This study is also relevant to the results of research by reference  stating that the involvement of problem solving makes student learning results increase than the using of traditional approach. Process assessment is used to assess student work, include: performance appraisal, authentic assessment, and portfolio assessment. Process assessment aims to enable lecturers to see how students plan problem-solving, to see how students demonstrate their knowledge and skills. Assessment of learning with PBL was done with authentic assessment.  define authentic assessment as a form of grade assessment that reflects learning, learning results, motivation, and attitudes toward relevant learning activities. Assessment was done with a portfolio that was a systematic collection of student jobs analyzed to see the progress of learning within a certain time within the framework of achieving learning objectives. Reference  suggests that assessment by portfolio can be used for collaborative learningassessment. There are three knowledge structures as the target of assessment of PBLs, among others, conceptual understanding, understanding of principles relating to concept and conceptual relationship and principles to application conditions and procedures .
understanding of the regulations in the USGBC Guide by offering more in-depth explanations of the Guides content. The web addresses also give more insight into all of the “team members” who are required to work together to gain certain LEED credits and also explain the process preparing the paper work/forms required to achieve certain credits. Therefore, the lecture format of the class and the large final project assignment firmly exemplify the main objectives of PBL as stated by Sancho et al. (2009, 668) which is “building on prior knowledge, problem solving, the use of critical thinking approaches and reflection”.
The increasing interest in student centered learning environments, such as PBL, has coincided with an expansion in onlinelearning. Onlinelearning environments should emphasize a student centered constructivist approach and provide students with learning outcomes equivalent to traditional instruction. Phillips (2005) has suggested that problem solving assignments with real world problems can replace the traditional classroom experiences and provide an active learning strategy in the online environment. PBL provides real world problems for students to solve and has been incorporated into online instruction in the health professions and other disciplines (e.g. Anderson & Treadway, 2009; Choi, 2003; Nathoo, Goldhoff, & Quattrochi, 2005; Rounds & Rappaport, 2008; Ryan, Dolling, & Barnet, 2004; Schell & Kaufman, 2009; Spinello & Fischbach, 2004; Valaitis, Sword, Jones, & Hodges, 2005). Despite the growing use of PBL as an online instructional strategy, research to determine changes in content knowledge through online PBL has shown varying results. Sendag and Odabasi (2009) found that online PBL learning did not have a significant effect on content knowledge acquisition. Bilgin, Senocak and Sozbilir (2009) demonstrated improvement in performance on conceptual but not quantitative problem solving when online PBL was utilized. In addition, it has been suggested that both PBL and onlinelearning require students to be motivated and possess self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) in order to achieve desired learning outcomes (Boyd, 2004; Levett-Jones, 2005; Schrum & Hong, 2002; Song, Singleton, Hill, & Koh, 2004). This research study compares content knowledge change between two learning strategies: the first being an online PBL instructional module and the second being traditional instruction in a face to face class. Student attributes of SDLR and motivation and the association of these attributes with content knowledge change are also examined. An increased understanding of the impact of online PBL, as well as SDLR and motivation have on knowledge acquisition is essential to the design of effective instruction. Literature Review
The The 21st-century learning process is a student-centered learning process. In the learning process, students are required to think critically and creatively in solving problems . Creativity is one of the most important features because of industrial and economic dependence on innovation . The level of creativity is still at a basic level . The teacher as a facilitator of students can build knowledge for themselves. In the process of learning mathematics, some students choose to be quiet and wait for the teacher to explain. Mastery of the material being studied is still low and the activity of discussion is also lacking . Teachers must teach teaching materials to improve student creativity . Modules are a book written with the aim that students can learn independently without or with teacher guidance . One important role in the learning process is the existence of learning resources or teaching materials that can help students understand the material easily and learn independently. Learning resources are materials that can be utilized and needed to help teachers and students in the learning process . One of the goals in mathematics learning is that students can solve problems so that the problem-solving process becomes an important part of the learning process. The ability to think creatively has an important role in life because creativity is a powerful source of human resources to drive human progress in terms of tracing, development, and discoveries in the fields of science and technology and all fields of human endeavor .
Due to the recent problem arrise in this new assessment system, the main focus in this study is to evaluate teachers’ knowledgebased on five dimensions of SBA knowledge constructs and identify the level of teachers’ Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices after 3 years of implementing the SBA system at school.
