Aim: Parental attitudes towards children’s oralhealth determine the attitudes and practices of their children. This consecutively depends on the knowledge, attitude, and practices among parents which is being seeded to their children. Objective: The objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of motherstoward their children’s oralhealth. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 206 mothers of preschool children who visited Saveetha Dental College in Chennai, India. Data were collected through a structured proforma. Results: Majority 83.3% showed fair attitude, 70% exhibited fair knowledge, and 66.7% showed poor practices towards a children’s oralhealth. Lack of knowledge regarding the role of fluorides, causes and prevention of dental caries, gum disease, and malocclusion were found among the respondents. Conclusion: This study showed that mothers had fair knowledge and attitude with poor practices towards their children’s oralhealth which can be improved with effective oralhealth education.
Parents should be considered as key persons in ensuring the well-being of young children. In addition, appreciating their knowledge, attitude and practices about their children’s oralhealth may help the dental community understand some of the reasons why children do not receive the dental care they need. It is important to initiate basic good oralhealth habits in childhood so that the appropriate dental norms are established and then maintained into adult life. The family is the first institution that influences child behavior and development (Blinkhorn, 1981). Mothers, who are the primary role model for them, their health beliefs and attitude towards oralhealth care, act as a significant predictor of children’s oralhealth .
when and how to start complementary feeding is a complex issue among mothers and there are various factors influencing complementary feeding. Understanding the decision making process, social beliefs, knowledge, attitude and practices of complementary feeding is an important step prior to designing an intervention strategy to prevent malnutrition in children. Poor feeding practices including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, coupled with high rates of infectious diseases, are the principal proximate causes of malnutrition during the first two years of life. Aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding complementary feeding among mothers with children between 6 months to 24 months of age, age of complementary feeding started and its effect on growth of the child.
Study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers attending a south Indian hospital towards breastfeeding. This cross sectional study was conducted on mothers of children, attending outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital, SRM Medical College, Tamil Nadu. They were administered a pre-designed questionnaire of twenty questions related to breastfeeding. A total of 200 mothers were interviewed over a period of two months. Though many mothers (47.5%) were illiterate their knowledge to start early breastfeeding was good (80%). However, only 34.5% initiated breastfeeding within one hour. Twenty five percentage of mothers felt that colostrum is bad and 10.5% gave prelacteals. Exclusive breastfeeding was given for six months by 72% of mothers. Cow’s milk was the most commonly used top milk (23.5%). Knowledge about weaning was good but about demand feeding was poor. Doctors were the preferred counselor (87.5%) and not enough breast milk was the main reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. Mothers had good knowledge about breastfeeding practices. But there is a gap between knowledge and practice which needs to be addressed. Doctors should play a key role in educating nursing mothers as nursing mothers rely heavily on doctors for consultation.
It is still unbelievable that diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood death in the world 21 . Every year 9.2 million children under five years of age die and 90% of these are from preventable conditions as diarrhea 22 . Diarrhea kills more young children around the world than malaria, AIDS and TB combined 23 . As our world climate and demographics change diarrheal disease will become an even more significant global health threat. According to the International Federation of Red Cross approximately 60% of the request for emergency funding was related to acute diarrheal disease 24 .
used as an appetizer by prescription to improve feeding behaviors and weight gain in young age pediatrics. However, In Iraq, these medications widely misused for this purpose which may lead to many unwanted side effects, and its abuse may lead to disturbances in the immunity of persons taking it, especially in children. 13 This study revealed that more than (40%) of
We report that maternal knowledge and practices during diarrhoea in children were inadequate and grossly deficient in few areas. This could be due to more number of illiterates (21.33%) and lower level of education (13.33%). We found these practices are mainly due to social influence and cultural belief, without any scientific basis. Even those were literates, had less knowledge about diarrhoea and had little information on ORT. Key measures in the management of diarrhoea include rehydration with oral rehydration solution to replenish the loss of fluid and electrolytes. In severe cases of dehydration, administration of intravenous fluids is recommended. Who recommends use of Zinc supplements along with ORS as it reduces the stool volume (30%) and duration of diarrhoeal episode (25%). Breaking the vicious circle of malnutrition and diarrhoea by giving nutrient-rich foods, continuing breast feeds during an episode, is another important factor to be adhered to. General health and well being of the children has to be maintained through nutritious diet, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life when they are well. Importance of consulting a health professional, has to be conveyed to mothers, in particular for persistent diarrhoea or dysentery. Mothers should be educated to identify the early signs of dehydration and should be encouraged to seek medical help at the earliest. Identifying and correcting the wrong practices reduce the severity and help in better management.
