Authenticlearning is one of the areas of study attracting more and more attention, although it is not a new insight [9, 12]. As literature is examined it is seen that there have been done researches in maths [14, 15]; Turkish [16, 17]; history ; visual arts ; science ; English ; life studies  and socialstudies courses [7, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25] based on authenticlearning. Also in some of the researches involve authenticlearning activities achieved during teacher training period [2, 26, 27, 28, 29]. İneç  in his research states that authenticlearning provides benefit at materializing abstract subjects. Herrington, Parker & Boase-Jelinek  attracts attention that authenticlearning is important in terms of presenting students the opportunity of real life duties as well as high level thinking and doing an act. On the other hand Akça & Ata  says authenticlearning should be applied more at point of overcoming rote learning understanding. It is also seen that conducted studies are intensely suitable to qualitative research paradigm. In this research, quantitative research approach has been adopted. Unlike other studies, this study was carried out simultaneously in 3 different secondary schools with different socioeconomic status. In this study, it is aimed to determine the impact of authenticlearning activities on learning of students with different socioeconomic status.
pecially through e-learning as a result of technological advancement to help improve students’ performance and satisfaction in higher education. Hui and Koplin (2011) demonstrated how authentic assessment tasks performed by students through e-learning in a finance course enabled the students to connect their classroom learning to the outside world. A survey was conducted in South African universi- ties to find out how educators in higher learning incorporate authenticlearning in their teaching. The findings revealed that educators in higher learning in South Africa incorpo- rate elements of authenticlearning in their teaching at vari- ous degrees. It was however found out that assessment was the area that authentic activities were least used. This was attributed to how assessment in higher education in South Africa is based on traditional examination (Bozalek et al, 2013). Simpson (2016) measured the success rate of stu- dents after introducing authenticlearning methods into the course of Masters in Business Administration students. The result showed that there was improvement in the pass rate of students and the students expressed great satisfaction in the method of learning. Lock and Duggleby (2017) used the Internet as a global classroom to facilitate authenticlearning of SocialStudies. The report indicates that “when students in SocialStudies are engaged in authenticlearning that uses a global classroom approach, it influences how they see them- selves as global citizens” (p. 21).
A wide range of data collection tools was designed to show impact on practice. This was an important factor for TDA funding requirements and also offered me a breadth and depth of data for my action research. As the project manager and facilitator, I designed a questionnaire, survey, semi structured interviews and case studies. The evidence from these was used by a colleague researcher (Kynch) as the basis for an evaluation. The simple questionnaire collected baseline data which was used to shape understanding of the demographics of the teacher sample. The survey was used at the end of the three day programme and was followed up by telephone interviews six months later to assess the long term impact and to create two case studies. Ethical issues were considered, and all participants given right to withdraw if they wished to at any time and all
Within an authentic education framework (Watagodakumbura, 2012), learners’ individual psychological and neurological characteristics are given consideration and accepted as they are, promoting inclusive practices. For example, emotional and other high sensitivities commonly found in gifted and creative personnel (Dabrowski, 1970, 1972, 1977; Silverman, 2002) are not considered as constraints, rather they enrich a neurodiverse (Armstrong, 2011) society to operate in a more balanced manner. In an authentic education framework, learning preferences of auditory sequential learners as well as visual spatial learners (Silverman, 2002) are given consideration equally and unbiasedly and these preferences are mapped into to related career paths so that individuals of both categories enjoy their work more naturally, or intrinsically. Learners with high developmental potential (Dabrowski, 1970, 1972, 19770), meaning the inclination towards a highly empathetic, satisfied and productive human being, get conducive environments to reach higher levels of development, similar to a self-actualised Maslow, 1968; 1993) state. An authentic education system sends learners through a lasting deep learning (Biggs and Tang, 2011; Entwistle, 1998) and critical thinking (Paul and Elder, 2000) experience, for which human brains are capable of under conducive teaching-learning environments; human brains are treated as parallel processors that are capable of dealing with multiple inputs and solving complex problems unlike machines, or computers that are good at executing routine steps in reaching specific answers very high speeds (Beale and Jackson, 1990). Following the fundamentals of neuroscience, many physical parts of the brains are incorporated into learning with methodologies similar to Kolb’s experiential learning (Kolb, 1983; Zull, 2002) cycle and constructivist theory of learning (Biggs and Tang, 2011); learning has physical meaning in which neurons in the brain grow (Diamond, 1996, 2001) to develop dense communication network indicating deep learning, as opposed to surface, or superficial learning, has taken place. In an authentic educational practice, learner evaluation is done using generic learning attributes that are associated with learners’ intrinsic characteristics, instead of an indication of how well a learner has prepared in a specific area of study prior to an assessment; these generic learning attributes carry qualitative values that are valid throughout one’s life span as they relate to one’s psychological and neurological characteristics very well.
