Auditory Working Memory

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<p>Auditory Working Memory Explains Variance in Speech Recognition in Older Listeners Under Adverse Listening Conditions</p>

<p>Auditory Working Memory Explains Variance in Speech Recognition in Older Listeners Under Adverse Listening Conditions</p>

Several studies show that hearing loss and age play primary roles in predicting unaided speech recognition performance for older listeners. 3,4 A review from Akeroyd suggests that working memory, mostly measured by visual tasks, has only a secondary effect on speech recognition. Also, recent studies using visual working memory tasks show that the correlation between working memory and speech recognition performance in adverse listening conditions becomes insigni fi cant after controlling for age. 4,22,37 These results may imply that a decline in visual working memory merely re fl ects the general cogni- tive decline in older listeners. However, auditory working memory has the unique ability to predict speech recogni- tion performance in adverse listening conditions in the present study. Our linear regression model indicates that auditory working memory can still explain the variance of speech recognition performance in given listening condi- tions even after controlling for the impacts of age and hearing sensitivity. Although our results do not show an increase in the predictive effect of auditory working mem- ory as the listening condition becomes harder, auditory working memory has consistent, signi fi cant effects across the listening conditions that involve multi-talker noise and TC. These fi ndings may imply that auditory working memory tasks are useful tools to predict older listeners ’ speech recognition performance in unfavorable listening conditions. Recent studies found auditory working mem- ory tests presented with fully audible words useful, show- ing that hearing aid signal processing can provide more cognitive spare capacity that is crucial in learning and auditory rehabilitation. 38,39
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The Effect of Working Memory Training on Auditory Stream Segregation in Auditory Processing Disorders Children

The Effect of Working Memory Training on Auditory Stream Segregation in Auditory Processing Disorders Children

This study investigated the effectiveness of informal top-down auditory training using rehearsal strategy for improvement auditory stream segregation. The trained group showed improvements in working memory capacity skills and auditory stream segregation tasks after training. Previous studies showed that performance in CMAA tasks become poorer in the horizontal dimension as azimuth increases (23,33). This was seen in the present data, where the angle of separation increased at the more lateral positions in APD children. The results of our previous research in normal children (9-10 years) indicated that the mean size of CMAA increased from 13° when the two signals were presented from 0° azimuth to 20° and 45° when they were presented from 30°and 60° azimuth respectively. The finding of this study revealed that APD children had poorer CMAA than age-match normal hearing children. In this study experimental group showed enhanced auditory stream segregation skills as indicated by reduction in CMAA, after auditory working memory training. Conway et al. demonstrated that subjects with high working memory capacity did better on auditory processing task (dichotic listening) than did subjects with low working memory (19). Moossavi et al. showed that working memory capacity had significantly negative correlation with auditory localization tasks in APD children (34). The findings of this study are in line with studies suggested that working memory underlies the auditory processing performance.
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Working Memory and Reading Development

Working Memory and Reading Development

The present study shows that the performance of working memory and reading level is influenced by age and ranking of the subject. The results showed that participants in the 1st and 2nd year showed reading in the alphabetic stage and that the students of 3rd and 4th grade showed reading in the spelling stage. As to working memory, the results indicated that the participants of the 3rd and 4th year showed better performance in the assessment of working memory when compared with children from 1st and 2nd year. Regarding the variables that influenced the auditory working memory, in this study it was evident that the recall of words with phonological similarity was affected by auditory and temporal variables, but the recollection of words with semantic similarity features improved the per- formance over the earlier. Regarding the visual working mem- ory, there were no significant differences between groups, but there was a positive correlation between age and visual recall in direct order. Therefore, it was observed that older children per- formed better on tasks of working memory than younger chil- dren, and this was attributed to the mutual, concomitant and bidirectional development between these skills.
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Time to process information in working memory improves episodic memory

