Research in science education (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003; Pell & Jarvis, 2001; Ramsden, 1998) call attention to the persisting problem of the alienation of young people from science and stress the importance of continu- ing inquiries into students’ attitudes toward science to understand and remedy the problem. Based on Fishbein and Ajzen’s (1975) general conceptual defini- tion of attitudes as the amount of affect for or against some object, and capitalizing on Cheung’s (1988) specific definition of attitudes toward mathe- matics, this study refers to science attitudes as affective evaluation of situations in which science is learned as well as views of science as a subject. “Children with positive attitudes are more likely to sustain learning and to want to pursue subjects they enjoy” (Pell & Jarvis, 2001, p. 849). There is evidence of a positive relationship between attitudes toward science and student achievement for all levels of student performance and for both sexes (Germann, 1988; Oliver & Simpson, 1988; Schibeci & Riley, 1986; Weinburgh, 1995). Positive attitudes, however, could be a stronger stimulus for students’ commitment to science after completing school because high academic achievement by itself is not a guarantee that a student would choose a science-related career. Attitudes to- ward science may influence the propensity for pursuing science-related profes- sions even in young students. Blatchford (1992), for example, found that “at 11 years there appears to be a concern with future career and an awareness of the importance of school work in that career” (p. 110). So students’ preferences for future careers may start taking shape as early as elementary school. Attitudes are learned (Fishbein & Ajzen; Koballa, 1988) and hence can be affected by stimulating students’ positive experiences with learning science.
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O f concern in the WIHIC mean scores is the low score for the investigation dimension. The inherent nature o f the applied course is that it is meant to be focused on students applying skills and knowledge by performing hands-on activities and laboratory activities. The indication that students do not believe their classroom environment is one that emphasizes skills and processes and their use in problem solving and investigation may impact negatively on their attitudes toward science. The importance o f investigation in science classrooms is supported by a study that showed student achievement was higher in classes with more investigation (Pickett & Fraser, 2002).
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coursework demands of STEM degrees. There is some evidence to support that high achieving students are more likely to complete STEM degrees and maintain STEM careers (Benbow, 2012; Crisp, Nora, & Taggart, 2009; Ma, 2011; Nicholls, Wolfe, Besterfield-Sacre, & Shuman, 2010; Rohr, 2012; Wang, 2013); however, that strategy alone would not necessarily fill the projected need, and is without regard for the diversity of the workforce or the multitude of STEM jobs that do not require college degrees. Another strategy pushes the focus away from achievement to social-cognitive factors such as attitudes, interests, and self-efficacy. This is built on the premise that developing positive attitudes toward science and mathematics might influence interest in STEM careers, and thereby motivation to achieve in those areas (Aschenbacher et al., 2010; Ing & Nylund-Gibson, 2013; Louis & Mistele, 2012; Osborne, Simon & Collins, 2003). This approach allows identification and cultivation of students with an interest in STEM without being dependent on demonstrated prior achievement, increasing the potential recruitment pool.
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ducation is an activity that has the purpose of preparing students to be people who have a positive contribution to the community ; . Indonesia has several levels of education, namely elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college. Every level of education has different levels of difficulty. At the junior high school level, students are expected to be able to use thinking skills to solve problems in everyday life, one of them is in Science / Science. Junior High School Curriculum focuses on students in studying events in everyday life so as to provide students with direct experience . Through science has actually provided provisions for solving the problems of everyday life, given that science is a science that seeks answers to questions of what, why, and how symptoms of nature relating to the composition of structure and nature, changes and dynamics of nature. Essentially science lessons are products, processes, attitudes and technology. Attitude is a reaction to a situation or object that is positive or negative. Whereas according to ; ;  attitudes are defined as individual beliefs and feelings towards an object. The above opinion states that attitude is an important component that must be possessed by students in natural science subjects. According to ;  Attitudes toward science are considered important because they can affect the performance of students and can improve student learning achievement. The importance of attitudes in natural science learning can be seen in the actions of students who show positive attitudes and negative attitudes. ;  there are two perceptions or attitudes of students to natural science is a positive attitude and negative nature in which both attitudes greatly affect the success of a student in learning science. A positive attitude is indicated by students tend to be more diligent in learning so that they get satisfying results, whereas a negative attitude is characterized by students being less diligent in learning so that they get unsatisfactory results ; . It causes students to have a negative attitude towards science so do not like science lessons , "If students have negative attitudes towards science, they also do not like science courses and science teachers. The attitudes of students towards Natural Sciences measured in this study are represented by three indicators adopted from TOSRA  social implications of science, 2) adoption of scientific
The students enrolled in astronomy exhibited significantly lower attitude scores towards science at the beginning of the semester. After careful analysis, this discrepancy with the other two classes cannot be attributed to class status since there is neither trend nor any significant change with years of instruction. This discrepancy cannot be attributed to the different gender ratio either: there are significantly more women enrolled in astronomy than in the other two courses, yet the attitude of the women in astronomy is significantly better than that of the men. Finally, it is hard to attribute the worse attitude of the astronomy students to a difference in major: while there are more non-STEM majors enrolled in astronomy, they have a better attitude than the astronomy STEM majors. Thus the astronomy population’s worse attitude cannot be explained by the factors considered in this study. This discrepancy could reflect the fact that the population of students that chooses astronomy as a general education elective is less interested in science than a randomly selected group of students assigned to a freshman seminar. General education students might choose astronomy as their general elective since they view it as one of the easiest and more interesting science (Fraknoi, 1996).