The consideration of authenticlearning tends to be perceived as a relatively new concept, however apprenticeships and learning a trade have been in existence for hundreds of years and these are first and foremost ways of learning by doing. In higher education, learning has traditionally been more technical and academic but there is no reason teaching methods cannot incorporate more practical and varied techniques to assist learning. Certainly, technology has a big part to play in the enabling of more ‘real world’, practical methods of learning to take place in the classroom. Technology can establish simulations, store data, enable modelling and a whole host of other tools to be incorporated as outlined in the ten design elements listed above. In addition, multiple sources, collaboration, integrated assessment, defining problems are all possible through IT tools.
life context, particularly when multiple sources of evidence are used and the boundaries between the phenomena and context are poorly defined. Although the boundaries between the phenomena and the context may be poorly defined as in the kitchen garden, the case must have some boundaries (Merriam 1998; Stake 1995). Three main types of case studies have been defined by Stake according to the case study goal: intrinsic, instrumental and collective (Crowe et al. 2001; Stake 1995. A case study undertaken to learn about a unique phenomenon is labelled an intrinsic case study. Case studies that aim for a broad understanding of a phenomena or problem are labelled instrumental case studies. Where multiple case studies are examined, to gain a broader understanding of the phenomena or problem, they are called “collective” case studies (Crowe et al. 2001; Stake 1995). The advantage of developing more than one case study lies in the ability to make comparisons or to check whether themes or the theory are replicated. The reader is left to judge whether the case study “resonates” with their experience (Stake 1995). A case study approach is an appropriate “holistic” way to frame the research. It is an appropriate method for this research because the natural, real-life contexts of the kitchen and the garden were central to the research. The two embedded cases were bounded; they explored the learning experience of clusters of students at three grade levels within two units of work at one semi-rural primary school, and the role the teachers’ planning, pedagogy and practices shaped the learning outcomes of the two units. Although the units of work were of different durations (the kitchen garden unit was timetabled throughout the year and the Pantry Plunder Unit only went for ten weeks in length), the two cases used broadly comparable multiple data sources for evidence (Figure 3.1). While the prior knowledge of the researcher built up by previous experience teaching the Kitchen Garden Unit, made grounded theory inappropriate, it may be beneficial in case study research and contribute to insights and understanding of the case. Stake created a checklist of criteria to be considered when assessing the quality of a case study report (Appendix C).
Looking deeper into the data and exploring the stu- dents’ self-assessment of their learning against the mark- ing criteria concurs with the analysis of academic standing, in that the students who undertook the Onco- Sim project reported a higher level of achievement across all the categories assessed, except for ‘Independ- ence’. Their high scores in ‘Data Analysis’ and ‘Use of Literature’ stand out, something that is corroborated again in the interview analysis, which includes several references to the high level of research required in the project. The lower self-reports of ‘Independence’ are somewhat surprising given the higher scores for the other response categories, especially given that this au- thentic learning approach was designed to encourage such independence. There is some further suggestion of issues regarding independent learning in the thematic analysis. Under the ‘Challenges Individually Defined’ theme, for example, there are potentially contradictory codes such as “Too much freedom”, “Lack of independ- ence” and “More guidance required”. Given this variance in response it is perhaps likely that some students who required more support than others have skewed the re- sults. It should also be noted that the self-assessment scores are not low per se, with all the OncoSim students reporting that they felt they were working independently either ‘Very Well’ or ‘Moderately Well’, the scores are however just slightly lower than those of the overall co- hort. Possibly the highly structured nature of the Onco- Sim approach, which was a particularly strong theme that stood out from the thematic analysis of interview data, led students to consider themselves less independ- ent than they actually were in practice. It is an issue though that requires future monitoring.
