Introducing artificial intelligence in the simulated applications provides a laboratory to generate and examine models and what-if scenarios that involve many uncertainties. The intelligent system can examine not only results but assumptions, particularly as far as probabilities are concerned. Material handling capacity is taken into consideration on performance assessment involved in production capacity, and the framework also allows the complex simulation model to be manageable for the purpose of adaptation to the changing environment. Moreover, the framework employs a material handling request-driven approach rather than a process request-driven approach in order to implement both push and pull flows of production loads. Thus, nondeterministic part routing is facilitated. In addition, interfaces between the simulation model and shop-floor control systems were represented as triggering events and decision flows, whereby the framework was equipped with capabilities to plug in arbitrary shop-floor control systems. Processing a large amount of items of information about system components, control variables, and the interdependency structures create new challenges on the shoulder of engineers and managers. The proposed framework provides a traceability capability for manufactured components and their relationships. It provides manager and engineer with sufficient items of information in order to detect inconsistencies. i.e. it has reasoning capabilities on the system objects. This paper suggests for future works to discuss some key issues by implementing agent-based manufacturingsystems such as agent encapsulation for enhancing control automation, agent organization, agent coordination and negotiation, system dynamics, learning, optimization, security and privacy, tools and standards.
Service oriented architecture (SOA) is an approach that has been around since 90s, when it was used in Tuxedo to describe ‘services’ and ‘service processes’ . Service-orientation is still one of the most promising architectural designs for rapid integration of data and business processes. There are several standards available and accepted in industry that build on SOA principles, such as e.g. HTTP, JSON, XML, WS-*, etc. . SOA is already heavily used in corporate and consumer environments but in embedded real-world environment SOA is emerging slower. The introduction of the OPC-UA architecture was a big step towards service-oriented architectures in industrial machine-2-machine sector. The upcoming trend to use CPS in industrial environments also fosters the usage of SOA-like principles in such environments. However, current research tries to apply SOA principles in domains, where such principles are not yet widely spread, such as industrial automation  or building automation  making it a promising approach for context aware solutions.
On the other hand, mathematical optimization methods have been developed to cover increasingly complex problems while becoming more and more efficient. Another trend that goes hand in hand with these in modern process industry is tighter integration of different systems. This is made possible by modern software technologies and architectures like service oriented architecture (SOA), OPC UA etc. and the widespread use and application of standards such as ISA S95 and others. Also, the use of XML, a general-purpose markup language 3 , whose pri- mary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of structured data across different informa- tion systems, has boosted successful integration architectures in the process automation world.
Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provides human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Filling is a task carried out by a machine that packages liquid products such as cold drinks or water. The bottle filling project serves as an interdisciplinary engineering design experience. It introduces aspects of computer, electronics and mechanical engineering, including the following five primary knowledge areas:
 Mahmoud A. Barghash, Osama M. Abuzeid, Anas N. Al-Rabadi and Ahmad M. Jaradat, “ Petri Nets and Ladder Logic for Fully Automating and PLC of Semi-Automatic machines and systems”, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2011.  Jaehong Hahn, Prasad N. Enjeti, and Ira J.
of operation, which might collide with regulations in manufacturing regarding quality certification, safety procedures or legislation. HMS/MAS however might contribute to factories of the future in certain unregulated areas, where better alternatives to human decisions are welcome. In the context of a service-oriented architecture, HMS/MAS might even provide sophisticated services like planning and analytics, without interfering with highly regulated processes. Many technical implementations of MAS are bound to the JADE middleware, which is described by its maintainers as a niche technology far from mainstream software engineering . This might be one of the obstacles that keeps small and medium manufacturing enterprises away. As the JADE runtime can be embedded into a hosting Java application, MAS applications based on JADE could be easily integrated into an SOA landscape.
No attempt has been made to implement a standard library automation system at a national level, but this should not prevent the integration of holdings and services if a common exchange format can be agreed. There is widespread acknowledgement of the importance of the Internet, and the need to provide access to both local and remote resources via standard interfaces such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer. In common with many other Central and Eastern European countries however, national policies for strategic library networking and co-operative projects have yet to be accepted and funded. The resulting piecemeal approach to systems takes its toll on the realisation of national and international bibliographic and technical standards, and on basic projects such as the creation of the national bibliography. State funding for automation projects is limited, and even the annual library budgets have not been set on time so that staff are uncertain how much money is available to run the library services. However, many libraries now have the chance to apply for grants from foundations such as Soros and Mellon.
emphasizes on the synergistic integration of the three discipline areas, i.e ., me- chanical engineering, electronics and intelligent computer control, in the design and manufacture of products and processes , i.e ., it emphasizes on synergy. What is not clear by this definition is the level at which this integration should be performed, i.e ., at the system level, which is the traditional approach, or at the subsystem or even at the mechanical unit (component) level. The latter is proposed in Model Integrated Mechatronics  and refined with the 3+1SysML-view model  . This approach defines the Mechatronic compo- nent as the main building block that abstracts the mechanical object to the soft- ware level, and transforms it to a smart object by adding additional functionality to the one offered by the mechanical part. The so constructed mechatronic components are integrated with cyber components and humans to construct the industrial automation system. This approach slightly finds its road to production in the context of Industry 4.0, e.g., , since it greatly reduces the coupling be- tween the system components compared to the traditional one, which considers the integration of the three disciplines at the system integration level.