Low income is considered to be one of the limitations in utilizing dental health care services and not surprisingly our study also reported that mothers with lower household income (<10,000 Pakistani rupees per month) had less knowledge about dental caries than mothers who had higher house hold income. Another study conducted at Michigan stresses the importance of educating the socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers about the ways and means that their children can receive dental care, importance of tooth brushing, prevention of dental caries in general, and routine visits to dental clinics . Furthermore study showed that mother’s low income can affect the child’s oralhealth and also leads to diminished utilization of health care services .
Asrat (2015) conducted a study on assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices and factors affecting mothers regarding pneumonia among underfive children. In this study Institutional based cross sectional study was employed among mothers of underfive children. The results revealed that 32.8% of mothers have satisfactory knowledge on prevention on pneumonia.
Uma Maheswari,et.al.,2016,conducted a study to assess the knowledge and practices regarding Oral rehydration Solution for Acute diarrhea among mothers of underfive children in Chandigarh. A descriptive study involving 100 mothers of underfive children were carried out. In this study, 56% of mothers had moderate knowledge about ORS, 36% of mothers had moderate knowledge on ORS Preparation and also 100% mothers know about the preparation.
Total 250 mothers were interviewed, and data was collected as per pre-formed questionnaire prepared in vernacular language (Punjabi) English and hindi too. Study was conducted on mothers who bought their child less than 5 years of age to opd of department of paediatrics, SGRD Medical college to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices during episodes of diarrhoea. On basis of educational qualification of mothers, data were divided into three categories:
opposed to other remote towns, thus referral is a feasible option. Our study also portrayed that 65% (Table 4) of the practicing gynaecologists were unaware of the vertical as well as horizontal transmission of streptococcus mutans. Multiple studies have documented maternal-to-child transfer of caries- causing oral bacteria (Li and Caufield, 1995; Klein and colleagues, 2004). Hence, sustained reductions in maternal oral bacterial levels are essential for preventing caries in both mother and child. In 1996, Offenbacher and colleagues (Offenbacher, 1996), ﬁrst reported a potential association between maternal periodontal disease and delivery of a preterm/low birth weight infant. In a subsequent case-control study, Dasanayake and colleagues. studied 55 pairs of women, and concluded; mothers with ‘healthy gingiva’ were at lower risk for low birth weight infants (Dasanayake, 1998). Early studiesled to the hypothesis that period on topathic bacteria, primarily Gram-negative anaerobes, may serve as a source for endotox in and lipopolysaccharides, which then increases local inﬂammatory mediators including PGE2, and cytokines, and this increase system icinﬂammatory media to rscan then lead to preterm birth. 7 Saraivaand colleagues, suggested that preterm birth was associated with increased dental caries in primary dentition. 19, 20 In our study, 79% (Table 4) of gynaecologists had knowledge on the effect of active periodontitis on foetus growth and pregnancy outcomes. The present study showed that only 46% (Table 4) of respondents recommended flossing as a regular practice.
This research study focuses on oralhealth of children. Lack of knowledge, negative attitude and improper or lack of practice of motherstoward their children will lead to a sort of situation which can easily affect the lives of several individuals. As it is clear that oralhealth is one of the most important in our life. Mouth is a window opening for every body system unhygienic condition of mouth can easily lead every one body to several diseases. Oralhealth of children is main problem because they are in such a stage of their life in which they want to be independent from their parents. Globally it becomes a very main problem in all developing countries where the ratio of education is low.
