Auditory hallucination

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Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Techniques in Reducing Auditory Hallucination among Clients with Chronic Schizophrenia

Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Techniques in Reducing Auditory Hallucination among Clients with Chronic Schizophrenia

treatments some may continue to experience voices [Westacott, 1995]. Korczyn [2001], reported that neuroleptic medications that are dopamine and cholinesterase antagonists were effective for treating auditory hallucinations. Side effects due to non-compliance with antipsychotics (Sederer and Centorrino, 1997, p. 173) and it has been estimated that 24 – 80% of ‘‘ severely and persistently mentally ill ’’ people in the community do not take psychotropic medication as prescribed (Mulaik, 1992, p. 220). The newer atypical antipsychotic medications (e.g., clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone) appear to have less extra pyramidal symptoms (Gerlach & Peacock, 1995). However, those patients still carry the risk of unwanted effects such as sedation, dysphoria, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, endocrine effects, autonomic and cardiovascular effects, anticholinergic effects, and seizures, as well as extra pyramidal problems (Barnes & McPhillips, 1999). As a result, the patients may be reluctant to accept drug treatments and some may even wish to cease taking medications altogether.
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Reduced attention-driven auditory sensitivity in hallucination-prone individuals

Reduced attention-driven auditory sensitivity in hallucination-prone individuals

demonstrated reduced activation in the auditory cortex to external speech compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, external speech was shown to activate the speech processing regions of the brain significantly less when patients were severely hallucinating than when their hallucinations were remitted. In a similar study by Ford et al (18), decreased activation to pure tones was observed in the left primary auditory cortex in hallucinating patients compared to both non-hallucinating patients and healthy controls. In both studies, the authors concluded that AHs may compete with external speech for processing in the temporal cortex. There is evidence that some hallucinations are triggered by degraded processing of external sounds (19). It is possible, therefore, that there might be complex interactions between internally and externally driven processes in their pathophysiology. Manipulation of acoustic features of voice stimuli in different attention conditions could be used to examine the interaction (between attention and auditory processing of specific speech elements) that might contribute to the experience of auditory hallucinations.
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Measuring The Level Of Patients’ Knowledge Of Hallucination In Auditory Care

Measuring The Level Of Patients’ Knowledge Of Hallucination In Auditory Care

The majority of respondents was female as many as 16 people (53.3%), had high school education as many as 16 people (53.3%), and worked as housewives as many as 11 people (36.7%). The majority of respondents have good knowledge as many as 21 people (70%). Hasma, et al. (2012) found level of the correlation between family knowledge Level and Hallucinations very low. In Caring for Hallucinations Patients in Tampan Hospital Riau Province of Indonesia, Hasma el al that the majority of respondents were> 30 years old with low knowledge about care hallucinatory patients and behave negatively in caring for hallucinatory patients. Additionally, medical records of Mental Hospital Dr. M. Ildrem Medan that in 2014 found patients with mental disorders as many as 16,419 people, in 2015 found patients with mental disorders as many as 16,103 people with outpatients as many as 11,336 people. Whereas in 2016 until January 2017 the number of patients experiencing mental disorders experienced a drastic decline, which was only 3,737 people with patients experiencing auditory hallucinations, namely 2,616 people. After interviewing 5 family members of patients who took outpatients in the psychiatric clinic, there were 3 people who said they were poorly understood in treating hearing hallucinations at home. While 2 more people say understand. The results of the study on knowledge overview that brought patients to treatment at the Metal Health Hospital Mohammad Ildrem Medan through questionnaires directly on respondents in the following tables:
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Discrimination of auditory signals in schizotypy

Discrimination of auditory signals in schizotypy

Table 15 Hierarchical Regression Analyses Predicting N1 Amplitude Difference From Experience of Auditory Hallucination, Controlling Separately for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress, at Ele[r]

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Association study of OPRM1 polymorphisms with Schizophrenia in Han Chinese population

