ABSTRACT. The Australian Antarctic Division manages four permanent stations in the sub-Antarctic and Antarctic. At each station a municipal waste incinerator is used to dispose of putrescible waste, wood, paper, cardboard, and plastics. Incineration significantly reduces the volume of waste but this combustion also emits toxic compounds. This study examined the waste incineration stream at Casey Station, Australian Antarctic Territory. The waste stream was sorted, burnt, and the incinerator emissions monitored. Twelve chemical compounds in gaseous emissions and heavy metals in the ash were measured. Results indicate that emissions of carbon monoxide are higher than one might expect from a small incinerator, and hydrocarbon emissions from the incinerator exceed combined hydrocarbon emissions from other sources on station. Arsenic and copper concentrations in ash, which is returned to Australia for disposal, exceed limits for hazardous waste disposal and so treatment would be required. Recommendations are provided on controlling source material in order to reduce or eliminate toxic emissions and undertaking incinerator maintenance to optimise combustion.
14 Read more
I am appreciative to the staff at the Australian Antarctic Division for the support in the laboratory. I notably like to thank Rob King, Paul Cramp and Andrew Mceldowney for their general support, friendships and contribution and maintenance of the aquarium facilities. I must give a big thankyou to Dr Steve Candy who provided continual time and friendly assistance with statistical advice and application. Dr Paul Thompson also provided time and technical assistance with the use of the FACScan so that I could undertake feeding experiments. I would also like to thank Mina Augerinos and Peter Mansour for their technical assistance and support with lipid analysis at CSIRO. I am also grateful to the captain and crew of RSV Aurora Australis for their skillful assistance during the collection of the krill used in this study.
13 Read more
The map of the CCAMLR area is adapted from a map supplied by the CCAMLR Secretariat. Figures 2a and 2c were produced by Polar Science and Logistics Services of Hobart. Figure 2d was adapted from an image supplied by Dr Judy Clarke and figure 7 was adapted from images produced by Mr John Cox, both of the Australian Antarctic Division.
12 Read more
A two day water quality Hazard Analysis Critical Control (HACCP) workshop was held on the 6 and 7 August 2013 at the University of Melbourne for the Australian Antarctic Division Davis Station direct potable reuse system Advance W ater Treatment Plant (AWTP). The workshop identified in total one hundred and twenty four water quality hazards that are likely to exist in the source water and to occur or be present at each of the system process steps. For each of the hazards the maximum risk was assessed and after consideration of the preventative or control measures to be implemented at each point within the system the residual risk was then determined. Based on the output of the hazard identification and risk assessment process the following Quality Control Point (QCP) and Critical Control Point (CCP) Plans are proposed:
68 Read more
Robertson’s interview shows a fairly strong predominance of rajas guna, followed closely by sattva guna. Relevant sattvic characteristics included residing (or being present) in a secluded place (away from materialistic life); being interested in, and concerned about, spiritual matters; and knowledge by which one undivided spiritual nature is seen in all living entities, though they are divided into innumerable forms. Relevant rajasic characteristics included misery; stress/anxiety/frustration; self- indulgence; economic prioritisation; and seeking fame, glorification and admiration/a fondness for hearing oneself praised/ seeking honour, recognition and status within society. Robertson’s response to Question 9 was quite extensive. He expressed his definite interest in the topic of Antarctic flora and fauna having or being a spiritual soul. Rajas guna, however, still predominates the overall interview. Sattva guna followed rajas guna, with tamas guna not being significantly represented within his interview.
262 Read more
Delegations contained differing proportions of diplomats, military, fisheries, national Antarctic department representatives as well as scientists, which possibly reflected the type of interest each government had in the treaty to be negotiated. As we have seen, some states, among them Chile, Argentina and Australia were concerned with asserting their Antarctic territorial claims. These states also had military and diplomatic representatives, compared with those whose expressed aims leaned towards conservation, where there was a higher proportion of scientists among the delegates. A total of seven fishery experts attended. Some of these had worked previously for the FAO and the IWC. Many of the representatives were also involved in Law of the Sea negotiations. Table 3b summarises the main affiliations of delegates at the three sessions.
