Austria-Hungary

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Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria Hungary, 1914 1918

Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria Hungary, 1914 1918

Finally, I’ll return to the Habsburg Monarchy and some more general reflections prompted both by the book and a recent conference I organized on the First World War and Central European history, which was kindly attended by Alexander Watson. In the final session I posed two open-ended questions. First, what was the conjunction of circumstances, which led to the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy? When was the ‘tipping point’ in its fate? When was the Monarchy no longer a viable or realistic option? Possibly sometime in the course of 1917, as hunger deepened, Austria-Hungary became subservient to Germany and Wilson
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Reforming Austria Hungary: beyond his control or beyond his capacity? The domestic policies of Emperor Karl I November 1916 – May 1917

Reforming Austria Hungary: beyond his control or beyond his capacity? The domestic policies of Emperor Karl I November 1916 – May 1917

Democratic leaders to travel to Berlin to confer with their German counterparts in order to encourage the renunciation of annexations, though he almost certainly expected them to work beyond socialist circles and informed Gottfried Hohenlohe that, although the men were travelling in their own names, they had his full approval and were therefore to be assisted in every respect. 312 From there, he expected them to head to Stockholm for an International Socialist Conference, where he hoped they would broker peace with the Russian delegation, although, in the end, the gathering was postponed. 313 Secondly, he still entertained the possibility of dealing with Paris; 314 Sixtus remained his only channel after the failure of the Mensdorff initiative but, as far as he knew, the Prince’s mission was ongoing and promising. However, for either matter to come to fruition, German concessions were required. In a renewed attempt to obtain these, Czernin presented Karl with a bleak and foreboding memorandum on 12 April, and requested he pass it on to Wilhelm. His tone was glummer than ever. Austria’s military strength was coming to an end due to the increasing lack of raw materials for the production of munitions and the exhaustion of manpower, but even more significant was “the dull despair that pervades all classes owing to under-nourishment and renders impossible any further endurance of the sufferings from the war.” He thought Germany no better off, and prophesied: “If the monarchs of the Central Powers are not able to conclude peace within the next few months, it will be done for them by their people, and the tide of revolution will sweep away all that for which our brothers and sons are still fighting and dying.” Come autumn, the war would have to be ended at all costs; thereafter, Germany could no longer count on her ally. (Though this resembled a threat to conclude a separate peace, Czernin stressed that Austria-Hungary had already refused several such offers.) Calling attention to the inconclusiveness of the U-Boot campaign, he urged the initiation of peace negotiations before the Entente recognized the Central Powers’ dire situation and benefited decisively from American intervention. Nevertheless, he expected that great sacrifices would be required. 315 And for once, Czernin underscored Austria-Hungary’s desperate straits without attempting to secure generous terms in case of victory. In his accompanying letter to Wilhelm, Karl fully endorsed the view of his minister: famine was breeding an international revolution –
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Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

This paper investigates the tax burden on labour income in EU countries, looking into Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece. The paper offers a detailed account of the labour taxation components in those countries: personal income taxes (PITs), employer and employee social insurance contributions (SICs), and social family benefits. Additionally, the paper presents calculations of several tax burden indicators, defined in accordance with the Taxing Wages methodology, for each country. The indicators were calculated by using the author’s microsimula- tion model, which allows the computation of the amounts of taxes, contributions, and social benefits for hypothetical family units in the five countries.
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The Undermining of Austria Hungary: the Battle for Hearts and Minds

The Undermining of Austria Hungary: the Battle for Hearts and Minds

As far as content is concerned, what specific theses emerge from this massive exercise in empirical enquiry? Two in particular seem to me to stand out, and constitute the most original part of Mark's research. One is the centrality, as well as the autonomy, of the Italian effort in the propaganda war against Austria-Hungary. It is one of the central revelations of the book that, while the contributors to this offensive were eventually drawn from all the main Allied countries, and many of the Monarchy's own nationalities, the direction of it was very much an Italian affair. This amounts to yet another nail in the coffin of the 'Crewe House myth', the impression conveyed after the First World War by many of those involved in the British propaganda
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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary

If the dismissal of the military officers and civil officials referred to from the Government service should be conditional upon their guilt being first confirmed[r]

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Textiles, Fashion and Design Reform in Austria Hungary Before the First World War

Textiles, Fashion and Design Reform in Austria Hungary Before the First World War

