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Children in transition: child poverty in The Kyrgyz Republic

Children in transition: child poverty in The Kyrgyz Republic

This paper examines childhood poverty in one of the poorer Republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU), the Kyrgyz Republic. The Kyrgyz Republic, as with other Republics in the FSU, in the early 1990s embraced a programme of reforms that moved the country towards a market economy, as well as gaining independence from a Union which had previously supported relatively high levels of social investment. The loss of transfers from the Union coupled with the upheaval of reform had a negative impact on the population during the early 1990s. During the past two years, there have been a number of publications that have traced recent trends in poverty and well-being for the population in general (see for example, UNDP 2002, World Bank 2003 and Falkingham 2004a). However the issue of child poverty has received relatively little attention, despite evidence that children, who constitute 37 percent of the total population, are the group most at risk of poverty (Yarkova et al 2003). This paper aims to fill that gap in literature, analysing the trends in, and attributes associated with, childhood poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic over the period 1996- 2003, using a range of household survey data.

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Influence of education on living conditions of households

Influence of education on living conditions of households

is able to solve the income situation problem although the success may not appear always and immediately. The same reasons, i.e. the ability of an individual, can be behind the appearing problems in the income situation of households where the head of household has achieved higher education. The question is whether the rising percentage of households in this group at risk of poverty is a coincidence or whether it is related to the quality of tertiary education. Tab. V below shows results of a detailed analysis of the set of households at risk of poverty.

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Assessment of the income situation of households in the Czech Republic

Assessment of the income situation of households in the Czech Republic

perception of their situation, or the urge to change this situation. Therefore, Table 6 includes not only households at the risk of poverty, suggesting how they can (or want) enjoy the benefits characterized by four indicators of material deprivation – the ba- sic needs. About one quarter of the households at the risk of poverty can afford a one-week annual holiday away from home, whereas only one half of the families not suffering financially can enjoy this one-week vacation. The difference in the number of households (at risk of poverty × others) who can af- ford the selected food is reduced to about 20%, the difference is even smaller for the item: the adequate heating of a dwelling.

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Pension Policy: New Evidence on Key Issues

Pension Policy: New Evidence on Key Issues

B efore analysing potential policy changes, we examine the potential impact of trends towards increasing coverage in occupational and private pensions, and in qualification rates for the contributory State Pension. Occupational/private pension coverage among current pensioners is about 30 per cent, but stands at about 60 per cent for the over 30s. This difference reflects the fact that the rate of pension coverage has been rising over time. If this higher rate of coverage is sustained then future pensioner populations will be more likely to have an entitlement to a private or occupational pension than the current cohort of pensioners. What implications would this have for the “at risk of poverty” measure for future pensioners? We estimate that this factor could reduce the “at risk of poverty” measure by about one-third – both in terms of the familiar head count ratio, but also in terms of broader measures taking account of the depth of poverty. In a similar fashion, we analyse the impact of increased rates of qualification for the contributory State Pension. This factor could lead to a reduction in the head count of poverty of about one-fifth, and would also help to reduce the depth of poverty.

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Assessment of the income situation of households in the Czech Republic

Assessment of the income situation of households in the Czech Republic

perception of their situation, or the urge to change this situation. Therefore, Table 6 includes not only households at the risk of poverty, suggesting how they can (or want) enjoy the benefits characterized by four indicators of material deprivation – the ba- sic needs. About one quarter of the households at the risk of poverty can afford a one-week annual holiday away from home, whereas only one half of the families not suffering financially can enjoy this one-week vacation. The difference in the number of households (at risk of poverty × others) who can af- ford the selected food is reduced to about 20%, the difference is even smaller for the item: the adequate heating of a dwelling.

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Why is it so hard to reach the EU’s ‘poverty’ target? Bruegel Policy Contribution Issue No  1 2017

Why is it so hard to reach the EU’s ‘poverty’ target? Bruegel Policy Contribution Issue No. 1 2017

Conceptually, the definition of the ‘at risk of poverty’ indicator and the explanation pro- vided in the Eurostat glossary resemble an indicator of income inequality. In more equal soci- eties, more people have incomes closer to the median income and consequently the share of people with income below 60 percent of the median income is low. In the extreme case of a country with perfect income equality, everyone earns the same and therefore nobody is below (and nobody is above) the median income. In a country with some level of income inequality, there are (by definition) people with incomes both below and above the medium income, but when income inequality is very low, nobody may have an income below 60 per- cent of the median income. In a country with a rather equal income distribution, the ‘at risk of poverty’ indicator could therefore take the value of zero, even if everyone was extremely poor.