388 Read more
The Australian Antarctic program has had a long-term focus on hydrocarbon contamination and remediation research initiating with Kerry (1993), thus we anticipated (and found) a high level of diligence in reporting spills. Indeed, most fuel/chemical spills were of small quantities. On the reports in which quantities were recorded (47/79), 50% were less than 10 l, and 85% were less than the COMNAP (2008) reporting requirements (>200 l). The small volumes corresponded with 75% of IHIS reports having no (NI) or insignificant actual im- pacts. Although fuel spill mean estimated quantities were skewed by large, outlying events median values were low: diesel fuel 1013 l (7.5 l median), drummed fuel 99 l (15 l), glycol 9 l (5 l), hydraulic fluid 3 l (2 l), and lubricating oil 1 l (0.5 l). This is encouraging because 13 278 817 l of diesel was used across boilers, generators, incinerators and vehicles over the time period examined (Ratcliffe, 2001, updated 2014; Ratcliffe et al., 2001, updated 2014a, b). This demonstrates rela- tively successful fuel handling and storage. However, of the remaining 25%, 6% (5) of spill incidents were rated as having Medium or High actual impact (see case studies below).
main objective of the work presented here is to assess the noise field for deployment of acoustic listening systems from the aft deck of the Aurora Australis while it is in this quiet state. This was achieved through the measurement and analysis of noise levels at different depths while the vessel was parked in a sea ice floe in Antarctic waters and was repeated with its main V16 engine on and off. The noise characterisation work was undertaken as an addition to beacon ranging work and as such was not planned as a standard noise profiling experiment. This created the opportunity to develop a novel method for evaluating a ship noise profile from available, but not purpose designed, ship deployed recording systems and equipment. The measurement system used consisted of an omnidirectional 5 Hz -10 kHz hydrophone on 400 m of strengthened cable. It was deployed from the trawl deck of the ship. A cable length of 400 m was selected as a compromise between the advantage of moving the hydrophone away from the noise of the ship and the logistical and cost disadvantages of a longer cable. The main logistical disadvantage of a longer cable is the time to recover and redeploy the hydrophone. There are important safety reasons for this, if the ship is becoming iced in the engines have to be re-engaged to clear space at the back of the vessel, or if a large iceberg is approaching and the ship must move quickly. Both of these scenarios have been encountered in previous Antarctic AUV field work situations.
206 Read more
Long-term changes in the dense shelf water formed in the AGVL region may also be important, but could not be esti- mated because of the lack of long-term observations in the area. Furthermore, it is pointed out from a modeling study that the 2010 calving of the Mertz Glacier tongue in this region could reduce the dense water export by up to 23 % (Kusahara et al., 2011). Given the dynamic nature of the source regions on decadal to centenary time-scales, the in- fluence on the AABW can be extensive. Hence, it is highly desirable to continue ongoing measurements programs in this area. As the steady state volume transport of the RSBW is a key parameter that determines its influence on AA-AABW, improved observations of its flow rates into the Australian- Antarctic Basin are critical.
14 Read more
Adélie Land Bottom Water is cold ( 0.8 °C < θ < 0.4 °C), fresh (34.62 < S < 34.68) and dense ( γ n > 28.27 kg/m 3 ), and due to its recent exposure to the atmosphere, it has a high concentration of oxy- gen and chloro ﬂ uorocarbons (CFCs; Figure 1c and Table S1; Orsi et al., 1999; Rintoul & Bullister, 1999). The properties of ALBW re ﬂ ect mixing between dense shelf waters exported in wintertime and modi ﬁ ed CDW (mCDW) over the continental slope. In this study, the density range of ALBW was sampled only at station SR3-7 on the Antarctic slope, and the CFC data show that it is composed of 25% shelf water and 75% mCDW. Modi ﬁ ed CDW is a mixture involving CDW featuring the same density as the regional variety of CDW found offshore, but it is colder and found on the shelf or slope (Whitworth et al., 1998). No Nd iso- topes samples were collected from mCDW in the present study. ALBW features ε Nd = 9.5 to 8.6, and
10 Read more
- the troops were exhausted just reaching the start line and their morale was low. This was especially so for the 3 rd Rifle Brigade which had just completed a month detached as laborers from the division, one of the disadvantages of maintaining a four brigade division. Since 4 September, the 3 rd Rifle Brigade had been in the Ypres salient burying telephone cables and
17 Read more
Leon: … not very charismatic. Freshwater stuff isn’t as well funded or supported as marine research but how these animals can actually hang in over the last few Ice Ages in a really difficult environment, and they are fresh water things – they don’t like salt water – it’s just a really interesting question and happily it’s also going to tell us something about climate change. So I think in that marriage of palaeo, recent palaeo, and biogeography is particularly attractive and it’s a nice non-diverse, simple, tractable fauna, ?where I can go to? my local stream and there’s three hundred species there. Another bunch of people who I have something to do with in the Antarctic Division are quite passionate about doing good public, good science. Andrew’s very motivated about doing good fisheries, or getting ?researcher supports?, good fisheries decisions and things like that. The other people I know are involved in ?…? side of things and are very passionate about gathering data which actually makes a difference. You can gather data until the cows come home but if it’s not collected in the right way it’s got no information content and that’s one of the other ?…? ?my own research? ?…? very passionate and keen about the distinction between mere data and information.