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Attitude, to Papanastasiou & Papanastasiou, (2004) is an emotional orientation of a person to respond either favourably or unfavourably to concepts or ideas, that is, the likeness and or the acceptance one displays toward a subject or object which propels a motivation for passion and absolute commitment. Simon and Collins,( 2003) investigated the relationship between the students attitude and academic achievements and found a positive correlation between teachers attitudes toward science and students higher levels of science achievement. The findings were similar to the findings of George, (2006) and Liu, (2006) which corroborated the former. More importantly, several studies have suggested that the relationship between parents attitude and students’ academic achievement is not spurious. Indeed, there is strong evidence that attitudes themselves have a significant and direct effect on students’ academic achievement (ogbonana, 2016). Since positive attitudes toward science predict higher scientific achievement and literacy, it is essential that science education programmes are structured in such a way that will captivates students from an early age and continues to actively engage them in ways that these attitude will be sustained. Studies show, however, that while students in secondary school report generally positive attitudes toward science, these positive attitudes fall as students’ progress through middle and high school (George, 2006; Papanastasiou et al, 2004)
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Research shows that elementary preservice teachers thrive when they learn content that is relevant to the science standards they will ultimately teach (Steinberg, Wyner, Borman, & Salame, 2015). Unfortunately, many college science courses are specific to one area of science, resulting in specific and often limited science knowledge. While this approach may contribute to a deep understanding in one content area, it cannot address the breadth of elementary science required for elementary teachers. According to Palmer (2011) understanding the impact of the lack of content knowledge, referred to as lack of cognitive mastery, can be important in uncovering elementary preservice teachers’ lack of interest and confidence to teach science. Preservice teachers who do not master the science content they will be responsible for teaching may subsequently not be comfortable teaching science (Britner & Pajares, 2006). They may actually have a limited capacity “to judge how important science content is” (Howitt, 2007, p. 56) and therefore develop and pass on negative attitudes toward science to their students (Bergmen & Morphew, 2015; Cobern & Loving, 2002 ). It is also probable that preservice elementary teachers will not see science taught or modeled in college science courses using methods important to science pedagogy. Most college science courses are lecture-based and “can ‘make or break’ future elementary teachers’ attitudes and abilities in their own classrooms” (Bergman & Morphew, 2015, p. 74).
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The results of this study confirm findings from previous research that students’ attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives that include education and indirect contact with users (Haddock et al., 2014; Mann & Himelein, 2008; Roe, Yanos & Lysaker, 2006; Stubbs, 2014; Yamaguchi, Wu, Biswas, Yate, Aoki, Barley & Thornicroft, 2013). Although these results do not allow us to affirm that psychology students became more eager to work with PWS as a consequence of this educational initiative, the data suggest that this intervention may engender in future psychologists a more balanced view of schizophrenia, denying neither the relevance of drug treatments, nor the importance of psychological therapies in the recovery process (Balter, 2014; Bellack, 2006; Davidson, Schmutte, Dinzeo & Andres-Hyman, 2008; Majtabai et al., 1998).
