In  Peter, Robin and Sofia have described in detail the goal based Assurance Case and its structure. The authors have also stated the possible issues associated with safety case approach. Authors have highlighted how to structure safety case by separating claims about the system from claims about safety case. This differentiation can assist in distinguishing system quality and quality of arguments and evidence which support the safety case. In  Luke and Sofia have described the software Tool ASCE (The Assurance and Safety Case Environment) which is a graphical hypertext software system that can be used to develop, review and maintain assurance and safety cases and relevant technical documentation in structured fashion. Authors have also claimed that the ASCE software tool can be configured to support in software certification process. In  Patrick, John and Elisabeth in their paper have explained the Assurance Based Development (ABD) model for development of critical computing system. This approach has used Assurance Case as backbone for constructing and verifying the system goals and evidences and thus providing of justified confidence that the system will work as per the requirements without any issues in given circumstances. Authors also provided details on how they have used ABD approach to develop part of a research prototype for a software system meant for alerting pilots to runway incursions at airports. Authors pointed out that ABD approach facilitates them having various system development choices to choose from and evaluate to ensure having an assurance that the system shall meet its dependability goals. In  Nguyen, Greenwell and Hecht discussed a specific industrial application of Assurance Case for transitioning from a legacy global positioning system to its replacement a new AEP
Making environment and attacks explicit in the assurance case was essential for the analysis. As cyber-attacks have a great impact on the reliability, we needed to revisit the case study documents with the types of cyber-attacks toward the infra- structure. Some of the attack scenarios were identified by our in-house analysis and the assurance case challenged the justification of our decisions. Other sources discussing the plausible types of attacks also had to be reviewed to provide con- vincing evidence that they are relevant in a particular context and are indeed part of the security-threatened environment. We’ll be continuing investigations into the specific adversary models that need to be considered. Ultimately, the critical prop- erties will only be satisfied for the specific set of attacks so it is important to make an informed well-reasoned decision at this stage of assessment.
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AbstractÑ Assurance cases are used to demonstrate confidence in properties of interest for a system, e.g. for safety or security. A model-based assurance case seeks to bring the benefits of model-driven engineering, such as automation, transformation and validation, to what is currently a lengthy and informal process. In this paper we develop a model-based assurance approach, based on a weaving model, which allows integration between assurance case, design and process models and metamodels. In our approach, the assurance case itself is treated as a structured model, with the aim that all entities in the assurance case become linked explicitly to the models that represent them. We show how it is possible to exploit the weaving model for automated generation of assurance cases. Building upon these results, we discuss how a seamless model- driven approach to assurance cases can be achieved and examine the utility of increased formality and automation.
The tool presented in this paper is designed to aid the research and practice of devel- oping structured formal and semi-formal assurance cases. There are other products [5,6] available to assist in the structured assurance case development. What makes our tool unique is support for the CAE blocks as self-contained reusable configurable compo- nents. It is a purpose-built tool designed specifically for the building blocks methodol- ogy, therefore, it was essential to integrate it with a widely-used assurance case soft- ware to make an impact. We implemented it on top of ASCE , which is a market- leading tool for the development and maintenance of assurance cases across a wide range of industries. ASCE is a commercial product but it is available free of charge for academic research purposes.
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Abstract. Assurance cases have been developed to reason and communicate about the trustworthiness of systems. Recently we have also been using them to support the development of policy and to assess the impact of security issues on safety regulation. In the example we present in this paper, we worked with a safety regulator (anonymised as A Regulatory Organisation (ARO) in this pa- per) to investigate the impact of cyber-security on safety regulation.
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Abstract. Due to their ability to efficiently process unstructured and highly dimensional input data, machine learning algorithms are being applied to perception tasks for highly automated driving functions. The consequences of failures and insufficiencies in such algorithms are severe and a convincing assurance case that the algorithms meet certain safety requirements is therefore required. However, the task of demonstrating the performance of such algorithms is non-trivial, and as yet, no con- sensus has formed regarding an appropriate set of verification measures. This paper provides a framework for reasoning about the contribution of performance evidence to the assurance case for machine learning in an automated driving context and applies the evaluation criteria to a pedestrian recognition case study.
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A decentralized variant of continuous integration can be defined in terms of two fundamental rules: (1) Developers’ access to add contributions to the development version at any time, and (2) developers’ obligation to integrate their own contributions properly. Decentralized, continuous integration may adapt well to organizations where developers work relatively independently, as in many open source projects. The approach raises the issue of how these organizations can exercise central control, as attaining the benefits of continuous integration requires that contributions are useful and satisfy the project’s definition of successful integration. We have investigated the use of continuous integration in FreeBSD and Mozilla. Our account of quality assurance activities in the two open source projects distinguishes between Mintzberg’s three complementary forms of central control: Standardization and control of work output, work processes, and worker skills. Our study indicates that two major challenges face projects using decentralized, continuous integration: (1) To balance the access to add contributions against the need to stabilize and mature the software prior to a release, and (2) to consider the developers’ limited time and resources when interpreting their obligation to integrate their changes properly.
