Over the past two decades, academic libraries have undergone considerable changes in bibliographic utilities, online catalogs, automated circulation systems, and other new technologies and services. These changes have imposed substantial costs for libraries in the time of budgetary constraints, especially, in the area of telecommunications, buildings, furniture, and electronic equipment (Kacena & Carolyn 1994). After ending the war that lasted for three- decade period, the country needed to re-build almost everything that incurs dramatic demand for finance, as a result of which libraries had to face budget cuts. Nevertheless, consortium arrangement to buy integrated library system (ILS) and exploitation of open-source software (OSS) has paved great opportunities for these libraries to enjoy the automated functions.
Nowadays most of the libraries are moving to Koha. Financial and technical feasibility are the main reasons behind the change from proprietary library management systems and the adoption to Koha. Most of the library professionals are satisfied with Koha. Popularity of Koha among library professionals are growing, most of the users are satisfied with the version of Koha3.x. Contribution of growing number of community members helped Koha to become a mature integrated library system within a short span of time. Koha project started as a non-profit initiative and it strictly follows the principles of open source philosophy. Koha is licensed under GNU General Public License, the most popular copy left license. It resulted in growing number of Koha installations. There is no need to invest additional amount for preparing technical platform for Koha installation such as MySQL database, Apache web server, Perl programming language and Linux operating system. Survey result shows that majority of the library professionals are satisfied with Koha. It indicates that libraries/ library professionals have recognized the capabilities of Koha features and its stability to implement in any type of libraries. Koha Live CD gives opportunity to try Koha in Libraries without technical support. According to majority of library professionals, data migration from other systems to Koha is hard nut to crack in implementation stage. Some committed library professionals are developed some techniques. If it can be add to Koha Online Manual, it will be helpful for the future Koha Libraries. Other barrier while implementation stage is internet connectivity. It will be solved by the technical assistance. Circulation module is the most favorite module of Koha and most of the library professionals have expressed excellence about the performance of this module. Financial management of periodicals is not possible and users are not satisfied with serial management module. Addition of new advanced features with the convenience of library professionals is much better for the excellence of Koha as an International open source software for libraryautomation. We hope that the latest version Koha 3.22.2 released in 27 th January 2016 will fulfill the overall modern requirements of libraryautomation and become an excellent one in the world.
Use of open source library management software has manifold advantages. Chudnov (1999) identified three factors – fund, freedom and fraternity, which are advancing the use of OSS in libraries. These facilities are as follows - OSS licenses allow libraries to cut budget on software and use it to other areas that require more funds; OSS product is not locked into a single vendor. Thus even if a library uses an open source system from one vendor, it might choose to buy technical support from another company or get it from in-house experts; and the entire library community might share the responsibility of solving information systems accessibility issues. However, Mukhopadhyay (2005) identified following advantages in the use of open source software for libraryautomation in India:
V. CONCLUSION/ RECOMMENDATIONS This paper explains how library professional can automate the library with free and open sources software (F/OSS) which are available in the market freely or at very low cost. From the above article the conclusion can be drawn that F/OSS are secured, low cost and customizable as per the need and goal of the organization. F/OSS software has same feature compared to proprietary software and wider use in making the world less dependent on commercial software so LIS professionals should come forward to use and implementation of F/OSS to perform its various housekeeping activities of library. F/OSS will help to overcome the finance problem and reduce the level of stress of the staff and make library available 24x7x365 locally and globally.
Background: The PacBio RS II provides for single molecule, real-time DNA technology to sequence genomes and detect DNA modifications. The starting point for high-quality sequence production is high molecular weight genomic DNA. To automate the library preparation process, there must be high-throughput methods in place to assess the genomic DNA, to ensure the size and amounts of the sheared DNA fragments and final library. Findings: The library construction automation was accomplished using the Agilent NGS workstation with Bravo accessories for heating, shaking, cooling, and magnetic bead manipulations for template purification.
A survey using an open ended questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents (librarians). The Directory of R&D Institutions (DST, 1996) was used to prepare a list of institutions for mailing the questionnaire. Since use of e-media requires certain minimum infrastructure, which in turn depends upon financial position of the library, S&T organisations, universities and institutions of national importance were selected. Further, it has been found that not all institutions have their own libraries and some laboratories/complexes house more than one institution but share resources of a common library; some laboratories do not have their own library and depend on other libraries. A final list of 344 institutions comprising institutions from Council of Scientific & Industrial Research/ Department of Science and Technology (40 libraries), Department of Atomic
The construct validity of SC-OSS was tested against CMSOS, VAS and SF-36, as these constructs are com- monly used in China. As expected, SC-OSS highly corre- lated with CMSOS, similar to the English, Dutch, German, Italian and Korean studies. However, regarding the correlation with VAS, the Korean study  verified a low to moderate correlation (r = 0.34), whereas our study observed a high correlation (r = 0.70). This dis- crepancy is probably due to the difference in patient demographic characteristics (i.e. a female dominant sam- ple with younger age in our study versus a male domin- ant sample with older age in the Korean study). However, since no other studies reported a correlation between OSS and VAS, this assumption should be fur- ther tested and other factors contributing to the discrep- ancy should also be explored. SF-36 has been applied Table 3 Comparison on reliability and construct validity among different versions of OSS
From the above definitions, we can say that the need of libraryautomation has several reasons. Need of computers is present in all areas depending upon its usage. They range from acquisition control, serial control, and cataloguing and circulation control. They are also used for library manager’s evaluation of reports, statistics, etc. For the good administration of the library computers are used in all levels of work. Above all, the unique characteristics of computer made it the right choice for the library world. Computers right from the beginning are considered to aid man, in doing various operations.