If team performance measured in a simulated environment cannot be gen- eralized to the authentic environment, then a more preferable way to mea- sure team behaviors and potentially correlate them with actual patient out- comes would be to measure team function in a real-life setting. In the case of inpatient hospital teams, team functioning occurs in 2 primary set- tings: on inpatient rounds and dur- ing transfers of care. Observation of handovers in the real-time setting is possible but is fraught with the same biases that occur with any live obser- vation. Our project uses an observed structured-handover exercise 12 for
Revision of EDP4130 for the 2013 offer was informed by the environmental changes described above. Rather than requiring students to develop plans and teaching materials from scratch, the design recognized the ready availability of plans and resources on the Web and required students to curate digital resources that would support learning in some part of the curriculum. The course design was thereby moved toward a pedagogy of abundance (Weller 2011). The requirement to engage with a personal reference network introduced in the 2012 offer was recast around the important role that a PLN plays in curation as both source of items to be curated and destination for sharing. The description of the assessment task began by declaring that the focus for the project was to “curate a publicly accessible collection of online resources relevant to the classroom implementation of technology education in the Australian context.” That was followed by details of requirements and assessment criteria.
However, it is important that multimedia moves beyond providing a repository for primary and secondary sources. The potential is realised when it draws on enquiry methods learning utilising investigations, critical skills and authenticlearning, History with the puzzle and the intellectual satisfaction of ‘finding out’. Doon the Watter helped one pupil learn about the past ‘because of the good research and the database … I looked at how people spent their time on holiday. I looked at how people got entertainment like from bands at the band stand. I used the pictures and video to gather information on how people got there and what they did there’. Here lies a powerful justification for teaching history, not that it changes society, but as Lee (1992) argued, ‘it changes pupils; it changes what they see in the world, and how they see it…. To say that someone has learnt history is to say something very wide ranging about the way he or she is likely to make sense of the world’. In each program the design of tasks exploited the potential of technology, but the process also worked in reverse with the technology opening up new and more sophisticated lines of enquiry. Multimedia drew the pupils in to explore, enquire and investigate. Authenticlearning/critical skills enhanced these processes fulfilling its potential to present ‘real life’ challenges. Moreover, historical knowledge anchored authenticlearning in a context providing pupils with a scaffold on which to develop further knowledge and a wide range of skills. This avoided the potential pitfall in critical skills of decontextualising the tasks. History, therefore, provides an ideal mode for developing pupils’ skills of enquiry through the use of ICT and of ICT in terms of information literacy, a crucial skill in today’s world (Moore 2000).
Abstract This study aims to promote and preserve the values of Masohi altruism. The values contained in Masohi's altruism work together and please help. This study uses a classroom action research method with three cycles. The introduction of Masohi's local wisdom values as part of socialstudies is very much needed to preserve the local culture that is owned. This research was conducted in class VII in two Ambon City Public Middle Schools. Data collection is done by interviews, observations, documents, and preservation of local wisdom questionnaires. The collected data was analyzed using quantitative descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicate that learning with the values of Masohi altruism can enhance students' understanding of Masohi culture and maintain social ecological balance.
Indigenous knowledge and thought is experientially grounded (Kawagley & Barnhardt, 1998; Battiste, 2002). Often oral and symbolic, it is transmitted through the structure of Indigenous languages and passed on to the next generation through modeling, practice, and animation, rather than through the written word (Battiste, 2002). For Indigenous learners, McKnight et al. (2011) identify that an experiential approach to learning is an effective method for Indigenous learners. A deep awareness and understanding of the students ’ cultural backgrounds, life experiences and connections to the community are prerequisite for the development of appropriate pedagogical approaches that have the potential to connect learners to each other, their communities and the educative process (Nielsen et al., 2008). Digital storytelling has been identified as a methodology that can support this kind of approach (Skouge & Rao, 2009). Digital storytelling makes use of a wide variety of techniques, ranging from standard storytelling in audio and video format as well as multimedia publications and shared events, for example, using collaborative software as a venue to interact (Skouge & Rao, 2009). Digital storytelling is a way to celebrate the individual and the collective, and to lend respect and credence to the lived experiences of individuals through the collective co-creation of individual narratives, and provides participants with the opportunity to work together, tell and share stories, listen to others, and learn. For educators, digital storytelling provides an engaging way to bring lessons about community, culture, local values, and traditions into the classroom (Skouge & Rao, 2009). An example of a useful implementation of collaborative learning implementing digital storytelling is provided by Duveskog & Sutinen (2013) who utilized digital storytelling platform to create localized content to assist in AIDS/HIV education and counselling for Tanzanian students. Their research showed that by incorporating real-life stories of the students that incorporate cultural relevance, ownership and a story-based approach, barriers to learning (for example, theoretical, cultural, pedagogical, and technical) are reduced, thus enhancing the learn- ing process.