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AP 6.2 outlines three requirements relating to taking a preventative approach to lameness of stock. Data from financial case study farms was utilised to determine the financial impact of reduced lameness. Lameness is known for causing economic losses in dairy systems, due to reproductive failures, treatment costs, labour cost, reduced milk yield and subsequent diseases such as mastitis (Enting, Kooij, Dijkhuizen, Huirne, & Noordhuizen-Stassen, 1997). A number of studies have quantified the costs of lameness to an individual dairy farm (Bruijnis, Hogeveen, & Stassen, 2010; Cha, Hertl, Bar, & Gröhn, 2010; Kossaibati & Esslemont, 1997). A more recent study of incidences of lameness utilising 43 South Island farms and a seven year work programme looking at the impact of lameness costed it at $40 per case (Gibbs, 2010). For the purpose of this study a $40 cost saving per cow was utilised which was conservative with other estimates of $75 within the literature (Bruijnis et al., 2010). Reduced lameness incidents will vary significantly for farms, dependent upon the infrastructure on which cows walk and the number of incidences of lameness on farm. Cost savings are only an indication based upon data from informant farms.
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Though billions of dollars are spent trying to develop quality software, software bugs are very common. For most computer systems, the cost of software constitutes a major part of the cost of the system. Since software is so important and valuable, if software development process lacks quality, then the software that’s developed will surely lack quality. “Software Quality Assurance (SQA) involves the entire software development PROCESS - monitoring and improving the process, making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed, and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. It is oriented towards prevention”.
candidates are told the format for the document and the criteria against which it will be marked. They are asked to produce a specified number of cases of a certain type. To the extent that it is in the nature of a portfolio that candidates produce their “better” cases it gives some sense of the breadth and depth of their practice. So, for example, a portfolio at Level 1 requiring two trials to be submitted would include a brief initial description of the nature of each case and the nature of the advocate’s involvement. It would then be necessary to describe in detail: the parts of the process required to enable judgment under the criteria e.g. setting out the nature of the evidence; the client’s instructions and any change in them; the advice given and whether it was taken; any particular difficulties which the client, the nature of the case or the witnesses posed and the approach taken to the gathering or undermining of any evidence.
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The institutional policy with regard to quality assurance is reflected in the quality policy of the institute stated as - “We, at Srinivas Institute of Management Studies, Mangalore, strive to deliver comprehensive, continually enhanced, global quality professional education through an established quality management system complimented by the synergistic interaction of the stakeholders concerned." We strive to communicate this policy to all the persons at all levels, so that this policy becomes working reality within the organization.
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In this paper, I argued that, given a plausible Fallibilistic Doctrine of As- surance (FDA), knowledge of salvation is attainable for Christians. To that end, I presented some anti-skeptical motivations for adopting fallibilism, and after looking at two different formulations of a doctrine of assurance by John Calvin and Kenneth Keathley, I presented an alternative formula- tion of the doctrine of assurance, FDA, informed by those preceding epis- temological considerations. Once I did this, I presented and responded to an objection from pragmatic encroachment. While this objection purported to demonstrate that FDA was no better than the Certainty Views of Assur- ance represented by Calvin and Keathley, the intuitions in favor of Pragmatic Encroachment could not be reasonably sustained. Consequently, as it stands, FDA provides sufficient grounds for the elect to indeed have knowledge of their status as elect, in order that they might assent to the witness of the au- thor of Hebrews, who writes,
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In  software complexity is added during the development stages that following the requirements phase, primarily during the designing and coding phase. In our case to provide software quality assurance, we performed the testing process after solution phase to ensure that design and code meet the requirements and to achieve a best quality before development phase, as shown in Figure 2, Also we have modified the model introduced in  by redesign the productivity phase that comes after quality phase to ensure produce software with high quality, fulfilled all the requirements, uncomplicated code, ease of maintenance and modification and less errors.
We currently have mature drafts of both CoPs that are in the process of being reviewed by industry stakeholders before going out for wider public consultation (the road CoP is available from BSI as PAS11281). In order to build consensus around the CoPs, we plan to organise a series of workshops with representative stakeholders to explore the application of the CoP to their situation. We propose that all safety justifications should consider security and an important next step is to show how following the CoP can be used to inform a security-informed safety case.
