effect of rewards package on employee’s performance. The study adopted a cross sectional design, which entailed a structured questionnaire being distributed to respondents. The structured questionnaire comprised Section A and Section B. The sample size was 171, which was derived from a target population of 300 employees through the systematic sampling technique. The researcher used the personal method in distributing and collecting questionnaires to sample respondents and 165 completed questionnaires were returned. This equated to a high response rate of 97%. Furthermore, the data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 15.00 for Windows. Upon completion, the entire dissertation was checked for plagiarism program. The study found that salaries and bonuses were amongst the top extrinsic rewards at Guaranty trust bank and Union bank. Good financial rewards are vital in influencing the behaviour of employees, as well as in enhancing organisational performances. The researcher recommended that managers of Guaranty trust bank and Union bank should consider reviewing the reward packages, offering competitive financial rewards and timeously rewarding employees.
knowledge and skills and respond immediately and effectively to the trainees’ real and perceived problems. To effect this, cooperating teachers are required to visit each student every lesson. During each visit, the school teacher is supposed to sit with the student-teacher before his/her class discussing his/her lesson plan and giving recommendations and instructions regarding teaching. Then the cooperating teacher has to attend the student teachers’ lesson sitting in the class and taking notes on the student-teachers performance. After class the supervisor, the cooperating teacher and the student teacher have to sit together and discuss the lesson. The supervisor should also give written recommendation to the student teacher to use it in the subsequent lessons. In each visit, the supervisor and the cooperating teacher fill an evaluation form assessing the student-teacher’s performance. Method of Data Collection
In 1994 Chow et al., conducted a literature review on logistics performance measurement and defined logistics performance as the extent to which goals such as cost efficiency, sales growth, profitability, keeping promises, no loss and damage, fair prices for inputs, social responsibility, customer satisfaction, job security and working conditions, on time delivery, flexibility and product availability are satisfied bearing in mind that there are specific trade offs between some of them. They also recognized a set of measures for logistics performance such as raw financial statistics, cost statistics, input/output measures and quality measures. Stainer (1997) provides a framework with logistics performance measures that include total productivity, quality of operation, flexibility, speed of operation and capacity utilisation. Bowersox et al. (1999) list five main areas of operational performance in logistics that include customer service, cost management, asset management, quality and productivity while Soosay and Chapman (2006) proposed several metrics for each area. Griffis et al. (2004) after conducting a literature review identified several performance indicators that include average line item fill rate, average backorder fill time, complete order fill rate, days order late, inventory turnover ratio, logistics costs per unit, missed sales due to stockouts, on time delivery percentage, order cycle time variability, percent error pick rate, weeks of supply.
With the aim of assessing mechanical performance of conventional plastic bags and chitosan specimens, tensile tests were carried out using the following testing protocol, based upon European standards for the determination of tensile properties for plastics [12–15]. Samples were cut in thin rectangular strips, 50 mm by 5 mm (Figure 3), leaving a distance between grips of 26 ± 2 mm for the tensile test. These dimensions, which scaled those recommended by standards, by a factor of 2  represented an optimum trade-off to test a statistically meaningful number of specimens for each chitosan sample (due to the limited amount of material), especially when considering the comparative nature of this experimental investigation. Specimens were cut by using laser equipment, which ensured better repeatability, precision and effectiveness in comparison to other methods considered (extrusion by stamp). In the case of Egyptian plastic bags, to take into account the anisotropy of the material (due to the manufacturing process), specimens were cut in both vertical (V—parallel to the handle) and horizontal (H—perpendicular to the handle) directions. According to standards , before and after the cutting process, materials were kept at normal room temperature and humidity levels (23 ± 2 ◦ C and 50 ± 10% R.H.). After cutting, the thickness of each strip specimen was measured using a micrometer. Ten measurements along the full length were undertaken for each strip, using the average as the nominal parameter for the tensile test. Thereafter, each strip was numbered and stuck using cello tape on a paper mount, as shown in Figure 3. The sides of the mount were cut once the sample was positioned in the tensometer.
reflected individual employee sentiments, including outcomes of leader effectiveness (Conger & Kanungo, 1998). 4. A short-term dimension termed production-efficiency (outputs) was added (Cockerill et al., 1993; Gibson et al., 1991). In view of the main aim of step 2, a document that contained seven suggested dimensions of work unit effectiveness, with a summary description of items for each dimension, was sent to leadership associates of the Center for Leadership Studies for review and suggestions. The dimensions were production and efficiency, work unit climate, individual climate, capacity (wealth), market standing, adaptability, and future growth. Associates were specifically asked to obtain the co-operation of management peers in order to assist in the evaluation of the draft model. Two aspects were evaluated. The first aspect considered relevance of the dimensions to the conceptualization of the unit performance construct. A unit performance dimension was regarded as appropriate to the extent to which: The unit leader could be held accountable for the specific facets of unit performance, the unit leader directly affects the particular facet of unit performance, and top management considers the performance dimension as relevant. The second aspect that the panel evaluated was the comprehensiveness of the conceptualization of the model. Two questions were put to the panel: Should the model be expanded by adding additional effectiveness dimensions; and are there other issues, apart from the seven performance dimensions already included in the model, which top management might consider relevant when looking at unit performance?
Research assessment has become increasingly influenced by performance indicators such as journal impact factor, h-index or citation-counts, which are based on scientometric analysis (DORA, 2013; Wilsdon, 2015). While some of these indicators properly used and defined (e.g. in citation percentiles) can be informative in specific contexts, they are less useful for the assessment of organisations or programmes with specific societal missions such as the improvement of health, agriculture, sustainability, or other engineering related fields (Hicks et al., 2015; Bianco et al., 2016).
For this research, firm performance will be the dependent towards any Malaysian firm’s approach of innovation. To put it simply, how organizations utilize their idea of innovation will identify their performance. Under the concept of innovation are the factors defining it such as learning orientation, market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation. It is also essential to note the various influencing factors of learning orientation, which are commitment to work, shared values, open-mindedness, and intra-organization knowledge sharing.
breathable insulation, advanced glazing, daylight capture, photovoltaic components and ducted wind turbines. Laboratory testing techniques for the characterisation of the fundamental parameters underlying each technology are elaborated as the essential prerequisite of integrated performance appraisals of specific technology combinations within an advanced façade design context. Based on the results from simulations undertaken in the UK climate context, performance benchmarks are suggested for some principal façade configurations.