Cetta F, Bell TJ et al (1993) 8 studied the parental knowledge of bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis.. Parents of 135 patients attending a pediatric cardiology clinic in a university centre were mailed an eight-question survey pertaining to their knowledge of their child's cardiac disease and medications. Eighty-four (62%) parents returned complete surveys. The patients' mean age was 5 years with a range of 9 weeks to 19 years. It was observed that eighty-two (98%) respondents were high school graduates. Fifty-two (62%) respondents correctly defined endocarditis. Eighty-two (98%) parents knew the correct name of their child's cardiac condition and 27/32 (84%) knew the names of their child's current medications. It was found that only 36/64 (56%) parents of at-risk children knew measures to prevent endocarditis. While most parents know the name of their child's heart lesion and current medications, parental knowledge of endocarditis was limited. It was concluded that intensified education and awareness programs are needed in order to prevent potential major morbidity and mortality for pediatric patients with heart disease.
Most mothers fed their children exclusively with breast milk and only 19% knew that the type of supplemen- tary food given to children affects the erupting teeth. Effective use of fluoride, healthy diet and nutrition and oralhealth of children are some of the WHO priority action areas for the improvement of oralhealth worldwide  . Member states of the WHO are urged to develop and implement the promotion of oralhealth and preven- tion of oral disease for preschool and school-aged children as part of activities in health promoting schools . Most of the mothers who participated in this study did not associate supplementary diet with early dental de- cay. An earlier study on the risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC) in Lagos, Nigeria, showed that babies given supplements of local high fibre Nigerian diet had lower risk of ECC than those on proprietary canned, re- fined cereal meals . Regular oralhealth education for young mothers which addresses issues on oral hygiene, healthy diet and regular dental visits will improve mothers’ knowledge and ultimately, children’s oralhealth.
Although it was stated that 94% parents checked their child’s dietary habit still 33% children were found to have evidence of carious lesions according to their parents. 88% showed an attitude of concern on presence of stains on their child’s teeth but 25% children had stains on their teeth. This highlights that the parents were somewhere lacking in undertaking proper oral hygiene measures and providing healthy diet. There is a need for training parents about correct brushing techniques and educate them about healthy nutrition for their children. About 80.5% parents accepted that they would stop their child from parafunctional habits which cause malocclusion and it was proven by only 19% malocclusion case finding amongst the children from parents perspective. An striking finding was that 73.5% parents believed their child doesn’t require any professional treatment irrespective of the presence of these oral problems. This behavior of parents to disregard existing oral disease reflects lack of appropriate information and communication about identifying the problem and possibly because people only seek care for oral disease when symptom appears or it causes significant functional or aesthetic issue which was also explained by Zavras et al.  Similarly,
Of the 8 OHPPs assessed, our findings indicate that, on average, CCCDs reported implementing very few OHPPs in their centers, suggesting that OHPPs may not adequately practiced in these centers. More than 80% of the CCCDs reported that their enrollees did not brush after meals, their center lacked an oralhealth consultant and oralhealth emergency manuals, the staff were not trained in traumatic dental injuries, and did not main- tain children’s dental records. This indicates that, based on the CCCDs’ reports, AAPD recommended oralhealth prevention and promotion activities were not frequently practiced in licensed Florida CCCs. In fact, a substantial number of children younger than 5 years old were en- rolled in these centers at the time of our study (more than 80%), which is problematic because this age group has high dental caries risk and oralhealth promotion should already be initiated. At least in this study, we did not find any association between CCCD’s oralhealth knowledge and the number of OHPPs implemented. However, possessing correct oralhealth knowledge and high oralhealth literacy is important for CCCDs to prac- tice appropriate OHPPs not only for themselves but also to implement into that childcare system that will benefit the enrolled children. Therefore Florida CCCDs need more education about the importance of implementing Table 1 Mean differences in OHPPs implemented by selected