The first phase of the project offered insight into the variety of ways arts learning experiences are incorporated into the educational and life-wide practices of individual families. Catering to the needs and interests of the individual child was found to be a central concern of all participating parents. This was the primary factor determining the strategies they selected while facilitating arts learning. This central concern sometimes posed a dilemma for parents. Should the child’s interests be the sole factor to steer the arts-learning experiences, or should a “negotiated curriculum” (Forman & Fyfe, 1998) be employed? Such a curriculum includes the use of additional prescriptive resources and the outsourcing of arts learning to private tutors or organised workshops. When the employment of a negotiated curriculum was present in participants’ approaches it included recognition of the child’s interests, but was also found to be heavily dependent on opportunities that existed in different contexts. Finally, the integration of the arts with other learning domains was not extensively employed, but was recognised as important by all participants. Many acknowledged a lack of current confidence or skill to be able to include arts integration in their teaching.
examples above, it has been reported that this learning style is the least preferred learning style among the teacher candidates. This result may be related to teaching methods and the curricula of education faculties in Turkey [68-69], because most of the lessons in curriculum of the education faculties in Turkey are field courses such as history, geography and biology. For example, in the socialstudies teacher curriculum studied by the study sample, there are a total of 136 hours of compulsory theoretical lectures per week spread into 8 semesters. None of the courses in the first four semesters of this program are practical courses in which students are active in classes. The socialstudies teacher candidates are faced with this kind of course in the last four semesters of undergraduate education. However, all these practical courses (teaching technique and material design, collective service practices, special teaching methods, drama, social project development and teaching experience in public schools), are 26 hours per week spread over four semesters (4 hours a week in the 5th semester, 6 hours a week in the 6th semester, 8 hours a week in the 7th semester, 10 hours a week in the 8th semester or last semester). And also, this field courses in curriculum are usually carried out with teacher-centered teaching methods, which are favored by individuals with assimilating learning style has AC and RO as dominant learning abilities. In formal learning situations, people with assimilating learning style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through. Whereas an individual with an accommodating style has CE and AE as dominant learning abilities. People with this learning style have the ability to learn from primarily “hands-on” experience. In formal learning situations, people with the accommodating learning style prefer to work with others to get assignments done, to set goals, to do field work, and to test out different approaches to completing a project [1-4]. However, in the curriculum of education faculties in Turkey, the number or hours of lessons that allow such experiences are considerably less than in other field courses that students are passive listeners during class hours.
Among the failures to produce authentic stories from underrepresented communities is Judy Schachner’s Skippyjon Jones series with its rampant use of “Mock Spanish” (Hill, 1998) and harmful stereotypes about Mexicans. Carmen M. Martínez-Roldán (2013) recommends instead that readers look for Latino authors as they “present a view of Latinos from within their communities” (p. 12). In response to calls for authentic representations like Martínez-Roldán’s and Baker’s, Corinne Duyvis established #OwnVoices hashtag to promote “the importance of books created by cultural insiders to the identity experience they portray” (Horning, Lindgren, Schliesman, & Townsend, 2017, para. 5).