545 Read more
The pipeline metaphor provides scholars with directives to investigate where leaks in the pipeline occur and why. However, the metaphor does not provide a nuanced view of intersec- tional disadvantage, for example, and the solution to the problem is to “merely patch the leaks” . Whilst most research examining women’s underrepresentation in STEMM has been con- ducted in the US, there is now an emerging body of interdisciplinary Australian research (e.g. [7, 10]). This research identifies persistent barriers to advancement for women in STEMM in Australia. These barriers include gender bias in hiring and promotion, difficulty accessing net- works, masculine management styles, lack of role models and mentors, and lack of support for promotion/advancement. Moreover, women also identify having to negotiate a macho work- place culture characterized by sexual harassment, bullying and sexism, insufficient parental leave policies and flexible work arrangements, and feelings of isolation and invisibility in the workplace. This literature is valuable in providing an Australian context for the status of women in STEMM by identifying structural gender inequalities and persistent barriers to women’s advancement, particularly in fields dominated by men.
22 Read more
Davis is the AAD’s most southerly station and is located on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica. Davis Station is a scientific research base that is manned by a variety of scientific and operational personnel all year round. Through the various station activities that occur a considerable quantity of wastewater is generated each year. At present, the raw wastewater is collected and mechanically macerated before being directly discharged to the ocean via an outfall pipeline. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) conducted in 2009/2010 by the AAD identified that the wastewater outfall was having an impact upon local marine environment (Environmental Impact Assessment of the Davis Station Wastewater Outfall, version 7, 14 September, 2011, AAD). As an initiative to reduce the environmental impact and to improve Australia’s ability to meet its obligations under the Antarctic Treaty (Environmental Protocol) Act 1980, the AAD instigated a project to replace the current treatment process, and include water recycling at Davis Station.
52 Read more
The three regions of positive GPH anomalies were accompanied by an intense negative pressure anomaly which broadly extended from north of the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica, across the Bellingshausen Sea to the southwestern Weddell Sea (Figure 1a; Massom et al., 2006). Associated with this anomaly were repeated formations of deep low pressure systems. Over the six month period, the negative pressure anomaly in the western Weddell Sea reached more than 10 hPa at sea level, while the sea-level pressure minimum at Halley Station in the southeast Weddell Sea was the lowest recorded within the 50-year record (Turner et al., 2002). At the 500 hPa level, the negative anomaly north of the Amundsen Sea was greater than 100 geopotential metres. These anomalies exceeded 2 standard deviations below the combined mean for spring and summer over years 1979–2008. Persistent negative, although weaker anomalies and subsequent low pressure systems were also observed was just to the north of the Antarctic coast in the central Indian Ocean sector and south of eastern Australia.
15 Read more
The men who comprised the crew of the S.Y. Aurora during the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (AAE) are probably the least well-known English-speaking ship’s company of the heroic era of Antarctic exploration. There are several reasons for this; first, complete crew lists have only recently been published (FOM 2003, Riffenburgh 2011, Dartnall 2014); second, there was a rapid turnover of the crew who were a cosmopolitan mix of merchant seamen and, in many cases, we do not know where they came from; third, Aurora made five voyages into the Antarctic – more than any other expedition; and fourth, poor attention to paperwork at the time has led to some mistaken assumptions, not helped by the fact it all took place more than 100 years ago.