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Principal Longevity, Leadership Behaviors, and Student Academic Achievement

Principal Longevity, Leadership Behaviors, and Student Academic Achievement

2004). The law was intended to protect the poor from predatory lending practices, but in an industry where 70% APR interest rates are often necessary just to cover costs, the 2% cap likely discouraged many private investors from entering the market (Armendariz de Aghion and Morduch 2005; Kumar 2005). The legislation package included provisions intended to loosen credit for microfinance, but it also discouraged new microcredit lending, especially privately funded lending. The problem became so pronounced that at one point roughly 50% of banks were shirking the legislative requirement to set aside funds for microfinance, opting instead to hold the money in zero interest accounts rather than put the money at risk of default for very modest profits (Meagher et al 2006). Although the usury legislation was intended to protect the poor, it acted as a market bruising regulation (Helms and Reille 2004). Although microfinance continued to grow over the following years, without these regulations there would likely have been more of a private investor presence in the market and, therefore, more MFIs lending to more customers, with additional funds (Chaves 2011; Nichter, Goldmark and Fiori 2002; Olsen 2010). Today there are more than 60 MFIs in Brazil, but most of them are funded through government institutions or NGOs.

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Poverty, risk and informal insurance in remote Papua New Guinea

Poverty, risk and informal insurance in remote Papua New Guinea

The inter-generational effects of extended periods of low food consumption are well established. Malnourishment increases the maternal death rate, and leads to lower birth weight babies who are at increased risk of dying (Shen and Williamson 1999, p.199; WFP and CDC 2005, p.22). Low birth weight is a particular issue in Papua New Guinea, and accounts for half of neonatal mortality (Cripps et al. 2008, p.121). In children, malnutrition leads to lower growth rates and poorer performance at school. Poor cognitive development in childhood is associated with poor achievement in adulthood (Hoddinott 2006, p .316). There is also a link between low body mass and lower agricultural productivity (Dercon and Hoddinott 2005, p.125). In villages that rely on subsistence agriculture, the adoption of consumption-reducing strategies may contribute to households being trapped in a cycle of low productivity that entrenches disadvantage and makes them more vulnerable to negative shocks. Consistent use of consumption reduction as a strategy in response to shocks could therefore be a factor in households remaining chronically poor. In extreme cases, human capital could be depleted to such an extent that destitution occurs.

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Keeping warm with sickle cell disease research project

Keeping warm with sickle cell disease research project

unaffordable and did not always fit in with shift work. Not all participants had family nearby to help with childcare so some relied on help from friends or neighbours. Informal childcare arrangements may put children at risk. To be able to get to work before the nursery opened one mother was leaving her child with SCD with a neighbour who walked him up to nursery for her. When a new partner came to live with her neighbour she became wary of him and found the man had taken the child on his bike and the child had fallen off and cut himself. She stopped leaving her son with the neighbour the next day and came home to find the police arresting the man. In addition to finding normal childcare parents reported the difficulty of finding carers that understood how to prevent a crisis being triggered and spot the signs of an emergency if the child became ill.

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Annex to the draft joint inclusion report. Statistical annex. Commission staff working paper. SEC (2003) 1425 final, 12 December 2003

Annex to the draft joint inclusion report. Statistical annex. Commission staff working paper. SEC (2003) 1425 final, 12 December 2003

As far as possible, children must be given a special focus within the common indicators of social exclusion and poverty. In particular, it is recognised that it is especially important not to base the examination of child poverty and social exclusion on one single at-risk-of-poverty indicator. It is therefore recommended to apply a standard breakdown by broad age groups to all the Laeken indicators, wherever relevant and meaningful. In deciding the degree of disaggregation by age, considerations of statistical robustness must also be taken into account. Similarly, a gender breakdown must be applied to all the indicators, always wherever relevant and meaningful. It should be noted that, in the case of income-based indicators, the gender breakdown is based on the assumption of equal sharing of resources within households. Furthermore, in most instances a gender breakdown is only meaningful when applied to the adult population, as there cannot be any normative interpretation of gender differences in, for example, the poverty risk rate for children.