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Quality Assurance of UK Higher Education, the wider regulation of the sector and of those who teach and research within it has experienced significant change within re- cent years. The scale of these changes looks set to intensify as the Higher Education and Research Bill makes its way through Parliament. Core themes under-pinning these changes are a Government desire to generate further competition within the sector through the arrival of new providers alongside more detailed sets of information to inform consumer (student) choice. Risk-based Regulation is also central to the pro- posed new framework. Similar challenges can be witnessed within the legal education sector as one of the key regulators of the legal profession is currently consulting on far- reaching reforms, designed to diversify the routes towards professional qualification. Throughout all of this, the Quality Assurance Agency has presided over an increased recognition of the importance of enhancing and assuring the quality of higher educa- tion within the UK, with increased responsibility placed upon individual institutions to assure quality. Although the UK does not have a state certification process for academ- ic staff, increasing attention has been brought to bear on institutions to demonstrate that their staff hold teaching qualifications (alongside traditional academic credentials of higher degrees in their subject areas). University promotion criteria, however, re- main subject to individual institutional policies, albeit with benchmarking through the use of external assessors and referees. Quality assurance activities and processes have taken an increasingly central place within the UK HE landscape over the last 25 years or so. However, the future balance between highly developed quality assurance mecha- nisms, state-regulation and a competitive open market appears uncertain. Law exem- plifies many of the challenges facing the sector as a whole.
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Academic quality assurance process is essential in ensuring all the processes involved in offering the academic programs have fulfilled the requirements of the university as well as the nation. In Malaysia, the universities can be divided into two categories, the private and public universities. The number of private universities in particular has increased, thus create a competitive environment in educational industries. One of the ways to create a distinctive competitiveness is have a standard in business operation and a certain accreditation for the academic programs. This is also has affected University Tenaga National (UNITEN) as one of private universities in Malaysia. In UNITEN, several academic processes have undergone accreditation processes such as Malaysian Qualification Agency (MQA) (Malaysian Qualification
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The process undertaken began with a literature review to provide background on various quality systems such s ISO 9001:2000 and TQM, and their similarities and differences, benefits and shortcomings. A gap analysis was then undertaken comparing the existing company systems (or lack there of) against one QA system requirements, in this case ISO 9001:2000. From this background information and gap analysis attaining ISO 9001:2000 compliance or registration was seen to be expensive, time consuming and extraneous in this situation. Selected readings indicated that TQM was the most appropriate option to be applied to a medium sized survey practice. Hence the processes of TQM were then followed.
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examined how quality was presented and explained based on printed materials and interviews with participants at one particular setting – a large, comprehensive university in Ontario. A case study, that is a distinct real-life phenomenon bounded by time and space (Johnston, 2013; Merriam & Tisdell, 2016; Mills & Gay, 2016; Patton, 2015) was the chosen methodology to provide an up-close account of an institutional quality assurance process. Although case studies can be used in quantitative or qualitative (Shareia, 2016), this research aligned with the latter approach. Merriam and Tisdell (2016) described qualitative case studies as “the search for meaning and understanding, the researcher is as the primary instrument of data collection and analysis, an inductive investigative strategy, and the end product being richly descriptive” (p. 37). This case study captured a quality assurance process while in progress at one department. Data was collected over a four-month period and observations of the review included the tone and tenor of department as people engaged in the process. The decision was made to pursue an exploratory case study methodology using a Foucauldian-informed post-structuralist discourse analysis, which would investigate multiple possibilities for defining quality.
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As Srikanthan and Dalrymple (2007) highlighted, the effective implementation of a quality assurance model can contribute to the match between educational and organisational theories in HEIs. On the other hand, the organisational behaviour norms typical of each organisational theory are fundamental prerequisites for implementing the quality assurance model. It is, therefore, noticeable that there is an interrelation between organisational theories and quality assurance models. There are some related studies in the extant literature that reflect this interconnectedness between organisational theories and the implementation of quality assurance in universities. For example, Kezar (2008), in her study of the implementation of equity initiatives in universities, found that organisational contextual factors had a powerful influence on the implementation of equity initiatives. Csizmadia (2006), in a study on quality management in Hungarian higher education, found that organisational features such as organisational complexity, leadership and the decision-making process, influence the pace and the scope of quality management in universities. The detailed findings include: the more complex the institution, the slower the pace of quality management implementation; the higher the commitment of leaders, the faster the pace and the wider the scope of quality management implementation. Newton (2002) emphasised the importance of taking contextual factors into full account, as these factors influence the implementation as well as the reshaping of quality policy. In general, these studies demonstrate the relevance of organisational theories in analysing the adoption and practice of quality assurance at the institutions.
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Dynamic response is response of the structure to dynamic load. Dynamic loads induce acceleration and the resisting forces and whereas the static loads induce only resisting forces. The dynamic response of the system gives an idea, that how the system will behave under the particular type of dynamic force. This is very essential in designing to resist the earthquake vibrations. The vibration will respond to dynamic force of particular frequency. This response are investigated at the different strain rates. It also subjected to cyclic loading. Here, to find the Mode shapes, Curvature mode shape, Modal assurance criteria and Curvature assurance of the built up steel beam.