Time to process information in working memory improves episodic memory

We may distinguish between two possible ways in which maintenance time may be relevant. First, it may be that the total time words remain in WM is relevant irrespectively of whether there is distraction or not. If this is the case, complex-span trials and slow-span trials should yield comparable performance in a delayed memory test. Alternatively, it may be that what is important is the total amount of free time (i.e., time in which attention is not engaged in distracting activities) that matters. According to this hypothesis, focusing attention on information held in WM promotes the creation of strong episodic retrieval cues. There are several ways in which free time may improve episodic memory. One possibility is that participants use this free time to cycle their attention sequentially through all items stored in WM, thereby refreshing them (Barrouillet, Portrat, & Camos, 2011; M. H. Johnson, 2012; Souza, Rerko, & Oberauer, 2015; Vergauwe & Cowan, 2014). Refreshing is assumed to be a domain-general mechanism used for maintenance of all types of information in WM, which depends on the availability of central attention capacity (Barrouillet & Camos, 2012; Souza & Oberauer, in press; Vergauwe, Barrouillet, & Camos, 2010). Loaiza and McCabe have suggested that the McCabe effect may reflect the use of attentional refreshing to strengthen episodic retrieval cues (Loaiza, Duperreault, Rhodes, & McCabe, 2015; Loaiza & McCabe, 2012a, 2012b; Loaiza et al., 2013).
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Application of Working Memory Computerized Test (WMCT) for Working Memory Deficit in Patients with Parkinson Disease

Application of Working Memory Computerized Test (WMCT) for Working Memory Deficit in Patients with Parkinson Disease

stroke, kidney disease, cognitive decline after surgery, alcoholism, etc. CWMT helps to distinguish memory disorders and is also used for the managing more effective treatment including medical and non-medical cure. Test results from these tests can be applied in order to schedule the treatments using strengths points to compensate for weaknesses. The results of these tests can lead to identify the existing memory problems and also detect useful strategies. The cognitive-linguistic rehabilitation will be facilitated by raising our understanding about effective methods for memory rehabilitation and implementation of them [10]. The current model in economic difficulties, cognitive rehabilitation is considered as a well designed guideline and the key for facilitating the efficient and sustainable positive outcomes [11,12]. Last studies such as our method indicate to optimal rehabilitation by using no error rehabilitation methods, the method of removing clues, interval rehabilitation, or systemic rehabilitation package will be happen. Favorite results have been obtained in all demographic groups which the strongest result, as it was predictable, belonged to dementia population and these results may be slightly different from the results in patients with Parkinson's disease. In another studies showed negative results [13]. In our study subjective group were not from this age group. The other researchers worked on dementia, they showed positive results [13], while some of studies suggested sufficient results in rehabilitation [14] . The researchers achieved sufficient results in their studies and reported immediate desirable results [15]. Also they reported the generalization of remembering faces – names to a real environment in patients with memory deficit and using memory strategies in new situations for the participants [17]. The Distribution in this study will be possible on condition that we enter more volume in the study because the results before and after rehabilitation were desirable (Tables 3 and 4).
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Working memory load attenuates emotional enhancement in recognition memory

Working memory load attenuates emotional enhancement in recognition memory

According to the arousal-biased competition model (Mather and Sutherland, 2011), increased arousal in the shock-anticipation condition could further increase the detection of the negative affective distracters. At the same time, this condition is of particu- lar interest because arousal should enhance goal-directed process- ing thus inhibiting the effects of distraction on task performance (Schupp et al., 2003). Theory also predicts that if the arousing stimulus is not in direct competition with the task-relevant stim- uli, then the processing of neutral goal-relevant items should be enhanced, and the processing of less relevant stimuli should be reduced. Based on this, two competing hypotheses can be drawn: either the participants under threat will show a relatively larger negativity bias in immediate recognition memory (as compared to the neutral experimental group), or they will show overall lower memory for all distracters due to the distracter-inhibition effect of fearful emotional state. In addition, while we expect to observe an EEM in the neutral group in the low load condition, the difference in recognition accuracy between negative and the remaining images may be larger in the group of participants tested under threat of shock. Arousal imposes a certain level of WM load which should lead to a general decrement in performance in the WM task, that would now compete for scarcer cognitive resources (Vytal et al., 2012). Based on the latter fact, as well as on the above-mentioned evidence of load-induced reduction of emotion processing, we expect that under high WM load, over- all memory for distracters will be poorer in both groups, with a possibly larger effect in the threat group, and abolition of the EEM.
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Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception

Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception

With respect to peeking behavior, it should be noted that working memory did not play a role in their decision to peek, as there was no difference in performance between the peekers and nonpeekers in the experimental group. This pattern reinforces the idea that working memory plays a role in processing multiple pieces of information involved in the actual lie, but not prior to engaging in lie-telling behavior. Future research could investigate the role of working memory in verbal deception across development, as working memory capacity increases throughout childhood (Alloway & Alloway, 2013; Alloway, Gathercole, & Pickering, 2006), but lie-telling rates decrease (Jensen, Arnett, Feldman, & Cauffman, 2004).
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WORKING MEMORY AND COGNITIVE CONTROL

WORKING MEMORY AND COGNITIVE CONTROL

In Logan’s work, the task-span procedure involved three tasks that could be performed on numbers that were presented either as digits (e.g. 3) or words (e.g. nine). The three tasks were magnitude judgments (i.e. is the number greater than or less than 5), parity judgments (i.e. is the number odd or even), and form judgments (i.e. is the number a digit or a word). Task name reflected the alternative decisions within each judgment and each was mapped onto responses keys. Thus, Hi-Low was the name for the magnitude task, Odd-Even was the name for the parity task, and Digit-Word was the name for the form task. Participants were given lists of 1-10 task names. The lists were constrained so that each task was usually different from the one before it and the one after it. Consequently, individuals were required to switch tasks before performing each judgment. The names on the list were presented one at a time and followed by target stimuli that were presented one at a time. There was one target for each name on the list. The target stimuli were the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and the words one, two, three, four, six, seven, eight, and nine. As is typical in studies of task-switching, these stimuli were ambiguous, such that all three tasks could be performed on each of the stimuli. This stimuli was then used to contrast memory span condition where individuals were given lists of task names followed by cues to recall the names to the perform condition where participants were given lists of task names followed by lists of stimuli on which to perform the task.
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Poetic parallelism and working memory

Poetic parallelism and working memory

Given the long lines, this couplet looks at first as though it might exceed the limits of working memory. However, all but two of the words in the second line are repeated from the first. The repeated words of the second line may take up less capacity in the episodic buffer in comparison with the new words of the first line, and so the sequence may not be overall as large as at first seems. Another question to consider is whether parallel sequences are processed in a special way, which means that the couplet need not be held as a whole in order to establish parallelism. For example, where the sequence of words in the first line is parallel to the sequence in the second, words in the first line could be dropped from working memory once their match has been found in the second; this means that parallelism could be established for a couplet over a sequence which at any time is a continous sequence of words just over a line in length. These special processing strategies might be learned by expert composers and listeners. Hu et al. (2014:1764) suggest that hearers can apply specific strategies to working memory which, though they do not extend total capacity nevertheless manipulate what can be held within the fixed capacity.
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Visuo spatial working memory

Visuo spatial working memory

1.4.2 RECENCY EFFECTS IN LTM As discussed earlier evidence presented by Glanzer and his colleagues 1969, 1972 suggested that the serial position curve for free recall was actually a comp[r]

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Reserpine Improves Working Memory

Reserpine Improves Working Memory

Reserpine is a FDA approved antihypertensive drug from the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina, known as Sar- paganda being used in ayurvedic medicine in India for 1000s of years [13] to treat insanity, snake bites and as a tranquilizer. Independently, we identified that reserpine could provide high quality lifespan extension in C. ele- gans [14]. In addition, reserpine ameliorates Aβ-induced toxicity manifested as progressive paralysis, confered stress tolerance and enhanced locomotion till late age in the C. elegans model [15]. The AD mouse model, Tg2576, expresses human mutant APP, which causes Aβ aggregates formation and cognitive deficits at ~11 months of age [16]. In these Tg2576 mice, reserpine reduced Aβ 42 deposits and levels in hippocampus and se- rum [16]. But reserpine’s effect on the major problem of AD, namely, cognitive deficit—progressive dementia or memory loss was not addressed.
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Effect of peripheral vestibular pathologies on reading ability and auditory-verbal memory

Effect of peripheral vestibular pathologies on reading ability and auditory-verbal memory