The problem-basedlearning (PBL) approach used involves the lecturers working together typically in a group of six to develop an online module of their own. The beginning point for the PBL group is to work on an authentic problem to justify their decision to deliver a module online rather than by conventional face-to-face methods alone. They then explore the selection of an appropriate structure and mode of supporting the module for a speciﬁ c target group of students and produce a plan for its design, development, and evaluation. Thereafter, they examine how to design appropriate teaching, learning and assessment strategies, and develop exemplar onlinelearning materials for delivery within the proposed online module. Finally, devel- oping a cost analysis for the production of the speciﬁ c online module is included. This latter aspect is important because most colleges and universi- ties feel pressure to do something about onlinelearning and do it soon. But most are ﬁ nding it very difﬁ cult to know what to do or how to do it within their resources and while fulﬁ lling their missions (Sjogren & Fay, 2002). It is felt strongly by the course team involved in the design of this module, that of equal, if not more so, importance to these group product outcomes, is the development of the PBL group process. Developing the participants’ ability to reﬂ ect on their own and their peers’ learning through the creation and maintenance of an online reﬂ ective journal is a very important aspect of the module.
Based on the problem background, most students in schools or institutions have a hard time understanding the learning in the classroom. This results in students having difficulty completing assignments given by the lecturers. In addition, graduates are now less likely to apply creative and critical thinking skills especially in solving problems in the classroom . Moreover, these problems also occur due to graduates’ poor skills in resolving problems  and failing to apply critical thinking skills. In addition, students’ critical and creative thinking skill levels are low due to the lack of emphasis on teaching thinking skills during the teaching and learning process. The high unemployment rate in Malaysia is due to the lack of basic skills, expertise, communication skills and knowledge among graduates. The findings from preliminary studies also showed that almost all students are unaware of creative thinking and critical thinking in learning to solve problems. In this regard, this study was conducted to determine whether the format and content of this creative and critical thinking styles’ learning module can be used for all HEIs to solve problems in PBL.
We must be sure of the type of applications to use for deriving a problem in Mathematics and Chemistry. This calls for the nature and characteristics of Mathematics and Chemistry in interacting applications. Of course there are specific characteristics of active learning in mathematics, and we must be aware of them when building a problem in mathematics, but clearly mathematics can be learned by using PBL. Here we discuss the possible important objection against Maths PBL: usually, in a PBL setting, one gives the students a real -life problem and students, in order to solve the problem, must find and study the notions required for solving the problem. How can we find a real -life problem in Maths? How can such a problem force students to study the notions (“what and why”) and not only the consequences of the notions (“how to do”)? Actually the answer is not so complicated. Two types of “applications” can be used. First a “concrete application” in this case it must be clear that the application is only a pretext to study math, and that main developments must be mathematical ones. This has the obvious consequence that a complete development must not be required in the application do main, on the opposite of course a complete development must be required in the math domain. In other words, professors as students must not forget that the main aim of the study is a mathematical one (see K. Ben Naoum et al , 2008).
One proposition about knowledge is that it should correspond to validated discipline knowledge. This appears to introduce quite objectivist assumptions about knowledge (‘Does the knowledge created correspond to reality?) but the correspondence could simply be to what a community holds to be important at a particular time, or to logical consequences of rule based inquiry, rather than immutable facts about the world. For example in discussing knowledgebuilding in virtual maths teams Wee and Looi (2009) are able to chart a process based around language functions such as making sugges- tions, disputing and reaching agreement. These language functions are discussed in the context of discipline knowledge, for example ‘Are learners following recognised mathematical problem solving strategies?, ‘Are their arguments logically true?, ‘Are they introducing facts which are mathematically correct? This is a coherent and operationalisable strategy for evaluating collaboration and enables researchers to distinguish between valid and invalid arguments. It offers a means of tracking a genuinely knowledgebuilding process and would not need not be confined to one particular context. However a limitation of the approach is that it is wedded to a correspondence view, the knowledge created is new to the group but not ‘new knowledge’ as such. This can be contrasted to a more radical stance in other writers such as Scardamalia and Bereiter (2006: 98) who see knowledge creation in their classroom as distinctive and as:
The PBL stage begins with students performing an independent self-study (Schmidt, 1993; Wee, 2004). They are expected to master both the knowledge and relevant information that may be useful in order to propose a solution. During the next meeting, a group discussion takes place and involves a specific decision making method through brainstorming session (Wee, 2004). They exchange and share their information (Schmidt, 1993; Wee, 2004), and with all the learning issues and hypotheses should reach an acceptable definition that is agreed upon by all members. The tutor is responsible for monitoring the group’s progress through several methods including direct observation and formative assessment (O’Grady & Alwis, 2002). The direct observation method, may involve coaching roles such as probing and questioning, in order to trigger students’ meta-cognition (Wee, 2004). Facilitator is responsible for providing feedback during formative assessment (Woods, 2000), and always encouraging students to keep up with self assessment in order to monitor their own progress and performance in problem solving (Barrows & Tamblyn, 1980; Woods, 2000).