Previous researchers have found that most programmers or web developer usually have problems with the generation of libraries, creation of databases and the integration of the two aforementioned. These problems also include the re writing of libraries for different applications, maintenance of already written libraries in case of any changes in database or vice versa. Various kinds of open source softwares are usually used in the creation of web applications or content management systems. However, these problems are relative due to the level of the programmer and the programming paradigm employed by the programmer. This paper presents a Library (Codes) Generating Machine that can be used to solve these problems, for it automatically generates libraries and creates databases based on the approach employed by the programmer. The two ways that are adopted in the usage of this system are either starting from the creation of database and its tables (Backward Approach i.e. starting from database design) or from the creation of class(es) (Forward approach i.e. starting from object identification).
Abstract— The adoption of open source software (OSS) by government has been a topic of interest in recent years. National, regional, and local government are using OSS in increasing numbers, yet the adoption rate is still very low. This study considers if it is possible from an organizational perspective for small to medium-sized cities to provide services and conduct business using only open source software (OSS). We examine characteristics of municipal government that may influence the adoption of OSS for the delivery of services and to conduct city business. Three characteristics are considered to develop an understanding of city behavior with respect to OSS: capability, discipline, and cultural affinity. Each of these general characteristics contributes to the successful adoption and deployment of OSS by cities. Our goal was to determine the organizational characteristics that promote the adoption of OSS. We conducted a survey to support this study resulting in 3316 responses representing 1286 cities in the Unites States and Canada. We found most cities do not have the requisite characteristics to successfully adopt OSS on a comprehensive scale and most cities not currently using OSS have not future plans for OSS.
Moorthy, Lakshmana in the article, “LibraryAutomation in India” started from the introduction of the computer, its increasing use, and said that in 1990 computer industry has attained maturity. It also explains development of libraryautomation software in India. CDS/ISIS software package is introduced first in India. And NISSAT organized many library training programs after introducing CDS/ISIS in library activities. Other industries like BHEL, SAIL, ICRISAT, INSDOC, NIC, DESIDOC and INFLIBNET also developed different library packages. The paper includes how libraryautomation activities developed in India, Library packages available in India, its different features of this software. At last papers describe the benefit of libraryautomation. Bansode, Sadanand Y and Periera, Shamin in the article, “A survey of libraryautomation in college libraries in Goa State, India” said that we live in the information age, and libraries are using ICT more than it was using it before. The objective of the study is to To find out how many libraries have undertaken automation, which areas are automated, whether sufficient staff is available to carry out automation and the barriers to automation faced by libraries. Survey is done using structured questionnaire. 83.7% libraries responded in the survey. Analysis has been done with the help of charts. It is concluded that status of libraryautomation in the college of Goa is similar to that of college libraries throughout India. Librarians and college staff must initiate automation in order to provide effective and efficient service.
The project is aimed at proving that a low cost and efficient model of a fully automated material handling and processing line can be developed by carefully combining the principles of mechanics, robotics, and Internet of things. The entire prototype used in testing was built from scratch within a period of merely three months thus highlighting how effortlessly we can integrate the principles of automation to benefit the small scale industries that contrary to their names account to nearly half of the entire GDP of our nation. The government not only in India but all across the world are taking initiatives to promote the use of modern technology and concepts like IoT, Mechatronics, Artificial Intelligence, Data Science and Machine Learning to morph the way things have been manufactured since the third industrial revolution. The fourth industrial revolution is here and we as a nation must enable our industries at every level to make the best use of it. The research done was to investigate in general the possibilities of integrating these principles in small scale manufacturing however the design can be modified to suit the specific application.
From my personal point of view, the Owd ‘Oss Mummers’ high point came in 1975, when we decided to research and reconstruct a Nottinghamshire Plough Monday play. I drew up a short list of the villages for which most archival information was available, and where old performers might still be alive. We chose the Cropwells – two neighbouring villages – Cropwell Bishop and Cropwell Butler. Over a period of a month or two, we descended on the villages at weekends and split up to seek out the old performers and collect as much information as we could – not just the words of the play and the songs, but contextual details such as the places they went to perform (Fig.11).