It should be noted that cognitive function dis- order is not necessarily a secondary effect of attention allocation dysfunction in multi-tasks, but it can be related to the direct dependence of some cognitive performances on vestibular information [9]. One of the important cognitive functions in humans is auditory-verbal memory. It is short-term memory and refers to the ability to receive, process, store, and finally, recall the verbal stimuli. This type of memory is very important as it contributes to some skill deve- lopments such as word learning and recalling, language perception and usage, expressive and written language. So the disorder might have direct and indirect (through affecting speech perception ability) effects on individual and social quality of life [15-17]. In addition, rea- ding as a complex task needs simultaneous side- to-side head and saccadic eye movements. For reading a text word by word, vestibule-ocular reflex (VOR) must fixate gaze on target words. Studies have shown that peripheral vestibular disorder can reduce VOR gain and therefore can lead to compensatory strategies, including cess- ation of head movement during reading. In these patients, saccadic eye movement is the only eff- ective strategy during reading [10].
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Serial attention within working memory

Serial attention within working memory

A limitation in attending to working memory items, if true for counts, should also be true for more complex items, such as scientific hypotheses or theories. Though it runs contrary to the exhortations of some scientists and philosophers of science (e.g., Platt, 1964; Popper, 1962), an abundance of evidence demonstrating a neglect of alternative hypotheses has been garnered from laboratory investigations of hypothesis testing behaviors (Mynatt, Doherty & Tweney, 1977, 1978). This tendency can affect both the information that one looks for, as in Wason’s four-card task (Wason & Johnson-Laird, 1972), and one’s interpretation of new information that bears on the truth or falsity of one’s original hypothesis, as in the pseudodiagnosticity research (Doherty, Mynatt,Tweney, & Schiavo, 1979; Kern & Doherty, 1982; Mynatt, Doherty, & Dragan, 1993). While the Dual-Count task employed in this study is certainly far removed from the complexity and richness of hypothesis testing in human inference, nevertheless, the present study proposes that the internal attention limitation is a fundamental one. Consequently, the same limitation would also operate in an inference task and may partially explain the lack of selection or production of data relevant to alternative hypotheses.
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Modularity, working memory and language acquisition

Modularity, working memory and language acquisition

temporary storage and attentional control, a system that supports a wide range of cognitive processes and tasks. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) who proposed the dominant model of the time assumed a short-term store that also functioned as a working memory, not only controlling access to LTM, but also providing a wide range of complex processes such as selecting and operating strategic control over action. Despite its widespread acceptance however, doubt was thrown on the Atkinson and Shiffrin model by neuropsychological evidence that patients with grossly impaired STM and an immediate digit span of only one or two items had apparently normal LTM. They also showed apparently normal language function and could operate effectively in everyday life, one as a secretary, another as a shopkeeper (Vallar & Shallice, 1990). If the short-term store was necessary for access to LTM, and served as a working memory, why were such patients amnesic and widely intellectually impaired?
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Amodal completion in visual working memory

Amodal completion in visual working memory

Mean change detection sensitivity, d’, as a function of the object configuration simple, composite in the memory display, separately for different interpretations global, local, mosaic i[r]

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Visual Working Memory in Human Cortex

Visual Working Memory in Human Cortex

Visual working memory (VWM) is the ability to maintain visual information in a readily available and easily updated state. Converging evidence has revealed that VWM capacity is limited by the number of maintained objects, which is about 3 - 4 for the average human. Recent work suggests that VWM capacity is also limited by the resolution required to maintain objects, which is tied to the objects’ inherent com- plexity. Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies using the Contralateral Delay Activity (CDA) paradigm have revealed that cortical representations of VWM are at a minimum loosely organized like the primary visual system, such that the left side of space is represented in the right hemisphere, and vice versa. Re- cent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) work shows that the number of objects is maintained by representations in the inferior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) along dorsal parietal cortex, whereas the reso- lution of these maintained objects is subserved by the superior IPS and the lateral occipital complex (LOC). These areas overlap with recently-discovered, retinotopically-organized visual field maps (VFMs) spanning the IPS (IPS-0/1/2/3/4/5), and potentially maps in lateral occipital cortex, such as LO-1/2, and/or TO-1/2 (hMT+). Other fMRI studies have implicated early VFMs in posterior occipital cortex, suggesting that visual areas V1-hV4 are recruited to represent information in VWM. Insight into whether and how these VFMs subserve VWM may illuminate the nature of VWM. In addition, understanding the nature of these maps may allow a greater investigation into individual differences among subjects and even be- tween hemispheres within subjects.
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The role of working memory in academic achievement