Traditionally, wastewater treatment facilities are designed to reduce environmental nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and readily assimilated carbon rich chemicals to levels that, upon discharge to receiving waters, ensure no detrimental eutrophication effects in the environment. However, there are some chemicals that are directly toxic to organisms living in receiving waters, while others may elicit more subtle effects, including genotoxic or endocrine disrupting (EDCs) outcomes. Managing the effects of such contaminants ultimately requires information on both effluent toxicity and chemical concentrations. Equally, both of these issues are important to community re-use of waste water, particularly direct or indirect recycle to potable. The Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG; NHMRC & NRMMC 2011) and Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling (AGWR; NRMMC, EPHC & NHMRC 2008) provide an overview of the maximum recommended concentration of a range of chemicals (344 in total) that fall into a variety of categories including disinfection by-products [DBP’s; 18 chemicals], pesticides [160 chemicals], pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP’s; 82 chemicals], industrial chemicals [41 chemicals or classes of chemicals], antioxidants [5 chemicals], chelating agents [4 chemicals], flame retardants [4 chemicals], fragrances [7 chemicals], plasticizers [4 chemicals], surfactants [3 chemicals], sterols [3 chemicals], phytochemicals [1 chemical], and hormones [12 chemicals]. Some chemicals are prescribed in both the ADWG and AGWR and the maximum recommended levels often differ. The design of the Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP) for Davis Station, whilst primarily focussed on pathogen removal, specifically considered the removal of micro-contaminants in its design. Micro-contaminant reduction in both the product water and in the wastewater discharged is of interest. In particular, a ceramic membrane with active ozone followed by biological activated carbon was chosen specifically prior to reverse osmosis, UV and chlorine treatments to avoid the use of chloramine for membrane protection, produce disinfection by-products that are predominately highly charged and easily removed by reverse osmosis and break down of organic compounds. The barrier configuration chosen for the AWTP is unique and although the role of barriers such as ozonation and reverse osmosis have been studied in detail in isolation, the expected combined micro-contaminant removal effect of the AWTP configuration was unknown and needed to be tested.
91 Read more
Historians and geographers have noted that Australian Antarctic popular history has been written and consumed through a frame of heroic masculinity centred on Mawson, whose physical presence in Antarctica (now invested in the historic huts that bear his name) has become the symbolic anchor-point of Australia’s territorial claim. Mawson’s name, notes Tom Griffiths, is ‘almost as iconic and sacred as the words “Bradman” and “ANZAC”’ (Griffiths, ‘The AAT’). For cultural geographer Christy Collis, he is ‘a nationally-metonymic vehicle, a physical ligature symbolically binding the claimed land to the nation’ (Collis 52). This lionisation of a single heroic explorer reflects a wider international trend: Ben Maddison argues that ‘one of the curious and probably unique features of Antarctic history as it evolved during the twentieth century was its isolation from the main currents of historical thinking’, including those that ‘attacked the “Whig” or “Great Man” view of history’ (Maddison 6). Thus, the complex history of early twentieth-century Antarctic exploration is reduced to the pantheon of Scott, Shackleton and Amundsen. While Mawson looms large in Australian Antarctic culture, internationally he is less well known, barely on the cusp of this A-list. The title of Peter FitzSimon’s popular history Mawson and the Ice Men of the Heroic Age: Scott, Shackleton and Amundsen (2012) is one rhetorical attempt to ensure he is included.
23 Read more
The visual elements associated with Antarctic heroes were established early on and have been recycled ever since as shorthand for a series of values, including heroism and masculinity. Frank Hurley’s iconic images from Cape Dennison of Mawson’s men struggling to stand upright in a blizzard typify this idea, and it was via such photographs (as reproduced in the media) that most people back home shaped their imagined versions of the far south. Echoes of these images can still be seen in modern day adverts that use Antarctica as a shorthand for masculinity and heroism. At times these associations remain purely symbolic, with Antarctic myths being drawn upon without any physical link with the continent being forged. Such associations with Antarctica and the Heroic Era are easily understood on both a denotative and connotative level: penguins and snowstorms point to Antarctica, while sepia colouring and old-fashioned clothing invoke the early explorers. For companies looking for a more tangible link with the south in order to give their brand association greater authenticity,
473 Read more
This project was supported through grants of computer time from the APAC Merit Allocation Committee (project e56), the Tasmanian Partnership for Advanced Computing (project e00) and the Interactive Virtual Environments Centre (project ivec0042). Financial support was also received from the Australian Government (an International Postgraduate Research Scholarship), the University of Tasmania (a Tasmania Research Scholarship), the Antarctic CRC (an Antarctic CRC Top-Up Scholarship) and the Trans-Antarctic Association (grant TAA/99/12).
12 Read more