Association study of OPRM1 polymorphisms with Schizophrenia in Han Chinese population

When stratifying patients according to five main clinical symptoms delusion of reference, genuine auditory hallucination, delusion of persecution, bizarre behavior, and apathy, the genot[r]

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Schizophrenic Patients and Organic World: An Analysis of Patients’ Psychological Perception and Social Cognition

Schizophrenic Patients and Organic World: An Analysis of Patients’ Psychological Perception and Social Cognition

Sadia’s age was 22 and had been admitted in Fountain House for the last 5 years. She was a young quiet unconfident girl. She was the eldest among her siblings. She had severe visual and auditory hallucinations. She used to talk in a way she had a conversation with another person. She used to talk about imaginary small kids and had visual hallucinations of their presence. She saw flowers in cemented ground. She talks about the colors and beauty of non-existing flowers. She frequently uses the sentence ‘mujha nahi pata’ and had irrelevance in her dialogues. She had no insight of her illness and had no clear picture of family, home and friends in her mind. She had very low recovery rate and chance of her stability and going home were less than 40%.
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What can a sonic assemblage do? A biopsychosocial approach to post-acousmatic composition

What can a sonic assemblage do? A biopsychosocial approach to post-acousmatic composition

Hearing crucially places and orients us in a world. Event detection, self-alignment, motion and hearing share somatic lineages with other vertebrates, co-evolving with pre- human ancestral soundscapes (Fay and Popper, 2000; de Cheveigné, 2006; Meschiari, 2009; Shellard et al., 2010). The ear deals with the invisible and the remote, as the complement of vision. Over evolutionary time the auditory decoupled from motor systems through the interposition of flexible cognitions that refined responses to sound through thinking and emotion (Habibi and Damasio, 2014). As specifically social and linguistic primates, our embodied minds evolved to cope not only with hostile forces in nature, but also with co- operative, competitive and deceitful others (Alexander, 1989; Fonagy et al., 2002). The ear, the mind and the socio-political interpenetrate. Hence (in Part 2), I find it compositionally useful to think the trace of sound as ‘an artefact of the messy and political human sphere’ (Sterne, 2003: 13). I take Jonathan Sterne’s statement as a shorthand for music understood anthropologically as a mental state attractor embedded within sociality:
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The Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Auditory Streaming

The Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Auditory Streaming

Perceptual representations of auditory stimuli—which are called auditory streams or objects—are derived from the auditory system's ability to segregate and group stimuli based upon spectral, temporal, and spatial features. However, it remains unclear how our auditory system encodes these auditory streams at the level of the single neuron. In order to address this question directly, we first validated an animal model of auditory streaming. Specifically, we trained rhesus macaques to report their streaming percept using methodologies and controls similar to those presented in previous human studies. We found that the monkeys' behavioral reports were qualitatively consistent with those of human listeners. Next, we recorded from neurons in the primary auditory cortex while monkeys simultaneously reported their streaming percepts. We found that A1 neurons had frequency-tuned responses that habituated, independent of frequency content, as the auditory sequence unfolded over time; and we report for the first time that firing rate of A1 neurons was modulated by the monkeys’ choices. This modulation increased with listening time and was independent of the frequency difference between consecutive tone bursts. Overall, our results suggest that A1 activity contributes to the sensory evidence underlying the segregation and grouping of acoustic stimuli into distinct auditory streams. However, because we observe choice-related activity based upon firing rate alone, our data are at partially at odds with Micheyl et al.’s (2005) prominent hypothesis, which argued that frequency-dependent habituation may be a coding mechanism for the streaming percept.
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Acoustic Signal Encoding in Children with Auditory Processing Disorders