The role of working memory in academic achievement

In 2000, Gathercole and Pickering studied the relationship between working memory and school assessments of a group of 7 year old students. They found students who fell below the standard levels of attainment in English (reading comprehension, and spelling) and Maths tend to have low scores on measure of verbal WM and visuospatial STM. Again, in 2004, this relationship was further explored. The results of younger age group (7-8 year old) showed the verbal STM and verbal WM were highly correlated to both English and Maths. As for older age group, Maths was highly correlated with three WM tasks; listening recall, backward digit recall, and wordlist matching (Gathercole et al., 2004).
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Working memory in children with down syndrome

Working memory in children with down syndrome

Possible impairment in the verbal component of working memory system had been shown in a number of studies of working memory in Down syndrome while visuo-spatial is found fairly unaffected (Hulme and Mackenzie, 1992; Jarold and Baddeley, 1997, 2001: Jarrold, Baddeley and Hewes, 2000; Lanfranci, Cornoldi and Vianello, 2004; Wang and Bellugi, 1994). Moreover, Lanfranci et al. (2004) found that different scores increases on working memory tasks among children with Down syndrome and typically developing children matched on mental age as the tasks require more involvement of central executive. Previously, a similar finding was found by Vicari, Carlesimo and Caltagirone (1995). This prompt a hypothesis that both verbal and control (central executive) components in working memory are impaired. Conversely, verbal working memory deficit seems to be Down syndrome specific. It was reported that there is no verbal working memory deficit in individuals with William syndrome (Wang and Bellugi, 1994) or in Fragile X- syndrome (Lanfranci et al., 2009).
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Construction and Validation of Working Memory Scale

Construction and Validation of Working Memory Scale

Psychologists test these forms of recall as a way to study the memory processes of humans [49]. Recall tasks makes the participants to retrieve the information which are learned by them. The recall limit is important because it measures what is termed working memory [5], [41]. One of the important processes of working memory which is known as free recall and it describes the process in which a person is given a list of items to remember and then is tested by being asked to recall them in any order [10]. In the present study the item numbers 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 the free recall concept is used. Serial recall is the ability to recall items or events in the order in which they occurred. For example in our scale item numbers 2 and 6 the concept of serial recall has been given prime importance. Serial-order also helps to remember the order of events in our lives, our autobiographical memories. Our memory of our past appears to exist on a continuum on which more recent events are more easily remembered in order [28]. Rehearsal involves repeating information over and over in order to get the information processed and stored as a memory [27]. Rehearsal is helpful in maintaining information in working memory. So that recall could be done perfectly.
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Running head: WORKING MEMORY AND READING DISABILITIES. Working Memory in Children with Reading Disabilities. University of Durham

Running head: WORKING MEMORY AND READING DISABILITIES. Working Memory in Children with Reading Disabilities. University of Durham

statistically controlled in samples of children with learning difficulties and normal range intelligence (e.g., Swanson & Sachse-Lee, 2001). Second, differences in working memory ability in both children with reading comprehension problems and with learning difficulties remain after account has been taken of variation in verbal IQ (Cain et al., 2004; Siegel & Ryan, 1989), indicating that working memory performance is not simply a proxy for verbal ability. Third, working memory and phonological short-term memory have been found to have dissociable links with learning abilities (e.g., Gathercole & Pickering, 2000; Swanson et al., 2004), suggesting that variation in working memory scores is not mediated simply by the contribution of phonological STM to performance on complex memory tasks (e.g., Baddeley & Logie, 1999). This conclusion is reinforced by the present finding that phonological STM performance was not markedly impaired in this sample, and is consistent too with other recent evidence that deficits in phonological STM alone are not associated with substantial learning difficulties (Archibald & Gathercole, 2004; Gathercole, Tiffany, Briscoe, Thorn & ALSPAC, 2005).
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