Consequently, there is a need to provide materials and learning content that are relevant to the industry and update them and modify them continuously to adapt industrial equipment (Dormido, 2008). Laboratory practices allow students to apply abstract or theoretical knowledge obtained in lectures to develop their understanding through these practices (Geaney, 2015). Laboratory experiments offer one way to introduce more realism into the education of automatic control (Astrom, 1986). The initial orientation in the laboratory is a crucial step. Recognizing that learning is best achieved in an environment where students feel calm and secure, initial exercises are employed to familiarize students with the laboratory protocols (Dalgarno, 2012). The laboratories are an integral part of the development of control systems, they motivate the analytical development and reinforce key concepts (Heath, 2013). The laboratories play a very important role in improving the practical knowledge of students and their in-depth understanding of the theoretical lessons, providing practical experience (Thomas, 1999). It is essential that students have access to practices which apply theoretical concepts effecting learning, allowing the generation of knowledge. It is becoming more constant than the segments of industrial production,
Abstract: Systems engineering is a methodology where an interdisciplinary approach is applied, using systems thinking, to the development of a system of interest. The systems engineering discipline has emerged as an effective way to guide the engineering of complex systems, but has been applied most readily in the realm of cyber physical systems. In some circles of the Federal Government, the mention of systems engineering processes immediately leads people to think of a long, inefficient effort due to an often applied bureaucratic approach, where the focus is on documentation rather than the development of the system of interest, which comes from a view that the product of the systems engineering effort is the document, not the system itself. In this paper, the authors describe the application of systems thinking and the systems engineering process to the design and creation of an Advanced Manufacturing Innovation Institute (MII, part of the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation) established under Department of Defense (DoD) authority for the Office of the President, that was swift, efficient, and implemented without formality.
Another case study of insurance companies in the mid-1990s found a similar process. Microcomputers integrated customer service functions into a new position with broader responsibilities, eliminating typing pools and much routine filing and data entry (Carre 1997, p.32f.). Educational requirements for underwriters in one firm rose to the point that the company recruited only college graduates for these positions. Computers eliminated or shifted more routine underwriting tasks to less-skilled workers but also created more opportunities for skilled underwriters by enabling increases in product complexity and the amount of financial and other information available for decision making. Reorganization also eliminated buffers between underwriters and sales agents in the field, requiring underwriters to communicate more with the agents. "In this context, college graduates are seen as more adaptable and more desirable candidates" (Carre 1997, p.26). However, it is possible that further automation will eliminate underwriter jobs in the future as more of the underwriting function is built into the computer system and performed by agents in the field (Carre 1997, pp.26,31). This particular company had a long commitment to avoiding layoffs, including those resulting from technological change, but this policy was feasible in part because of a general policy of lean staffing (Carre 1997, p.34).
Stereo lithography (SLA) , the first commercially available AM technology, is characterized by the conversion of a liquid photosensitive resin to a solid state by selective exposure of a resin vat to ultraviolet (UV) light. In this process, a CAD model is sliced into layers, each of which then is scanned by the UV light to cure the resin selectively for each cross- section. After a layer is built, the platform descends by one layer thickness. Then, a resin- filled blade sweeps across the part’s cross-section, recoating it with one layer thickness of fresh resin. The subsequent layer then is scanned, adhering to the previous layer. Commercial SLA machine vendors include 3D Systems (USA), EOS (Germany), and CMET (Japan). In addition to the typical polymeric parts, variants of the SLA process have been developed to fabricate ceramic and metal parts by using suspensions of ceramic or metal particles in a photo-curable monomer vat [18–20]. Researchers have also developed alternative processes using digital mask generators, e.g., the digital micro mirror device (DMD), to build structures using photo-curable polymers [21,22]. Compared to the UV- laser based SLA
Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) open up new perspectives for the design, development, implementation, and operation of manufacturingsystems and will enable a paradigm shift in manufacturing. The objective of this research is to develop a new concept of cyber-physical production systems (CPPSs) and, on this basis, to address the issue of management and control, which is crucial for the effective and efficient operation of manufacturingsystems. A new model of CPPS is proposed. The model integrates digitalized production planning, scheduling, and control functions with a physical part of manufacturing system and enables the self-organization of the elements in production. A case study demonstrates feasibility of the approach through the use of simulation experiments, which are based on real industrial data collected from a company that produces industrial and energy equipment.
