ABSTRACT: The need for continuous power supply and its reliability has increased rapidly over the years as most human activities solely depend on electricity, especially in some areas where uninterrupted power supply is a must. Interruption of power supply has adverse effects on the consumers of the electricity and consequently their equipment are liable to damage, with operations and processes halted as commonly noticed in developing countries like Nigeria. In this paper, a remote controlautomatic mains failure switch is designed and constructed for a 3-phase, 4-wire electrical/electronic equipment. It provides a switching mechanism that transfers the consumer loads from utility supply to a power source from a generator in the event of power failure in the utility/public mains supply. Phase detectors were used to monitor the lines of the mains supply and a relay based system was used to actualize the control actions. The remote control unit integrated into the system ensures savings of an average of 12% unnecessary expense monthly from non-critical use of generator as it allows the generator to be switched on remotely when occasioned with the absence of any or all of the phases in the public mains supply. In addition to this, it ensures continuous supply to the loads with operators having the ability to exert control the supply system at any time from a distance of 100 meters.
Fruits are very difficult to grade exactly and quickly,since their significant difference exist in feature such as shape, color and size as a result of changeable conditions of nature environment (Gao et al., 2010). Different instruments have been designed and fabricated to grade agricultural products using machine vision. Special methods were hired in the machines to grade the products. The components of such devices include following elements: 1) the units for separation each product; 2) the section for orientation the products; 3) the element for taking photos; 4) the software for image processing; 5) the unit for grade products based on the favorable factors; 6) the unit for control operations depends on the type of the product. These systems may not have some of the mentioned parts, according to the type of the products.
In terms of the integration of knowledge and design, Turng et al .  devel- oped a plastic injection mold knowledge management system, and built it in a network, using information technology to overcome geographic location and time barriers to save in-house knowledge. The system divides knowledge into five subjects, including design, material, process, CAE, and problem removal. The operation interface enables the user to easily obtain data. Fuh et al .  proposed a three-dimensional mold design system (IMOLD) for business CAD software. This system divides modeling into four major stages, the creation of a project, cavity and core creation, runner design, and mold base design, which provides the functions to control the project and assists the designer to complete the project correctly. Chan et al .  proposed an interactive knowledge-based mold design system (IKB-MOULD), including mold design processes and injec- tion mold knowledge management. An interactive operating environment was provided by CAD, which accelerates injection mold design processing, and renders design standardization easier. Jong et al .    planned and created a knowledge-based, networked, and customized mold design navigation process, and when this mold design navigation system was placed in a web serv- er, the designer could log in it via the internet and use the system for unified op- eration.
The supply enters into the device from the main supply, and it also enters into the control circuit which consists of the rectifying circuit that supply dc signal to the time delay circuit. The timer delay receives the signal and delays it for some time according to a specific assigned value before allowing the signal to flow to the load. The relay is an electromechanical device which is capable of sensing variables like frequency, current and voltage. The relay receive the signal from the timer delay/switching circuit.
Starting from the year 2000, metamaterial structure has been one of the favorite techniques used by several researchers to improve the performance of many radio frequency (RF) device designs, especially in the microwave range area. Wireless charging technologies that have emerged are also one of the highlighted discussions among users, fabricators and researchers. This paper presents a literature review of radio frequency energy harvesting, using a split ring resonator (SRR) and other metamaterial structure in antenna network applications. The objective of this paper is to define and compare the several performances such as the technique used, the material of the substrate, dimension, return loss and the resonant frequency of the antenna. The split ring resonator is an interesting metamaterial structure, that is applied in several researcher’s work compared with other metamaterial structure such as electronic band gap (EBG), photonic band gap (PBG), and artificial magnetic conductor (AMC). This structure has the capability to improve the performance of the resonant frequency, minimizing the size and improving the return loss of the design, while sometimes creating a filter notch to the design. SRR structure is a good candidate for energy harvesting because it can increase the conversion efficiency.