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It is suggested that the factors drive consumers from positive attitudes to the meaningful purchase behavior are a combination of perceived personal benefits, a sense of control over costs, and decreased perceived risk and uncertain . Consequently, efforts should be taken to combine those factors. In the short term, government policies may play a key role in product diffusion, because subsidies can provide compensation to customers and enterprises, and can further enhance the customers’ perceived personal benefits and decrease uncertain. For solid biomass fuel, the government could directly provide financial support to the product price, and also could offer free utensils, namely special stove to use solid biomass fuel, to rural customers. At same time, the government should illustrate the environment crisis, environment knowledge to rural residents to enhance their purchase attitude, because stern pointed out that customers without positive attitudes toward green product would abandon purchase behavior once the economic incentive policy was canceled . In the long term, the boom of forestry biomass energy industry requires scientists and designers to develop better product of forestry biomass energy that eliminate the unattractive attribute tradeoffs that push most rural customers selecting traditional energy, meanwhile enterprises’ marketers need to devise marketing mixes that convince rural residents that using solid biomass fuel is really easy and beneficial to self and society.
We ﬁ rst devised an English-language version of the sur- vey, drawing heavily from Wright et al. 10 We similarly used 5-point Likert-scale responses, and 23 items on career-choice predictors from Wright et al. 10 As we wanted students to consider speci ﬁ c characteristics of GP, we added 7 items on work settings; 7 items on pre- ferred age/gender groups; 10 items on attitudes about GP, and 14 items on attitudes about career and lifestyle. Demographic information was linked from the student ’ s unique identi ﬁ er. As not relevant for China, we did not include two items previously used by Wright et al (ade- quate income to eliminate debt, sooner deal with medical than social problems). 10
cingulate cortex (ACC). This portion of the brain is involved in conflict monitoring and error detection (Braver et al., 2001; Carter et al., 1998; Yeung et al., 2004). Researchers found a correlation between conservatism and decreased activity levels in this structure, suggesting a lower response for altering behaviors (Amodio, Jost, Master, & Yee, 2007). Other studies have indicated an inversely proportional relationship between religious conviction and neural activity in the ACC (Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsh, & Nash, 2009). In educational research, Jegede and Okebukola (1991) noted a relationship between observational skills in a science laboratory and the African spiritualism of the students. Some objects from nature were not observed carefully because they were symbolic of evil omens in the traditional cosmological faith of those students. Religion and politics in the United States have also been described as conflicting with cognition in science classrooms, especially with such topics as climate change, genetic engineering, embryonic development, sexuality, and evolution
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Our study showed that graduating residents from Canadian urology training programs are avid SoMe users in their personal lives but rarely use SoMe in professional settings and are wary of using it in patient care. Promisingly, this new generation of urologists are more optimistic than consultant urologists 19 toward SoMe’s integration in urology; they advocate for its utility in physician-physician communication and for providing patients with information. However, their limited awareness of current guidelines and legislations regarding online use is
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Secondly, future studies need to examine level of contact in detail. Studies found that level of contact is one of the most influential factors that affect the attitudes of individuals toward PWDs (Watson, 1947; Yuker, 1994; Wilson & Scior, 2015; Lee, 2016). Although this study found that there is a significant difference between level of contact and attitudes toward PWDs, it is important to define the level of contact deeply. It is because the context where individuals without disabilities contact with PWDs can elicit different attitudes by receiving status they have in that context. For instance, individual without disabilities does not provide job descriptions to PWDs in detail in workplace. In this situation, both of them do not receive equal status. Thus, it can elicit negative attitudes toward each other. This idea is supported by Allport’s intergroup contact hypothesis, which proposes unequal status which individual without disabilities and PWDs receive in the context directly influences their attitudes toward each other (Allport, 1954). Thus, future studies should include the type of contact, such as where the contact takes place and how frequent they interact with PWDs.
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Linear regression was used to examine associations be- tween demographic and behavioral variables. Two models (one each for sharing and kissing) were created for the primary outcome of attitudes toward CMV pre- vention behaviors. As we hypothesized that perceived behavioral control and frequency of performing CMV risk behaviors would be important predictors of atti- tudes, we also constructed regression models to assess predictors of these constructs for each behavior group. All six regression models included the following inde- pendent variables: ethnicity, age of youngest child at home, maternal age and education level, marital status, level of household crowding, whether the respondent was pregnant or planning a pregnancy, familiarity with CMV, subjective norms and parental affection. Models assessing perceived behavioral control also controlled for frequency of performing CMV risk behaviors. Models assessing attitudes also controlled for frequency of per- forming CMV risk behaviors and perceived behavioral control. Models were constructed using manual back- ward elimination. Covariates that did not reach sig- nificance at α = 0.10 were excluded. If any pre-survey frequency of a sharing behavior reached significance in the model, all three were retained. All analyses were completed in SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA).
