The rapid absorption of host society norms from teachers and peers, and the disparity between them and those of parents, were factors cited by Radziowski (1963, 1964) as causes of personality stress in the second-generation child. He set out a number of types of reaction to such str ess, observed by him as a metropolitan psychiatrist, honorary consultant to a large psychiatric institution. Personality disorganisa tion took forms such as the displacement of host ility toward parents on to their homeland culture, with a lack of any real identification with Australianculture leading to insecurity, anxiety and poor peer- group relations. Conversely, over-identification by some second-genera tion children with the Australian peer-group culture produced familial stress resulting from their rejection of parents and older, overseas- born siblings. This in turn in some cases caused the mother to attempt to regain affection by induction of guilt and obligation in the child, with resultant insecurity and anxiety in his relations with both his
Evidentiary hurdles are also faced when claiming damages for injuries caused during the care relationship. These include the absence of key witnesses and the loss of records. As events may have occurred more than 50 years ago, witnesses may be difficult to locate, unwilling to give evidence or deceased. 74 In addition, there is the difference in culturally based concepts of authoritative evidence. This is particularly evident in the traditional Indigenous Australian culture’s reliance on oral history. A further hurdle is the vulnerability of a child and the delay in making a connection between the injuries inflicted and any right of legal redress. Because it is the plaintiff who makes a claim, the burden of proof is on the plaintiff to establish his or her case.
The research capacity and culture of allied health pro- fessions has been the focus of many recent studies using a number of different qualitative and quantitative mea- sures [5,7,11,14,15]. Studies indicate that in comparison to the medical and nursing professions, the allied health professions report significantly lower levels of research capacity and culture [9,11,15,16]. Allied health professions report very high levels of interest in research yet they con- versely report very low levels of capacity to actually par- ticipate in research activities [11,14,16]. A number of common allied health barriers and motivators for under- taking and building research capacity and culture have also been identified within this body of literature [13,14,17]. These barriers consistently include lack of time for research due to increased clinical loads and perceived research skill deficits [13,18,19], while motivators include personal desire to improve skill sets, job satisfaction and increased opportunities for career advancement [13,18,19]. The allied health profession of podiatry has seen rapid growth in Australia since the change from professional certification to undergraduate university qualifications in 1977 . There are now over 4,000 podiatrists regis- tered in Australia; a 74% increase over the last decade . The podiatry profession has a growing public and academic sector yet the vast majority of the podiatry workforce in Australia is employed within clinical roles in the private sector with many working as sole practi- tioners [21,22]. At an undergraduate level there is a strong evidence based practice teaching commitment by the universities, however, it appears that there are lim- ited post-graduate opportunities for podiatrists.
experiences and adaptation events. Six Indian international students undertaking a Diploma in Salon Management at a Brisbane vocational education and training (VET) college are involved in this research on identity change during acculturation. While sojourner discursive practices and identity development form the study’s theoretical foundations, international students’ crossing political borders and social boundaries also contribute to the research theoretical framework. Issues of student security and wellness during acculturation and adaptation into Australian socio- cultural environments are also investigated.
Another sympton of insecurity has been the surprising credence given at different times to conspiratorial theories of politics, whether directed against the Left or the Right. Australian conserv atives early fell into the habit of blaming working-class unrest and radicalism on the sinister machinations of agitators; from whom are descended the anarchist and syndicalist conspirators at» the turn of the century, the Raving Red Socialists of pre-1914 days, and the I.W.W. men of the First World War. The Communist Party was easily assimilated to this pattern, ana soon after its formation it was being creaitea with a whole range of Machiavellian designs. On the other hand, the Australian Left has also exaggerated the role of big business in right-wing politics; graziers were supposed to have deliberately provoked the pastoral strike of 1890 and to have established the Country Party as a tool for tneir interests; overseas financiers and land companies were aliegea to be running Australian governments from behind the scenes; non-Labor Prime Ministers, such as Bruce, were frankly regarded as servile agents
In lines such as these Adamson follows the flight patterns of poems written by those who have influenced him: Christopher Brennan, Kenneth Slessor, Francis Webb and James McAuley. His detouring away from the works of his mentor Roland Robinson also represents an influence. Quite early in his career Adamson became interested in moving away from pursuing an Australian syntax and style in preference for an American inspired voice. He was particularly inspired by the poet Robert Duncan who helped Adamson escape the colonial traditions so difficult to shake off during the 1950s and 60s. Adamson’s subject matter may be Australian but his style was unapologetically American. Adamson rejected what he considered phoney nationalism and colonial eulogising about the ‘lucky country’ to participate in and then head up a literary movement called the generation of '68. This perhaps signalled the moment where Australia’s source of cultural inspiration began to shift from Britain to the USA, a shift which has become a source of irritation to artists and writers seeking to establish a contemporary Australian style. In An Elm Tree in Paddington Adamson talks about his aesthetic predicament and influences.
Ethnography and the study of material culture saw Australian anthropologists allocate Aboriginal men’s and women’s ‘toolkits’, thus defining the sexes and gender roles of Aboriginal people by their objects of material culture and the functions these ‘tools’ facilitated. Early ethnography and its colonial framework were inextricably implicated in the authoritative depiction of the ‘other’ and their ‘primitive’ way of life as evidenced by the objects selected by ethnographers for collection. 33 Classified in early Australian anthropology as simple technology, the Aboriginal woman’s or man’s domestic toolkit was comprised of two or three objects said to be essential for survival. For a woman, such a kit is archetypally said to contain a digging stick, a wood or bark container and a firestick, or, as Berndt describes it, a dilly bag, basket or wooden food-carrying container. 34 The explicitly pronounced simplicity of both women’s and men’s toolkits have often perpetuated the notion of primitiveness in Aboriginal Australia. 35 There is obvious peril in homogenising more than 250 diverse language and
In order to demonstrate how the Intellectual Capital Health Check would work in practice, it was applied to 77 Australian services organisations. An index was generated in which the participated organisations’ intellectual asset score was calculated iii . On the basis of this score, the participating organisations were classified into three broad categories: high, mid or low performing. Organisations that were more than one standard deviation above the mean were considered to be ‘high performing workplaces’ (HPWs). In a similar fashion, organisations that were more than one standard deviation below the mean were considered to be ‘low performing workplaces’ (LPWs) iv . This resulted in 19.48% of the sample falling into the high performing group and 16.88% into the low performing group.