One of the key objectives in the National Education Blueprint is to produce students with higher order thinking skills. The concern is raised based on the poor performances of Malaysian students in the international assessments of Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). One of the factors that might contribute to the decline in achievement is the teaching approach applied in Malaysian schools. A revolution in current teaching approach is thus needed. Problembasedlearning (PBL) is one of the teaching approach being widely implemented and is proven to be beneficial in stimulating students‟ higher order thinking skills through solving real-world problems. Similarly, the integration of technology during teaching and learning process such as onlinelearning has also been proven to improve students‟ higher order thinking skill. Based on these foundations, the blended problembasedlearning (BPBL) that integrates face-to-face PBL and onlinelearning platforms, is believed seems to be an effective teaching approach that can improve PBL and thus enhancing students‟ higher order thinking skill. This is due to BPBL offers the benefit of both face-to-face PBL and onlinelearning. However, the studies in this area are still insufficient particularly in Malaysian schools‟ context. Thus, this paper is aimed at discussing on the opportunities and challenges faced in the implementation of BPBL in Malaysian context.
Our findings can be explained by Proulx (2004) who found that critical thinking stages were similar to scientific method stages. Thus by applying scientific method that is the core of problem- basedlearning in the learning process, critical thinking ability can be activated. Buris and Garton (2007) showed how problem-basedlearning could contribute to every level of education including retention of knowledge, students’ satisfaction, motivation, and critical thinking. For Sungur (2006), students in PBL group tended to participate more actively in doing tasks due to the challenge, curiosity, and mastery compared to students in their control group. They accepted biology as an interesting, important, and beneficial subject. Whilst this was not examined in the present research,
As noted above, the key advantage that has been identified for PBL as a teaching method is that it is good at developing ‗soft skills‘, which we have called employability skills, with innovative practice the one skill (or attitude) we are focusing on in this paper. The difficulty with such skills is that their development is not easy to evaluate, as they are notoriously difficult to measure. Particularly when it comes to innovative practice, how do we measure how innovative someone‘s practice is, and whether it becomes more or less innovative over time. This requires a certain amount of ‗professional judgment‘, which is by definition subjective, which places it in sharp contrast to measuring factual knowledge acquisition through exams. By contrast, evaluating the acquisition of ‗soft skills‘ involves a combination of peer observation, peer assessment, self-assessment, surveys and in-depth interviews, in short a series of qualitative measurement techniques (Marcangelo, Gibbon & Cage, 2009). This is particularly significant with regards to ‗innovative practice‘, because you are evaluating an attitude which is geared towards generating future ideas and development, for which the degree of success always remains to be seen, and hence to be evaluated at a later stage or in retrospect.
Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia has intro- duced PBL since 2001. The college adopted the seven jumps approach, student is expected to attend two ses- sions physically, one at the beginning of the week and another at the end, in between these sessions, students are offered an online forum where they continue to interact. The interactions start on the first day of the week by posting the learning issues of the weekly prob- lem. Students are encouraged to discuss the learning issues, share information, collaboratively construct the required knowledge and work towards achieving the goals and the objectives of the PBL problem. By the last day of the week, each group is expected to wrap up what they have learnt together. The online discussions are assigned to the same students in the physical group and facilitated by the same tutors .
Onlinelearning of virtual experiments can help students to integrate knowledge from several discipline areas and to understand the relationship between theory and practice. In addition, it is important to evaluate the learning performance, which is an important guidance for both students and teachers. Therefore, an excellent evaluation method of learning performance is indispensable to guarantee a high quality educa- tional experience. This paper addressed the key points in the course design of virtual experiments. It also proposed an effective evaluation method targeted to identify students’ learning achievements according to their distinguished learning performance based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. This evaluation method is advantageous to handle uncertain information full of vagueness, uncertainty and subjectivity. As a result it will be more significant to improve students’ learning autonomy and the abil- ity of combining theory with practice, which can improve their learning efficiency greatly. Future work will consider the implementation of hybrid online labs and the corresponding evaluation method.