In the work conducted by Patel et al. , the authors propose a model that embraces network topology and associated network security techniques. They investigate various security threats in both wired and wireless networks, the authors assert that e-learning system should contain various security mechanisms such as VPN devices, IDS, Public-Key Infrastructure, LAN Switches, Network Infrastructure Switches, Use of Genetic Algorithm, Bring Your Own Device and Mac address filtering. Their model authenticates Mac addresses, IP Address and password in the RADIUS server. In order to create a neutral zone between the internet and intranet, they used DMZ (demilitarized zone), which have a centralized antivirus installed. The concept of Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) has been adopted to increase the level of security and flexibility. In the last step, the authors use various IT security and policy mechanisms such as IT security policy, risk assessments, multilevel authentication mechanism, restrict unauthorized access, use of encryption and decryption, organize access control list, review access point regularly and training to all the network users. Their results indicate by implementing their proposed model, the number of security incidents has been diminished by 50%. In our case, our system is based on an automated process by using various multifaceted security techniques such open VPN tunnel, Mac filtering, firewall, HSAS, VLAN, a combination of TKIP and AES encryption on the same SSID rather than the use of standard techniques, which can be more useful to security and privacy.
Wireless sensor Networks are small sized devices which work on the small batteries which cannot be recharged again, due to this optimization of battery resources are the most important design criteria for wireless sensor networks A hybrid algorithm incorporating social insect colony and double cluster head approach, with improved Mobile Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated is proposed to improve the intra and inter cluster organization of the existing four level heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. The social insect colony algorithm reduces the energy loss due to long distance transmission within the cluster by introducing layered multi hop transmission. The double cluster head approach helps in load balancing. The burden of the cluster head is shared by the vice cluster head which will reduce the energy loss in cluster heads due to long distance transmissions. The proposed algorithm increases the life time, throughput and stability of the network by reducing the energy losses due to long distance transmissions.
Persona is a virtual person who is designed to represent various user types within a population that can use a product or service. It is a resource for establishing user research and marketing strategies in various fields such as service planning, product development, and interaction design development. Persona is a practice-centric methodology first introduced in Alan Cooper's book ‘The Inmates Are Running the Asylum’, Interaction Designer and Software Development Specialist.  In this study, we gathered behavior patterns and characteristics of actual users through in - depth interviews, synthesized the results, and completed the virtual character Persona through existing data research. <Table3> shows the requirements and goals that users expect of Bluetooth Tracker. First of all, users want to find things quickly and easily when they go
Today we can do almost everything within internet, it becomes the base of banking transactions, shopping, entertainment, resource sharing, news, and social networking . This growth of internet use has become also a primordial center of interest for cyber criminals, also their goals and techniques become more sophisticated than ever, all scenarios of malware use and design become stealthier, intelligent and polymorphic. Stealing private data is now the most wanted goal for cyber criminals (black mailing, selling in black market, enter a private place with the name of a victim…) specially they are called phishers.
The study considered data from both urban and rural areas. But as per the review, the intensity of internet addiction is more in urban domains rather in rural domains (Lemos et al., 2016; Youssef et al., 2014). Jie et al. (2014) proved from their analysis that the percentage prevalence of internet addiction among urban students is 9.4 and that of rural students is 2.8. So, it is much necessary to plan strategies to control the addictive nature of urban internet users. The moral panic theory has directed some programmes like leisure activities in urban areas in order to decrease the effect of internet addiction (Szablewicz, 2010). Hence, if the study tools are designed alone for urban users rather for both, results could be germane. The outcomes of this paper are also useful for urban planning and development of Saudi Arabia. Concern government authorities can consider the finding of the current research while planning for their years and five yearly plan. It is very common in underdeveloped countries to develop any urban plan without proper research and this kind of research can provide a good base of input for decision makers.
Since decades, ambiguity has been a challenging issue for NLP researchers. In spite of some results on resolving ambiguity problems have been obtained, a number of important research problems have not been solved yet . Ambiguity is still a great challenge for computational linguists and computer scientists. The concept of ambiguity is closely connected to semantic gap between the user’s intentions and how she/he is able to convey, since it can lead to more than one interpretation of the user’s input. Intentions are always a matter of interpretations. Ambiguity has been a critical issue for human computer interaction because of it pervasiveness in everyday life, yet its emergent nature challenges the role of design. Failure in giving a correct user’s interpretations may cause the user to mistrust the system and discontinue use. Several types of ambiguity have been identified. These include: structural, syntactical, form class, word sense and local ambiguity.