Acoustic Signal Encoding in Children with Auditory Processing Disorders

Two commercially available auditory processing tests, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW) and the Pitch Pattern Sequence Test (PPS), are commonly used in audiology clinics as part of an auditory processing test battery and were used to evaluate children for the presence of clinically defined (central) auditory processing disorders. These tests were selected because of their general clinical acceptance as reliable and sensitive tests for the assessment of auditory processing abilities and because they offered testing with both a speech and non-speech signals. The SSW and the PPS were administered and scored according to instruction manuals. The test order was balanced so that half of the children completed the SSW first and the other half completed the PPS first. The SSW and PPS compact disc recordings were played in a JVC XL-Z232 Compact Disc Player. Children were comfortably seated in an IAC double walled sound isolation room across from the examiner who could be viewed through the isolation room window. Auditory signals from the CD player were presented at the recommended levels by way of the Interacoustics AC40 Clinical Audiometer. The signals leaving the audiometer were heard by the participants through Etymotic Research EAR 5A Insert Earphones coupled to the ear with sponge insert eartips. The test instructions were provided as dictated by the instruction manual through the earphones by way of the AC40 talk forward
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Auditory representations of speech sounds in a neural model: The role of peripheral processing

Auditory representations of speech sounds in a neural model: The role of peripheral processing

We employ both modeling approaches, treating them as com- plementary. Exploiting detailed anatomical and physiological knowledge of the peripheral auditory system, the first stage of the simulation is a biologically-faithful model of the trans- duction of sound from the pinna to the mammalian auditory nerve [11]. The second stage is a trainable ANN which mod- els essentially unknown details of central auditory system func- tion at a high level of abstraction. (See Shamma [12] for ear- lier, similarly-motivated work in this area.) Figure 1(a) shows a schematic representation of this processing scheme and re- lates it to a traditional signal-detection theoretic viewpoint [13] in which a sensory process produces a (unidimensional) vari- ate X which is the basis for subsequent decisions (Figure 1(b)). Signal detection theory is important and relevant here [14], [15], because its clear separation of sensory and decision operations focuses attention on the locus of categorization. That is, does it take place at the sensory stage (so that X is discrete) or at the decision stage (so that X is continuous)?
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Pitched Instrument Onset Detection based on Auditory Spectra

Pitched Instrument Onset Detection based on Auditory Spectra

In this paper, a novel approach for onset detection is proposed by employing auditory spectrograms instead of DFT-derived spectrograms for the computation of onsets detection features. The auditory spectra, based on the model presented in [11], are designed to mimic the functions of the human auditory system. In the auditory domain, the group delay and spectral flux features are introduced, and an onset detection system is proposed. Comparative exper- iments on onset detection were performed using the same features in the DFT domain. The dataset used for exper- imentation contains a wide variety of pitched instrument types, not limited to western instruments, containing 1829 onsets in total. Results indicate that the auditory features outperform DFT-based features for onset detection, with the auditory spectral flux reaching an F-measure of 75.9%. The outline of the paper is as follows. Section 2 is de- voted to the DFT-based features and system for onset de- tection. In Section 3, the auditory model and features are presented, along with the proposed onset detection system. The employed dataset, the methods used for evaluation and the experimental results are discussed in Section 4. Con- clusions are drawn and future directions are indicated in Section 5.
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Relationalism in the face of hallucinations

Relationalism in the face of hallucinations

Although dated, Penfield’s work remains to date the most extensive corpus of data on brain stimulation generating hallucinatory experiences. This might be due to the fact that direct brain stimulation is practiced for therapeutic purposes, and not in the context of theoretical research about the nature of experience or to assess hypotheses about the nature of the relation between neural states and psychological event. 59 Recent research on the effects of direct brain stimulation are part of an emerging experimental treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease, and chronic pain. There are so few studies monitoring whether direct brain stimulation induces experiences and a small fraction of these give enough details about the phenomenology of the experiences induced to support any speculation whatsoever about the correlation between mental occurrences and the brain. More recent studies are Diederich, Alesch, and Goetz (2000), which reports the occurrence of a hallucination in one patient with Parkinson's disease upon deep stimulation of the subtalamic nucleus, and Halgren (1982), which reports ‘vivid formed dream- or memory-like hallucinations, or intense feelings of familiarity
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Plastic Effect of Tetanic Stimulation on Auditory Evoked Potentials