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The use of the Internet for employee recruitment practices has increasingly become the norm for most large organizations. This study sought to expand upon Allen et al.’s (2007) study which was the first to examine the effect of amount of Internet recruitment website job and organization information on attraction to the organization. This study expanded on Allen et al.’s efforts by examining the effects of person-organization (P-O) and person-job (P-J) fit on the information-attraction link. Additionally, this study was the first to examine the interaction between recruitment website design features and content features, and the mediation of organizational attitudes in the relationship between recruitment website design and content and attraction. To further solidify what qualities of a recruitment website attract applicants, replication of Allen et al.’s (2007) findings regarding website content were also examined.
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students should display this value. In addition, students who display this positive attitude towards their professors and other authority figures are more likely to be academically successful. Past research showed that Appalachian students with collectivistic attitudes are more likely to have higher GPAs than others (Gore & Wilburn, 2010; Wilson & Gore, 2010). The current study expands upon this research by showing that students who
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Just by this brief introduction, it is apparent that homelessness is difficult to define and understand. Thus, people often seem to rely on stereotypes for defining and understanding homelessness, which leads to viewing this population as a homogeneous group from an individualistic perspective. While people typically think of a middle-aged, single man who suffers from substance abuse or mental illness when thinking about homelessness (Kuhn & Culhane, 1998), homelessness is much more complex than one prototype (HUD, 2018). However, these stereotypes, along with other stereotypes, provide the building blocks for people’s attitudes toward homeless individuals and the issue of homelessness. Thus, the next section will provide a review of a theoretical understanding of the structure of attitudes.
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attitudes. The questions included “it is okay if a married woman earns money in business or industry if she has a husband capable of supporting her,” “a preschool child is likely to suffer if his or her mother works,” and “having a job is the best way for a woman to be an independent person.” These questions address the respondents’ notions of women’s roles in the workplace and family. Participants were asked to choose from the same 5point Likert scale. In my analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha for the men’s gender role attitudes scale was .81 and that for the women’s gender role attitudes scale was .65. The internal consistency of Baunach and Burgess’ index (forthcoming) was similar; Cronbach’s alpha equaled .82 for men’s gender roles and .68 for women’s gender roles. These values are high enough to continue with the statistical analyses. The scale scores range from 10 to 50 for the men’s role scale (12 to 44 in Japanese data) and from 11 to 55 for the women’s role scale (12 to 37 in Japanese data). Higher values indicate that the respondent has more traditional gender role attitudes. The average score for Japanese respondents on the men’s role scale was approximately 28 and that for the women’s role scale was 23. Japanese respondents’ scores on the men’s role scale fell approximately in the middle of the range, whereas Japanese respondents leaned to more traditional attitudes on women’s roles.
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This mixed study aims to highlight the impact of social media in the Arab world, specifically Twitter’s impact on translators’ communities. For this purpose, the role of hashtags among translators will be examined by inves- tigating one particular Arabic hashtag, its purpose, target users, and the classification of content. The hashtag is ﻢﺟﺮﺘﻤﻟا_ﺔﻣﺪﺧ_ﻲﻓ_ﻢﺟﺮﺘﻤﻟا#, #transla- tor_serving_translator. 1) An online survey of six closed questions was em- ployed and posted on Twitter, and 249 responses show that users are from fourteen Arab countries, and the majority is from Saudi Arabia. Hashtag us- ers are translators, freelancers, or TS students. Some are active users who post tweets and answer questions, others only ask questions, and the rest only read tweets. The general attitude toward employing hashtags among translators’ communities was positive. 2) Employing a content analysis approach, the content is classified into two main categories of sharing information and seek- ing assistance with seven subcategories of each.
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(8)Pappous, A., Cruz, F., Leseleuc, E., Marcellini, A., Recours, R., Schmidt, J., (2006)’ Attitudes of The Elderly Toward Physical Activity And Exercise. Adaptation of The Older Person’s Attitudes Toward Physical Activity And Exercise Questionnaire In Spain’, Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism, 13 (1):69-77.
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