All the organisations practice a culture of passing of knowledge and sharing of information within the work- force. The Service Level Agreements (SLAs) ensures that quality is seen as a committed practice of assuring customers of the company’s product or service. ISO 9001: 2000 which specifies standards for Quality Management Systems ensures that all product/services conform to the requirements and the needs of customers are documented in the SLAs. Review meetings, auditing and corrective action procedures ensure that improvement is a continu- ous cycle in the organisation. This proves that accredita- tion helps the organisation to identify its strengths and weakness in the evaluation process. Doing things right at every stage of the design phase is BizEd Services’ str- ength. This is ensured by the Relationship Managers and through its processes. This shows that a small failure in the process will break the quality chain between BizEd, its clients and the providers.
By contrast, a common model of (ministerial) leadership today is autocratic in style, particularly in some denominations or ethnic groups and perhaps more commonly in larger churches where the ‘Senior Pastor’ as shepherd sets the vision and direction. Some CEO-styled pastors distance themselves from shepherding and identify instead with the larger-scale and less personal model of rancher. These leaders often take positions of unquestioned authority and privilege and expect congregational members to fulfil their role by attending church meetings, contributing financially, and doing what the leader says. Some churches emphasise the authority of the minister as shepherd in guiding and protecting their flock. The ‘shepherding movement’ that arose in the charismatic movement in the 1960s from the Fort Lauderdale Shepherd's Church in Florida misused the term and dangerously emphasised obligation to submit to a shepherd in all areas of life, including the choice of a spouse and children (O'Malley 1984). The movement spread in a limited way to Australia, even though it may seem that this sort of hierarchy would not fit an egalitarian context. Perhaps egalitarianism is not as strong as the mythology suggests, or perhaps leaders assert their authority and followers accept it because of insecurities. Graham Spurling, chief executive of Mitsubishi, observed that while Japanese managers are generally confident and willing to listen and consult, Australian executives – while loudly professing egalitarian principles arising from Eureka – too often resort to a dictatorial and adversative approach. He suggests this is a sign of lack of security (Stretton 1985: 204). Ministers are not immune from ego or insecurity-driven autocracy, but the preferable Christian style is to lead by serving alongside rather than dominating.
that the regulation that the market imposes on economic activity is superior to any regulation...”. Australian economist, Robert Albon (1986:4) describes privatisation as an "approach to public enterprises involving the substitution of ’market discipline' for bureaucratic control". Albon, like Pirie, sees privatisation as a means of introducing competition and reducing the role of the state in economic and social affairs. Steel and Heald (1984:13) regard privatisation in political terms reflecting "a political commitment to ’roll back the public sector' and to Tree market forces'" while Kay and Thompson (1986:18) regard privatisation as a means of "changing the relationship between the government and the private sector". Frequently, however, the term has been applied in an indiscriminate manner, making it a poorly defined concept for analytical purposes. As Flynn (1988:295) has recognised, economists tend to place emphasis on the transfer of production to non-public organisations whereas "social policy analysts" identify privatisation more broadly as the application of market principles to welfare provision and/or the transfer of responsibility of welfare provision from the state to the informal or market sector. (1) Furthermore, some sociologists use privatisation to mean a specific set of attitudes found among the "new working class" of affluent industrial workers. Privatisation is a condition in which traditional proletarian attitudes (occupational cohesiveness, community and collectivism) are displaced by calculative, instrumental values of individualism and family centredness. (2) Although these phenomena and the concepts are interlinked this study takes the second, broader definition of privatisation. In the Australian privatisation literature, the first, more limited understanding of privatisation has dominated.
This paper presents a contemporary discussion about mandatory CPD using the case of Australia ’ s current national policy and CPD operation for nurses. Whilst Australia has taken the step to mandate an approach to nurses engaging in CPD, this paper highlights that there is still a great deal of research that should be undertaken to ensure effective education and achieve the goal of sustaining competency, knowledge and skills in practice. Issues, including the quality, content and evaluation of CPD are areas that need to be addressed. Mandatory CPD requirements for Australian nurses will not be enough to achieve CPD aims. The challenge now is to ensure that nurses have access to equitable, relevant and professional CPD opportunities.
It is appropriate to recognise that sporting activities began in Australia at least 40,000 years ago with the arrival of Aborigines. 17 Physical activities were part of Aboriginal life. Often aboriginal sport promoted the skills necessary for hunting, such as the eye-to-hand co-ordination developed in spear and boomerang- throwing contests. 18 However, current forms of Australian sport primarily evolved from a mixture of games, ideologies and traditions brought to the country after the first British settlement in the late eighteenth-century. 19 Along with the first fleet from Great Britain came popular sports such as cricket and horse-racing. Over time, British settlers introduced rugby, soccer, tennis and golf to the country. 20 In fact, most popular sports in Australia have originated in other countries. For example, gymnastics originated from Germany, surfboard-riding from Polynesia, and basketball from the United States. 21 By comparison, there are relatively few sports that originated in Australia, with Australian Rules football being the one major exception. 22