The majority of the participants agreed that the PBL system is totally different from the conventional one (87.4%), and the teacher’s role will be more of a facilitator instead of being the only source of knowledge (88.1%). About 69.5% have suitable classrooms that facilitate small group discus- sions, such as in PBL. Rules were modified to allow the students to gather more resources, and not restrict themselves to the classroom desk (74.8%). Some of the participants were not prepared to take the risk of reducing their con- trol over students and did not agree with the concept that accepting mistakes is a way of learning (58.2%). Most of the teachers were prepared to change to a more collaborated
In this study, the students supported by the creative drama became themselves aware of the problem, revived the scenarios themselves without any intervention and tried to find solutions to the problem. In short, they learned to learn in this process. According to Bandura  self-efficacy is the individual's own judgment on the capacity of an individual to organize the necessary activities in order to be able to do a certain job. In this study, the creative drama-assisted PBL approach allowed students to make their own organization and contributed to the development of self-efficacy belief. Also, according to Yaman and Yalçın  in PBL approach, it is expected that the student will be able to answer the questions about what he / she knows about a problem and if he knows what he knows, he / she will be able to answer these questions of the other fields. Therefore, the process of learning to learn together with the student's inner motivation will take action and the self-efficacy belief will be expected to develop. In this study, the self-efficacy beliefs of the students who act in line with their own plans have developed. In addition, the student-centered approaches are applied together with the constructivism, and different teaching methods are used in courses. Thus, the increase in the control group post-test mean is normal. There was no significant increase in the control group in terms of the use of the other two sub-dimensions of the geometry knowledge and the final test for negative self-efficacy. There was no significant difference between the pre-test mean scores of the self-efficacy belief of the experimental and the control groups. Therefore, it is understood that the groups are equivalent to each other before the experimental procedure.
Participants had opportunities to experiment with pedagogical ideas in small groups, engage with PBL and carry out self- and collective reflection as well as multidisciplinary conversations which are important (McLean, 2009) and have the potential to contribute to a rich exchange of ideas, collaborative learning and collective knowledge construction within a learning community. From a pedagogical perspective, according to Woods (2000), small group PBL usually consists of groups of 3 to 9 participants (Woods, 2000) while Mills (2006) recommends eight to ten as the ideal group size for PBL, and Donnelly (2009) talks about five to seven in one of her studies. Oliver & Omari (1999) carried out a technology-enhanced PBL study with smaller groups of 4 to 5 students as did Linge & Parsons (2006). In online settings, it has been found that a smaller number of group members makes online communication and collaboration more effective and active (Novak, 1989), enables meaning- making (Donnelly, 2009) and transforms groups into teams more rapidly. Also, from a methodological perspective, Mann (online) recommends that participants in phenomenographic studies be diverse. Participants in this study were from diverse backgrounds, different genders and from different countries of origin which added to the diversity of their previous experiences. While Trigwell (2000) and Sandberg (1996) agree there is no optimum group size for general phenomenographic studies, both recommend 12-20 participants for formal phenomenographical research projects. Sin (2010) emphasises that the optimum group size depends on the nature of the project and what is to be achieved. This MSc project was an online PBL pilot in which 10 individuals participated. This is in line with Cousin (2009) who, while recognising that there are different views about the optimum group size for phenomenographic studies, recommends 10 as a good number of participants.
Knowles theories represent the fundament of most of the actual theories concerning adults’ education. So, how can be these theories applied in the real world teaching background? As a teacher, you can use imagery or real experiences as examples by which the student can see the benefic aspects of knowledge and the negative aspects of the lack of knowledge. Teaching should start by creating a pleasant atmosphere of reciprocal trust and by elucidating the reciprocal expecting, together with the person who learns. In other words, an environment of learningbased on cooperation should be created.
Abstract: This study is a preliminary analysis in the development of performance management basedlearningassessment models using ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Develop, Implementation and Evaluation) methods. The study aims to measure the level of needs analysis of performance management-basedlearningassessment models characterized by being done online and in real-time. There are two (2) objectives that are sought, namely: measuring the level of learningassessment model needs from the perceptions of students and lecturers, and measuring the readiness of the campus to run a new learningassessment model based on five (5) perspectives (software, hardware, internet connection, regulation, and human). The descriptive quantitative analysis model is used to complete this study with the study input in the form of online questionnaire results. The closed question questionnaire method is used to get the level of perception of the model needs, by using the choice of answer choices Likert scale 2 and 5. The need level of the model of student perception comes from one hundred and thirty-four (134) students, while the level of need for the model from the perception of lecturers comes from twelve (12) lecturers. The results of the calculation of the level of student needs for the model amounted to 77.54% (need) and lecturers amounted to 81.25% (extremely need). The lowest readiness level is in the internet connection perspective 16.92% (extremely not ready), while the other perspectives are ready. Suggestions are given to the campus in order to improve the ease of access and speed of internet connection.