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Out-of-pocket health care expenditure in Turkey: analysis of the household budget surveys 2002-2008

Out-of-pocket health care expenditure in Turkey: analysis of the household budget surveys 2002-2008

As discussed above, it may be the case that some poor households delay dealing with their medical needs as they cannot afford out-of-pocket health care expenditure and, thus, they are not regarded as incurring catastrophic health expenditure as their health expenditure is zero. The standard probit approach outlined above does not take such considerations into account. The medical care seeking behaviour of households should ideally be accounted for in order to accurately assess the risk factors associated with incurring catastrophic health expenditure. In order to account for the health care seeking behaviour of households, we create a binary indicator for whether the household reports positive health expenditure. Since all members of all the health care insurance schemes in Turkey are required to pay a co- payment for drug expenditure, this indicator provides information on their medical visits and serves as a proxy for health care seeking behaviour (Erus and Aktakke, 2012). 6

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Collaboration of Poverty Handling in Indonesia

Collaboration of Poverty Handling in Indonesia

Therefore, in order for the participation of the private sector, relevant external impulse to set the behavior of the private sector becomes the absolute. Government regulation governing corporate social activity becomes important. The expansion of the legal rules exist to ensure the responsible behaviour of the private sector, for example the law of labor and the environment, should take precedence. With the role of the CST or the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility that exists in a private company, if underutilized could indeed be useful and more or less could affect the pattern of changes in poverty in this country. The CSR is responsible for the company's commitment in social and environment against the impact of incurred due to the operation of the enterprise sector in the region. When the previous company only pays attention to profit (Profit), in the future the company will also have to pay attention to the Community (People) and environmental (Planet).

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<em>MC1R</em> variants as melanoma risk factors independent of at-risk phenotypic characteristics: a pooled analysis from the M-SKIP project

<em>MC1R</em> variants as melanoma risk factors independent of at-risk phenotypic characteristics: a pooled analysis from the M-SKIP project

We tested the prediction ability to identify CM partici- pants by adding MC1R variants to a clinical base predic- tion model. Variables included in the base model were age, sex, sunburn, number of common nevi, and RH phenotype. These covariates were available in a subset of 4,390 (68%) participants from six studies. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate the risk of CM according to the base clinical risk model and to the model including the MC1R gene, defined as the presence of any MC1R variants versus WT, the presence of only r variants and presence of at least one R variant versus WT, and the presence of each of the nine most common MC1R variants or rarer variants. R and r alleles have previously been defined according to their association with RH phenotype. 17,22 We compared the predictive abil-

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Poverty Alleviation Through Good Governance In Nigeria: An Islamic Perspective

Poverty Alleviation Through Good Governance In Nigeria: An Islamic Perspective

clothing and shelter are to be called social needs while the concept could be better defined as „capability deprivation‟. Poverty deserves much attention because Nigeria is ranked the third poorest country in the world after Nepal and Tanzania as per the World development report of 1999-2000. (Jhingan 2010). In the Islamic point of view, the definition of poverty is far more than lack of material or money for sustenance. The religion covers both the material and spiritual life of the believer. So Mannan (1990) opines that the abundance of goods alone does not ensure richness in Islam. In a hadith reported by Abu Huraira, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, Richness does not lie in the abundance of worldly goods, but richness is richness of the heart itself (Muslim hadith no.1051). This hadith explains that to a Muslim the worldly materials are only one part of a whole. The two must go together – the material and spiritual.

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Review of Lessons Learned from the 'Asian Poverty Elimination Efforts’

Review of Lessons Learned from the 'Asian Poverty Elimination Efforts’

Latest studies of UNDP (2019) and Oxford University shows that entering the lower middle class is becoming more difficult due to the difficulty of getting jobs or finding new opportunities. This can be clearly shown in the in a sharp increase of the vulnerable people with multidimensional poverty in Asia, Buheji (2019g). This means more focused work needed in the future about making the poor more capable of exploiting opportunities. In the end, this paper calls for more in-depth investigation for the measurement of poverty and the elimination of this poverty through pausing the achievements of the failures of the best runners in the field, the Asians.