Plastic Effect of Tetanic Stimulation on Auditory Evoked Potentials

In humans, auditory neuroplasticity has also been studied using auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and other neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI. Secondary plasticity is induced when stimulation is reintroduced to the auditory system after damage, for example when sound or electrical stimuli are introduced in a hearing impaired individual using amplification devices or cochlear implants (Tremblay, 2003). Exposure to altered acoustic or electrical stimuli can induce physiological changes in adults, but the effects are usually greater during auditory development. This type of plasticity is often referred to as developmental plasticity and seen in children with early onset hearing loss. Although much less extensive, neuroplastic changes can also occur across the lifespan, following this early period of development.
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The neurochemical basis of human cortical auditory processing: combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography

The neurochemical basis of human cortical auditory processing: combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography

The macroscopic and microscopic variability of primary and secondary auditory cortices has been carefully inves- tigated [21,22]. In particular, the anatomy of the major generator site of the human N1m response, the planum temporale [23], is characterised by extensive interindivid- ual variability [22]. On the individual level, our AEF recordings displayed a pronounced interindividual varia- bility of the peak amplitude and decrement (Figure 2A and 2C). This variability was expected in the light of pre- vious experiments on auditory evoked potentials [24,25]. Associations between N1m amplitude and neurochemicals The amino-acid NAA is found almost exclusively in neu- rons and axons, and can be used as an indirect measure of neuronal integrity and density. Loss of NAA has been reported in a variety of disorders, e.g., in individuals with epilepsy [26], Alzheimer's disease [27] or cognitive impairment [28]. Cho, the choline-containing com- pounds measurable with 1 H-MRS, are dominated by
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Anthropomorphic Coding of Speech and Audio: A Model Inversion Approach

Anthropomorphic Coding of Speech and Audio: A Model Inversion Approach

to the acoustical and mechanical behavior of the cochlea and basilar membrane. One of these characteristics is that the spectral resolution decreases with increasing frequency. Therefore, warped frequency scales have been introduced long ago where selectivity bandwidths remain approximately constant along the frequency axis (auditory scales), for ex- ample, the Bark (critical-band rate) scale [14] or the ERB (equivalent rectangular bandwidth) rate scale [15]. We give a survey of auditory scales and auditory filters. The emphasis is placed on invertibility so as to allow reconstruction of the input signal. This enables the filterbank pair—analysis and synthesis filterbank—to be used for auditory subband coders or to be used in an invertible auditory model. Furthermore, we will consider important aspects for the implementation of the auditory filterbank, which is the most complex com- ponent in our model.
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Preferences based on spectral differences in acoustic signals in four species of treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae)

Preferences based on spectral differences in acoustic signals in four species of treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae)

Frogs and toads have served as important model systems for the study of both evolution and mechanisms of auditory processing because of their strong reliance on acoustic communication (for a review, see Gerhardt and Huber, 2002). Their auditory system is specialized at the peripheral level by virtue of having two inner ear organs with different frequency sensitivities and physiological properties (for a review, see Feng and Schellart, 1999). Capranica (Capranica, 1965; Capranica and Moffat, 1983) pointed out the correspondence of the tuning of these two organs with the frequency bands emphasized in the conspecific advertisement call of several species of anurans and popularized the matched-filter hypothesis. Under this hypothesis, the auditory system is maximally sensitive to frequencies strongly represented in conspecific calls and less sensitive to (filters out) the signals of other species and abiotic noise, which are expected to differ in their spectral content from conspecific signals. A matched-filter system would therefore facilitate communication and signal recognition in noisy environments. Comparative studies have confirmed Capranica’s expectation of auditory tuning to conspecific-call frequencies in Frogs have two inner ear organs, each tuned to a
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The particularity of visual perception: Veridical hallucination and our concept of perception