 T.S. Bhatti, R.C. Bansal, and D.P. Kothari, “Reactive Power Control of Isolated Hybrid Power Systems”, Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Application in Electrical Engineering Recent Advances (CERA), Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India), February 21-23, 2002, pp. 626- 632.
This study attempted to mitigate the gap in literature concerning a one serious problem in Saudi society and government is cyber harassment. This problem is caused through the increasing use of technology. Accordingly, the main objective was to explore the factors that influence the intention to minimize cyber harassment among Saudi citizen. In this research were employed two theories the first Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the second selected Technology Acceptance Model TAM. However, based on TPB, the researcher has identified eight factors, to minimize cyber harassment, which is: technological support, attitude, subjective norms, social pressure, the influence of the mass media, perceived behavioral control, regulatory support and the role of the government, and security awareness. Nevertheless, the researcher has assured that the Saudis will remain at risk of cyber harassment, until these factors are fully investigated among the Saudi community. In conclusion, this research specifically proposed in future a model and framework for identifying the significant factors that are anticipated to play a major in minimizing cyber harassment among Saudis. The proposed framework will help the administration and decision-makers in the KSA to formulate strategies that can significantly affect anti-cyber harassment among youths.
People affected by many diseases in their lives and this effect with the productivity of the individual in society and the lives of the entire person and most of these diseases can be cured by medicines. The problem in pharmaceutical industries, in the actual situation, existing a number of defects incorporated in tablets inadequate fines to granules ratio, inadequate moisture content and poor machine settings can be some of the reasons for those visual defects such as faults in a cover of tablet pill. In addition, the production of medicines and pharmaceutical factories are expanded so it is difficult to control the quality of the tablets after packaging. The aim of this paper is to upgrade this manual tablet-sorting machine into an automated system with the aim of improving the speed and accuracy of the sorting process. The hole in the cover plastic package is common defects that can be found in tablets. Therefore, this defect was considered for the purpose of this paper. Damage on the Cover plastic package can be produced during the production of the packaging and can be produced before packaging therefore; will design system inspection the cover plastic before packaging for less damage money as much as possible, also inspection the cover plastic after packaging because the damage on the cover plastic packaging causes damage in pills and capsules. The proposed system algorithm includes preprocessing and feature extraction using opponent local binary patterns &opponent coordinated clusters representation (its the contribution research) and finally the classification of tablets for damage or undamaged issue using an artificial neural network algorithm (ANN) and specifically feed forward back propagation learning.The neural network training with feature extraction from the data after it has been tested. The experimental results are acceptable, the performances of the check pill cover plastic system indicated the total accuracy of 94.4% for testing. Also, the approach using opponent features provides better recognition accuracy than other approaches. The system is evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The programs are done using Matlab package.
USNs use handshaking based MAC protocols. They are not appropriate in USNs because of the large propagation delay in exchanging control and data packets. In this paper, we proposed the NG- MDT protocol to improve performance in USNs. In the proposed protocol, source nodes are divided in several groups based on the distance to the destination node. When a source node gets a channel access right, it selects one node in the next group. And then, it transmits its own data packet including the address of the selected node. The selected node transmits its data packet following the data transmission of the source node. In the proposed protocol, multiple nodes transmit their data packets consecutively with one handshaking for channel reservation. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol works well and improves network performance.
1712 firewall etc, feels much difficulties in the access method through mutually different ID and Password, leaving much burden to the person in charge of network. Recently IEEE 802.1x based wireless LAN is briskly in expanded use. In case of access to internet using wireless LAN, less cost is incurred than cable based network composition and is convenient to use. Accordingly use of wireless LAN is briskly expanding at corporates and research institutions, campus, household etc. However any attacker attacking wireless LAN can perform various attack on wireless network, such as spoofing IP address and creating mass traffic identically with any attack of cable network. IEEE 802.1x is the framework that supplemented the weakness of 802.11b in user authentication ,, and supports user authentication mechanism. However this is very vulnerable to attacks such as session hijacking etc due to lack of authentication and cryptogram mechanism to DoS (Denial of Service) attack and AP (Access Point), which was caused by structural reason in authentication protocol . In this regard, this thesis proposes the method to use the port based user authentication and network information using IEEE 802.1x, in order to resolve the simple, repetitive problems which may occur between network user and the person in charge of network maintenance through user authentication based network design.