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Article Risk of Exclusion in People with Disabilities in Spain: Determinants of Health and Poverty

Article Risk of Exclusion in People with Disabilities in Spain: Determinants of Health and Poverty

To determine the size of the population living below the poverty line (for a person living alone in Spain in the reference year (2011), this was 8321 euros per year), we started from the variable income by segment in the household of the person surveyed. We combined this variable with the type of household (calculating the thresholds in accordance with the modified scale of the OECD) and the variable difficulties in meeting certain expenses. We were thus able to assign the poor/not poor dichotomy to the individuals in the sample (though we should point out that this resulting variable is just an approximation). As no quantitative, direct income indicator exists, we had to choose a proxy variable for poverty. The construct for risk of poverty showed that 22.8% of the sample was living below the poverty line (8321 euros per year for a person living alone) in the year studied. This figure is not substantially different from that reported by other statistical sources, such as the 2012 Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida (Living Conditions Survey), which put it at 20.8%. However, as our data slightly overestimates the risk of poverty, this should be taken into account when drawing conclusions. The poor/not poor dichotomous variable was constructed ad hoc from variables of the EISS-2012. As mentioned, it is therefore a proxy variable.

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Poverty related risk for potentially preventable hospitalisations among children in Taiwan

Poverty related risk for potentially preventable hospitalisations among children in Taiwan

In the meantime, more effort may be necessary to increase efficiency in the NHI system and further decrease such inequality. Although it is not expected that NHI can remove all healthcare disparities, enhan- cing quality of primary care (including well-child care) in the NHI system may help further reduce economic inequality in children ’ s potentially preventable hospitali- sations, as well as total expenditures. Intervention efforts aimed at reducing potentially preventable hospitalisa- tions need to focus on high-risk areas [2]. According to the theory of concave health production functions, public investments in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations among poor citizens have the potential to yield Pareto improvement in health throughout a society. In other words, improving the health of poor families can be accomplished without affecting the health of more economically secure citizens and without using more social resources [2].

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The risk of falling into poverty after developing heart disease: a survival analysis

The risk of falling into poverty after developing heart disease: a survival analysis

In spite of these limitations, this paper has been able to identify heart disease as a risk factor for both income poverty and multidimensional poverty for people under the age of 70. To date the few longitudinal studies that have been conducted exploring the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and income have only looked at low income as a risk factor for developing CVD. To the authors best knowledge this is the first study to docu- ment the inverse relationship, although the findings were limited to those with heart disease. These findings are significant given the high prevalence of heart disease amongst the population of developed nations.

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Evidence on demographic and social trends. Social policies' contribution to inclusion, employment and the economy. Social investment package. Commission staff working document. SWD (2013) 38 final/II, 20 February 2013

Evidence on demographic and social trends. Social policies' contribution to inclusion, employment and the economy. Social investment package. Commission staff working document. SWD (2013) 38 final/II, 20 February 2013

This section aims to identify the statistical and analytical gaps that hamper the monitoring and analysis of poverty and social exclusion. Improving measures and indicators in these areas would help reach a more accurate and timely diagnosis on which to base recommendations for policy intervention in the context of Europe 2020. Under the new programming period, the objectives of the ESF will be linked to those of Europe 2020 on employment and social inclusion and will support policies set out in National Reform Programmes in response to Country Specific Recommendations. More timely and more accurate data, together with efforts to develop poverty maps (see section 8.3.6), will help with programming and allocating the ESF and to monitor overall outcomes. Three areas of improvement are explored: (i) improving the analysis, monitoring and dissemination of existing information; (ii) improving data collection systems at EU and national level; and (iii) supporting the development of methods and models and enhancing their use in policy making.

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Commodity Markets, Risk and Poverty: A Case of Uganda

Commodity Markets, Risk and Poverty: A Case of Uganda

consumption to income as a basis for deriving poverty measures because of the tendency for income to be understated and because consumption more precisely reflects the resources controlled by the household in the short term and thereby comes closer to the household’s permanent income. (Fafchamps et al, 2005). At the same time, it is important to acknowledge that consumption can also be an unreliable measure of permanent income because different households have different consumption smoothing capabilities (World Bank, 2005). Consumption per adult equivalent is preferred to consumption per capita as a measure of household well-being because adult equivalence scales can in principle correct for economies scale in consumption that come with different household composition. Here, households with different numbers of children and adults are converted into adult equivalents for comparison purposes. However, the use of equivalence scales is limited by the fact assumptions about unobservables such as how the aggregate is split within the households will be required. In addition, the assumptions in computing consumption for individuals can have a significant bearing on policy choice when the economist has only information about aggregate consumption and household composition without information on how consumption is distributed within households (Deaton, 1997). For example, a household with a large number of children may have a higher consumption per adult equivalent than a comparable household with the same per capita consumption but a smaller proportion of children. The choice of definition can therefore have policy consequences.

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