The particularity of visual perception: Veridical hallucination and our concept of perception

However, the problem is that if one allows that veridical hallucination is possible, one also allows that veridical misperception is possible. If intentionalists are to offer an account of experience that best fits with our ordinary concept of perception, then they should say that whenever a subject misperceives an object, the subject’s experience is now-veridical. This is why I argue that if they are to offer an account of experience that best fits with our ordinary concept of perception, the intentionalists should reject the generality thesis. For if they want to rule out the possibility of veridical misperception and yet still hold on to the generality thesis, they will have to adopt Searle’s implausible account of the content of experience. If intentionalists are to pay careful attention to our intuitions concerning our ordinary concept of perception, they should not claim that the truth-evaluable content of experience does not in itself determine which particular objects are being perceived. Rather, they should more accurately claim that which particular objects are being perceived determines (in part) the truth-evaluable content of experience. How does this conclusion affect the status of the claim that the theory of perception that involves an acceptance of the intentional theory of experience together with the CTP is consistent with our common sense view of perception?
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Auditory and Preverbal Skill Improvements between Early and Late Cochlear Implantees: Evidence from LittlEARS Questionnaire

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Participants with congenital bilateral severe to profound hearing loss and having a normal cochlear anatomy were selected as participants. Participants chosen were unilateral Cochlear Implant users with chronological ages between one to ten years (mean age of 4.18 years) and implant ages between six months to 24 months (mean age of 12.5 months). Study included children with cochlear implant, who were undergoing their one year Auditory Habilitation with a minimum of six months auditory habilitation Programme and also their recent Aided audiometry results were well within the speech spectrum. In relevance to experience, regular usage of cochlear implant was considered.
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A General Review of Face Hallucination Methods

A General Review of Face Hallucination Methods

Junjun Jiang et al [14] “Locality-constraint iterative neighbor embedding for face hallucination” Based on the assumption that low-resolution (LR) and high- resolution (HR) patch manifolds are locally isometric, the neighbor embedding based super-resolution algorithms try to preserve the local geometry of the patch manifold for the reconstructed HR patch manifold. However, due to “one-to-many” mappings between LR and HR images, the neighborhood relationship of the LR patch manifold can't reflect the inherent data structure. In this paper, we explore the data structure by both considering the LR patch and HR patch manifolds instead of only considering one manifold (LR patch manifold). By incorporating the position prior of face and local geometry of HR patch manifold, Author propose an improved neighbor embedding method to face hallucination, namely locality-constraint iterative neighbor embedding (LINE), in which we iteratively update the K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) and reconstruction weights based on the result (the hallucinated HR patch) from previous iteration, giving rise to improved performance compared with traditional neighbor embedding algorithms. Experimental results with application to face hallucination on simulated LR face images and real world ones demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Face Hallucination Using Sparse Representation Algorithm

Face Hallucination Using Sparse Representation Algorithm

Junjun Jiang et al [8] ―Support-driven sparse coding for face hallucination‖. By intertwining the prior of positions, position patch based face hallucination outing strategies can make phenomenal results and extra handling time. Given a low- resolution face picture, the key issue of these systems is the best approach to encode the data low- resolution patch. Of course, due to security and exactness issues, the coding techniques proposed so far are not acceptable. In this paper, Author demonstrates a novel insufficient coding framework by method for mishandling the reinforce information on the coding coefficients. In particular, the reinforce information is depicted by the area of the photo patch complex, which has been exhibited to be essential in data representation and examination. As showed by the partitions between the information alter and bases in the word reference, Author first doles out various weights to the coding coefficients and a short time later get the coding coefficients by handling a weighted insufficient issue. Our proposed procedure abuses the non- coordinate complex structure of patch tests and the lacking property of the tedious data, provoking relentless and exact representation. Trials of for the most part used databases demonstrate that our framework beats bleeding edge.
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