Extensive survey of literature and patent databases did not reveal any cyclovirobuxine-D-loaded SNEDDS designed for improvement of oral absorption. The current study discusses the optimization of SNEDDS for improved bioavailability of cyclovirobuxine D. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser particle size analyzer were used to determine the shape and size of the resultant nanoemulsion. In vivo and in vitro studies were carried out to ascertain the release and absorption characteristics of the drug from SNEDDS compared with that of commercially available tablets.
Modern Flexible ManufacturingSystems (FM S) are com posed from standard hardware components such as machine tools, computers, Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV), robots, buffers, Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) and software. The system components alone cannot guarantee the functionality of FMS. The information integration is the first and also the most important problem to be solved during the design o f FMS. The efficiency directly depends on the quality of ideas and intelligence which are implemented during design. This is the unique medium which ties together all the operational functions and activities that are completed by different components of the system inside the FMS system border, including hardware and software  and . In order to realise the com plex FMS w ith lim ited reso u rces, and overcoming a lot of bottlenecks, it is necessary to design and im plem ent in te llig e n t tools for optimisation of FMS working scenaria and to solve the conflict situation, and also to control such a system in an intelligent way. This concept has been developed during the last seven years in  to  and later expanded by Nanasi , Balič  and Pahole , who developed an intelligent interface module and a model of flexibility in FMS. The concept has been implemented in practice, has been tested and has shown good results. The three main subsystem s o f FMS and hardw are system components are shown in Fig. 1.
All the core team members were invited to the corporate office to come up with their own version of all the key business processes and was made to present to the project team. This helped the project team and the core team to understand each other’s perspective, in terms of what kind of constraints each plant or line of business had. Then the project team comprising of external consultants were give a tour of different manufacturing plants. This was to help them understand the ground realities at the shop floor or at different warehouses. External consultants depending on the business function were asked to come up with their understanding of the as is processes and to be processes (incorporating the industry best practices that was recommended by the software vendor). There were debates and discussions in many areas and finally all the gaps in the new application were quantified and effort estimates in terms of time and money were made. External consulting company doing the system integration came up with their own version of timeline, effort estimates and recommendations.
In this thesis, turning process parameters are optimized while turning EN8 steel to attain maximize surface roughness and maximize Material Removal Rate. The cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, coolant and cutting tool material for turning of work piece material EN8 steel. The respective values are Speed 600rpm, 1200rpm, Feed rate – 0.1mm/rev, 0.2mm/rev, Depth of cut – 2mm, 6mm, Coolant – Vegetable oil, Synthetic Oil and Cutting Tool material – HSS, Tungsten Carbide.12 experiments are conducted by considering the above parameters as per L12 Taguchi Technique. Surface finish and Material Removal rates are validated experimentally. The cutting parameters are optimized for better surface finish quality and high material removal rates. The optimization of machining parameters is done using Taguchi technique in Minitab software.
In the past, in the most manufacturing industries, ehwn a new product was considered, careful thought was given to how the product would function, to its appearances and sometimes, to its reliability. However, little thought was given to how easily the product could be assembled and how easily various parts could be manufactured. This philosophy was often termed as “over-the- wall” approach or “we-design it-you make it”. In other words an imaginary word was there between the design and manufacturing functions. From here an era of concurrent engineering developed. Concurrent engineering, also known as simultaneous
Physical attacks (Flaus, 2019) can be also considered in the case of PBS as the vessel is operating in a close proximity to the shore (or river/channel banks) and no crew is present. The Programming Logic Controllers (PLCs) can be vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS) or malware attacks due to an unchecked integer overflow vulnerability (Flaus, 2019) or other vulnerabilities (CISA, 2019b; Oates et al., 2017). Considering that patching may not be as frequently implemented as required and that due to the extensive ship lifetime compared to other information technology systems it may not be technically feasible to patch the software (Oates et al., 2017). Therefore it is highly likely that known vulnerability is being exploited (Nazir, Patel, & Patel, 2017; Oates et al., 2017). However system patching by system provider itself opens new opportunities for attacks as it requires remote connection to the vessel and can allow malware propagation from the software owner (Oates et al., 2017). System hardware can be already infected with malware installed before actual installation on the ship (logic bombs and backdoors) which cannot be captured by functional testing (Oates et al., 2017). An attacker can even freeze one sensor measurement in a PLC, misleading in this way the operator (Krotofil et al., 2014). It is even possible to modify the sensor measurement and trigger a faulty safety alarm (Shinohara & Namerikawa, 2017). The navigation computer systems can be infected using SQL injections (DNV GL, 2016; Flaus, 2019) and the ship navigation systems have been proved vulnerable to malware installations (Wingrove, 2018).