significant effect on their children's oralhealth [13, 14]. Additionally, oral hygiene skills and dietary habits of children are highly dependent on the mothers’ skills and habits. Indeed, improving parents’ oralhealth knowledge and practice would improve the oralhealth of their children . Therefore, early education of parents/caregivers about the prevention and treatment of dental caries is fundamentally important . Discovering mothers’ perception can help us determine what topics should be highlighted when designing oralhealth education programs for caregivers. In order to improve the perception of parents, mothers of children starting primary school (6 year olds) were selected as the target group. Considering the importance of the eruption of first permanent teeth and the onset of mixed dentition period, and considering the costly dental treatments, the primary school period is ideal to start an intervention for early detection and prevention of dental caries. At this time, children are in early stages of behavioral development, when the manners can be easily improved or changed by the caregivers, especially mothers. To our knowledge, there is no prior comprehensive qualitative study in Iran on mothers’ perceptions, beliefs and experiences about children’s oralhealth. Since mothers have a critical role in children’s oralhealth, and culturally they are the main caregivers in the Iranian families, understanding their oralhealth perceptions may reveal factors that influence the ability of children to favourably maintain oralhealth. These factors can be used to design, develop and implement educational models and public health actions focused on children and parental behaviours. The aim of the current qualitative study was to explore the perception of Iranian mothers about the oralhealth of children and the related factors.
Arthur (2012) conducted a study on wealth and antenatal care use, implications for maternal health care utilization in Ghana. The results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of ANC. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of ANC in Ghana. There also exists considerable variations in the use of ANC in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. A study by Karlsen, Say, Souza, Hogue, Calles, Gulmezoglu and Raine (2011) on the relationship between maternal education and mortality among women giving birth in health care institutions indicated that lower levels of maternal education were associated with higher maternal mortality. Their results revealed that in the adjusted models, women with no education had 2.7 times and those with one and six years of education had twice the risk of maternal mortality of women with more than 12 years of education. There was a significantly higher risk of death among those with higher numbers of previous births. A study was conducted by Baradaran, Bahasadri and Razieh (2011) titled risk factors for pre-eclampsia: a study in Tehran, Iran. The study evaluated some risk factors for pre-eclampsia which is one of the most problematic complications of pregnancy. It was a retrospective case control study conducted on 318 pre- eclamptic women (case group) and 318 women who were normotensive at the time of delivery as the control group. Evaluated factors were maternal age, gestational age, nuliparity, mother’s educational status, maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal haemoglobin and blood Rh, family history of pre-eclampsia, history of pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy, marital relations, urinary tract infection (UTI) during the present pregnancy, season of delivery, and method of contraception. Risk factors for pre-eclampsia were, UTI (P = 0.04); history of pre-eclampsia during previous pregnancy (P = 0.003; and winter season (P = 0.001).
similarly there was an increase in the knowledge of brushing method as was observed after the oralhealth education. Sugar consumption was significantly increase. This might be due to the lecture content which informed the children about the risks of sugars that are not only about the quantities but also about the attitudes to maintain the good oralhealth in between meals in valuable ways such as mouth rinsing, chewing a sugarless chewing gum, eating raw vegtables and fruits and eating cheddar cheese (54-58). These findings agreed with similar studies done by VasundharaPathania et al Shenoy et al (40)and Alomiri et al(47)in which significant improvement in knowledge towards the sugar consumption was seen from 84.9% to 98.2% and 87.4%. Finally, in the present study regarding deciduous teeth, it was observed that knowledge had a huge increase from 38.4% to 74.9 which was statistically significant. A noticeable defect of knowledge in the base line might be a result of the shortage of information of the parents,teachers and children themselves who believe that primary teeth don't have an impact on the health of the permanent ones. Szatko et al(59)reported that two-thirds of the mothers agreed that care of primary dentition was unnecessary. The limitations of the study are: 1-only male students were selected. 2-evaluation of practices were not based on clinical criteria. Based on these findings.