Also central to this discussion is Houze’s consideration of the elaborate costumes of Vienna’s imperial parades and vibrant carnival traditions. Imperial celebration had, for centuries, served as a powerful visual mechanism for demonstrating the unity of the Empire, illusory, as this might have been. Costume functioned as ‘a visual map of the diverse geographical territory’ (p. 249). It was collected, studied and exhibited, for example in Jacob von Falke’s great Costüm-Ausstellung at the Austrian Applied Arts Museum in 1891. Seen from the centre, this was a rather paternalistic enterprise, reinforcing the colonial relationship between Vienna and the regions. But it also had international ramifications: lacking an overseas empire, Austria promoted her own ethnic riches, seen as superior in quality to the crafts produced in more industrialised imperial nations like Britain. Houze also discusses the legacy of Hans Makart’s elaborate historicist parade costumes, and their connection to the Viennese love of costumed parties and annual celebration of carnival. Here she consults an impressive range of sources, from the Jugendstil-inspired butterfly Fasching costumes illustrated in the fashion magazine Wiener Mode, to Loos’ theories of the ‘mask’, to satirical expressions of Gschnas (the irreverent element of carnival, embraced in the costumed parties of the Künstlerhaus).
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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary

(voie normale) et de 600 wagons et 50 locomotives (voie etroite) seront livres dans un delai d'un mois au General en chef pour les besoins des troupes alliees et pour compen- ser les def[r]

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IT in Hungary – The Librarian’s Perspective

IT in Hungary – The Librarian’s Perspective

Hungary, a country of 10.5 million people, has a complex history (Deakz, 1995). Most of us would be familiar with recent events however, starting with the fall of communism's fifty year rule in 1989. This marked an end to the prevalence of centralised state planning, and the country has experienced an ongoing transformation of legislation and public administration, privatisation and re-structuring of education. Recent plans to update university education aim to increase the number of students and courses. These achievements will put pressure on academic libraries to provide more services,
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Integration of refugees in Hungary *

Integration of refugees in Hungary *

Before 1989, with the exception of a provision on the right of asylum in the Hungarian Constitution, there were no legal regulations on protection of ref- ugees in Hungary. In 1989 Hungary acceded to the Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the Status of Refugees, and to the New York Protocol of 31 Janu- ary 1967 that amended it, but with geographic lim- itation, assuming the obligation to provide protec- tion only to refugees arriving from European states. UNHCR provided protection for refugees who ar- rived in Hungary from non-European states. Pro- visions referring to certain aspects of the protection of refugees gradually began to be included in dif- ferent legal norms. 13 The adoption of an act on asy-
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Language policy in Hungary

Language policy in Hungary

Neither the Constitution, nor any comprehensive language law stipulates in Hungary the official status of the Hungarian language. The linguistic rights of the 13 recognised minorities are regulated by the Act on the rights of national and ethnic minorities. The level of linguistic assimilation within these communities is rather high; the use of minority languages is almost non-existing in public life. Linguistic minorities have become more active since the change of the political system, and the setting-up of minority self-governments made things move back in gear. The Hungarian State seeks to promote the use of minority languages by developing cultural and educational autonomy and favourable legal conditions as well as by actively supporting minority activities.
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Geothermal Energy in Hungary

Geothermal Energy in Hungary

The development of the binary cycle power plants enable the establishment of enhanced geothermal systems. 4.8 MW (gross) binary cycle power plant located near Empire, Nevada.[r]

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THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF HUNGARY*

THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF HUNGARY*

(4) Articles 38(4) and 39(1) of the Fundamental Law shall apply to contracts and subsidy entitlements existing on 1 January 2012, and to proceedings in progress aimed at concluding contracts or granting subsidies if provided for by an Act, and as provided for by that Act. (5) The third sentence of Section 70/E(3) of Act XX of 1949 on the Constitution of the Republic of Hungary in force on 31 December 2011 shall, until 31 December 2012, apply to benefits which qualify as pension benefits under the rules in force on 31 December 2011 with respect to any change in their conditions, nature or amount, to their conversion to other benefits or to their termination.
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Treaty of peace with Hungary

Treaty of peace with Hungary

gold lire payable in Rome.. Any financial adjustments, such as those relating to any bank- ing and insuranee co1npanies, savings banks, postal savings banks, land bank[r]

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Land market in Hungary

Land market in Hungary

In Hungary, the share of agriculture in the GDP was continuously decreasing in the nineties. There was a slight increase in 2001 compared to the previous year. The proportion of agricultural workers was also decreas- ing continuously. At the end of the decade, the share of agricultural and food products in consumption expendi- tures was of about 30%; however, this is still higher than the average of the countries with developed market econ- omies.