According to the findings of the research related to the application conditions, very few higher education institutions applied 150 BPT base score put into the manual by the ASPC. The higher education institutions generally accepted the 180 BPT score as a condition for exam application. Some institutions have placed a base score requirements for candidates coming from the field, while a higher score is required for non-field candidates. In the research conducted by Altinkurt in 2006 for a higher education class, it was found that 85,7 % of the candidates had taken scores between 170-210 in OSS with the previous name of the exam. The finding in this research shows that 180 score is the appropriate base score for this exam. Besides, the average score of the 23 higher education institutions, which are the sample for the research, is 188 proves that 180 score is appropriate. Although that the application of the score requirement is applied differently for the candidates applied in field and out-of-field is considered as positive discrimination for the candidates coming from the field, it is evaluated that it may harm the principle of equality in exams. Although Altinkurt (2006) recommends in the research that the OSS (BPT in 2018) base score can be increased during the application of the special talent exams, but the OSS score should not be taken into consideration in the evaluation of the special talent exam, actually it will be appropriate to apply the BPT score for the programs of faculties of education that require talent.
Paper 9: Information Resources Services and Customer care: Focuses on the design and structure of tools used for answering questions and satisfying subject interests for clienteles. Emphasis given on conceptual structures of library and information science: literature-producing communities, the process of publication, publishing on the Internet, subject domains and form classes, systems for physical and intellectual access to literatures, problems of bibliographic control, and social and psychological factors affecting use of information services. Develops practical skills in creating resources such as abstracts, subject indexing, literature reviews, bibliographies, and websites.
A library is a collection of books, it provide service to members. There is a need of librarian to pick the book and handover it to the person. This might be easy task in case the library is small. Also, to search for the books by humans take a lot of time as many a times the books gets overlooked the human eye. Solution to this problem is a robot which will help to pick the book place it on the table. The pick and place processes are the primary requisite for many of the industrial and house hold application for such applications there is a need to automate the pick and place process basically comprising of picking the intended objects, possibly performing certain tasks and placing them to desired location. In this project robotic arm pick and place system utilizes dc motor, grippers, microcontroller and software’s such as arduino for programming.
Atherosclerotic lesions are prone to localize at arterial branches and curvatures, which are constantly exposed to disturbed flow with low and oscillatory shear stress (OSS). Therefore, OSS has a significant impact on the vascular endothelial cells (ECs) of these regions . OSS not only can increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in ECs, but also enhances the adhesion of circulating mono- cytes to ECs. These OSS-induced EC dysfunctions are the initiation steps leading to vascular pathologies, including atherosclerosis . Several reports indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and ECM composition change in the arterial wall are key processes that can induce an acti- vated EC phenotype, stimulate the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and promote pro-inflammatory signaling within the development of atherosclerosis [1–3]. In normal conditions, ECs adhere to the vascular basement mem- brane, whose major components of ECM are laminin (LM), collagen (Coll.) IV, and entactin/nidogen. When atheroscler- osis develops, ECs are subjected to injury, inflammation, and angiogenesis, which cause vascular remodeling leading to ECM deposition of fibronectin (FN) and fibrinogen into the subendothelial matrix [1–3]. Integrins are the main re- ceptors to interact with ECM proteins [1, 4, 5]. They are transmembrane proteins that compose of α and β chains to form heterodimer complexes. For example, integrins α5β1 and ανβ3 are the major FN receptors on ECs, whereas in- tegrin α6β1 is the major LM receptor on ECs [1, 6]. Recent studies indicate that integrins are mechanosensitive recep- tors that can modulate cellular signaling and functions [1, 7]. When ECs are exposed to OSS, the ECM-integrin signal- ing is constitutively activated. This ECM-integrin signaling includes the activations of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Shc, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Rho family GTPases [1, 2, 7]. OSS-induced ECM-integrin signaling re- sults in the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is an atherogenic transcription factor involved in regulating pro-inflammatory genes in ECs [2, 8].
In order to avoid the latency of virtual to physical address translation, modern architectures include a Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) that holds the most recently translated addresses. The TLB acts like a small cache that is first checked prior to the MMU. One way to avoid TLB misses for large data processes is to increase the page size so that the memory is divided in less pages [25, 4, 41]. Since the possible virtual to physical translation tags have been significantly reduced, the CPU will observe less TLB misses than with 4 KB pages. This is the reason why most modern processors include the possibility to use huge size pages, which typically have a size of at least 1 MB. This feature is particularly effective in virtualized settings, where virtual machines are typically rented to avoid the intensive hardware resource consumption in the customers private computers. In fact, most well known VMMs support the usage of huge size pages by guest OSs to improve the performance of those heavy load processes [9, 5, 10].
However, before the effort of National University Commission to standardize computerization project of library services in Nigerian University, Ossai-Ugbah ., it supported academic libraries with micro computer and four user Local Area Network version TINLIB software to each of the over 20 participating academic libraries in 1992 . With these interventions, there were still setbacks in some universities with regards to substandard hardware and software, budget constraints, lack of trained personnel, lack of proper cloud computing storage and maintenance etc. Recent investigation has shown that, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and other participating libraries have now automated their library services to some extent. TINLIB, KOHA, CDS/ISIS, Alice for Window, VTLIS are the major softwares common in Nigerian universities libraries and databases like HINARI, AGORA, OARE, PROTA/TEEAL. With this development, there is no University library in Nigeria that is fully automated; only less than 49% of these libraries are partially automated, so more need to be done to overcome this challenge.