In authenticlearning, the evaluation of the task assigned to the students through classical assessment methods such as multiple choice tests, written or oral exams will not provide sufficient information about the process. On the other hand, the evaluation of the authentic tasks given to the student should be continuous from the beginning of the process until the final stage of the production. The most effective method in evaluating the process is the use of alternative assessment tools (Kılıç, 2014). Not only the cognitive but also the affective and psychomotor developments of the students should be evaluated as a whole. The use of alternative assessment evaluation techniques such as portfolio, concept maps, self or peer evaluation, poster and interviews are recommended in the evaluation of high-level cognitive features of the students such as data collection, analysis and presentation of the results (Küçüktepe, 2010; Kılıç, 2014). In authentic evaluation, it is important for the students to perform, produce and share the tasks. It is essential to measure the performance of the student and to examine the formation process of the resulting product entirely (Tan, 2009). Authentic evaluation requires much more time than classical evaluation techniques, and therefore the evaluation needs to be well planned. If the teacher is inexperienced or he/she has a lack of knowledge about authentic evaluation, the evaluation then will be ineffective. Here, the teacher is expected to be well-equipped and a good mentor to direct the students (Fer and Cırık, 2007). Teachers play a crucial role in establishing and evaluating authenticlearning environments. In this context, determining the teachers' attitudes towards authenticlearning will be an important reference for the development of new curricula. The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale for the determination of science teacher candidates’ attitudes towards authenticlearning environments and its evaluation. 2. Method
Role playing is among the language activities that stimulate language learners to use the language they are learning. However, a successful activity is always challenging especially when the learners are beginners. Therefore, a special arrangement needs to be carried out by instructors. This article explores the use of storyboards, or ‘PCVA’, to help Arabic learners prepare for their video project based on role playing. Blended methods were used to collect data, namely surveys, interviews, and observations. The target participants were among degree students from second level (TAC451) and third level (TAC501) of Arabic course. The total number of the participants is 87 respondents. Interview and observation were conducted during consultation period and then, related information was documented for the purpose of the study. Descriptive analysis was implemented to interpret the data. The findings showed a positive feedback from the learners who were involved in the experiment.
consisting of several cohorts using different business simulations. Our key argument is that authentic TBL is an important mechanism for enhancing the learning outcomes of online business simulations across multiple cohorts of students studying in different institutional contexts. The cross-sectional methodological approach was therefore not designed to analyze or control for differences between cohorts, but rather to identify consistent patterns and relationships that can be generalized across all cohorts. The model that emerged from our analysis was robust and stable and further reinforced by the qualitative data. Nevertheless, we acknowledge that differences in student characteristics, teaching approaches and pedagogical may influence learning outcomes. It would therefore be useful to conduct further research on the influence of teamwork on simulation learning outcomes in other cultural settings and learning contexts, as identified by Stepanyan, Mather, and Dalrymple (2014). The understanding, expectations, interactions and outcomes of TBL are likely to be influenced by the cultural and anthropological backgrounds of learners. A comparison of differences between collectivist and individualistic cultures, or Confucian and Western learners would be instructive. In addition, it would be interesting to measure how simulations could enhance learning outcomes by tracking and analyzing the progress of one cohort of students using simulations across several years of study. Likewise, it would be useful to compare the use of authentic TBL in simulations with situations where students were required to use simulations on their own.
With English allegedly the most universally learned second language all over the world (Crystal, 1997), it is vital to explore the role that ICT plays in learning English as a second language. However, integrating ICT to learn or/and teach a second language requires consideration of some varieties which may reflect intensely on the process of language learning and teaching. First, the notion of using ICT for language learning does not seem to be restricted to a particular age group. Learners are being exposed to a variety of ICT from a very early age at home and by the time they join school or college, they may have developed at least a variety of basic „digital skills‟ that aid them to participate in „technology-driven‟ activities (Battro, 2004; Facer et al., 2003). Second, despite the fact that there is an increasing access to mobile technology around the world, there are still some differences in the chances of accessibility and usage among learners and institutions; thus a „one size fits all‟ approach to using technology for learning is neither appropriate nor practical (Pim, 2013), as each context demands a particular approach to language learning in which educators decide upon „when‟ to use and „how‟ to implement ICT. Third, it is argued that not only ICT has the power to utterly transform learning, but also there are various opportunities by which ICT can actually serve to reinforce linguistic, social and cultural hegemonies rather than challenge them (Rasool, 2000). Nevertheless, unlike linguistic and pedagogical hegemonies, social and cultural hegemonies have a considerable amount of acceptance among adults for communication. That is to say that ICT has less educational influence as adults use it mainly for social entertainment and communication. Finally, as part of the ICT landscape, mobile learning continues to be used for all sorts of specific language learning activities. However, mobile learning seems to be particularly successful when applied in „live‟ contexts where English is autonomously learnt through contextualized, authentic and communicative activities. That is to say, educators can create fabulous contextualized language learning opportunities that emphasize sociolinguistic and cultural aspects through different authorized mobile applications.