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Information Guide: Hungary  January 2016

Information Guide: Hungary

   European Investment Bank: Finance Contracts Signed in: Hungary Council of Europe: Member States: Hungary OECD: Hungary Geographic information and maps      European Union: Eur[r]

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Tourist Regions in Hungary

Tourist Regions in Hungary

With the exception of Northern Hungary, the greatest number of tourists to every region came from Germany, but the weight of the German market differs markedly in each region. The Lake Balaton region is highly popular for German tourists, and this market accounts for almost half of the guest nights spent in commercial lodgings. The proportion of guests from Germany is significant in the other regions of western Hungary too, but is less so in eastern Hungary. This is true for the Austrian market too: the proportion of Austrian guests is highest by Lake Balaton and in Western Transdanubia, while in the regions to the east of the Danube Austria features among the top five source countries only in Northern Hungary. The Dutch come to Hungary mainly for recreation and rest: this is shown by the fact that the proportion of Dutch is high in the Central Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, Southern Transdanubia and Northern Hungary regions, while in other regions the Netherlands does not feature among the five most important source markets. For American tourists, Budapest and Central Danubia, and within this, Budapest, is the favourite. According to the share calculated by guest nights, outside this region the USA features among the five most important source markets only in Southern Transdanubia. Apart from Budapest and Central Danubian Region, where Italians come mainly to discover cultural treasures, the proportion of Italian tourists is highest in the Southern Hungarian Plains region, where they travel in great numbers due to the popularity of hunting tourism.
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Austria Österreich AT. 1. Picture of the tax profession in Austria. a) General characteristics of the profession

Austria Österreich AT. 1. Picture of the tax profession in Austria. a) General characteristics of the profession

Tax advisers in Austria may refuse to provide client information requested by the state. This right which is stated in legislation applies before authorities (fiscal authorities as well as the police and public prosecutor) and before courts (both fiscal and criminal courts). It also prohibits the confiscation and seizure of communication in the tax adviser’s office and client’s premises. If tax advisers are suspected or accused of collaboration in fiscal fraud or professional misconduct, they may refuse to provide client information that may incriminate themselves.

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Historical earthquake research in Austria

Historical earthquake research in Austria

An interesting and mostly unknown aspect is that, due to the earthquake, an additional building northeast of the old castle in Innsbruck was built. Court architect Chris- toph Gumpp planned an earthquake-resistant residence made of wood for Anna de’ Medici, widow of Archduke Ferdinand Karl, and her daughter Claudia Felicitas. The construction was carried out in 1670 after the earth- quake. The new extraordinary residence was actually Table 1 Examples of case studies in Austria (AEC)

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Banking - Austria. The brave new world of Bitcoin Austria. Contributed by Graf & Pitkowitz June

Banking - Austria. The brave new world of Bitcoin Austria. Contributed by Graf & Pitkowitz June

loss of public trust and the public's willingness to try something new may be why the world's first Bitcoin automated teller machine was established in Austria. In addition, the Austrian virtual economy is becoming increasingly interested in accepting bitcoins. While the goods that can be purchased with bitcoins may not be the most valuable assets, (4) there has been a steady increase in the number of points

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(Northern Hungary), Laboratory, 4. Mindszent tér, H-3530, Miskolc, Hungary,

(Northern Hungary), Laboratory, 4. Mindszent tér, H-3530, Miskolc, Hungary,

The National Inspectorate for Environmental Protection and Nature Conservation (Northern Hungary) (ÉMI-KTF) takes part in the biological monitoring of surface waters specified by the EU’s Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000/60/EC) since 2005. As a part of the monitoring program aquatic macroinvertebrate communities are regularly investigated since 2005 in Northern Hungary and since 2007 in the Northern Great Plain region. Between 2009 and 2013 samplings were made at 202 sites on running and stagnant waters that are considered as water bodies according to the WFD and located in the above mentioned areas. Although the primary aim of these investigations is water quality assessment, they provide large amount of faunistical data.
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