Autonomous Communities

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Is the Spanish Constitutional Court an instrument of the central government against the Autonomous Communities?

Is the Spanish Constitutional Court an instrument of the central government against the Autonomous Communities?

One of the most conflictive aspects of the design and functioning of the Spanish “State of Autonomies” is the distribution of competences between the Central Government (hereafter CG) and the Autonomous Communities (Spanish political regions, hereafter ACs). On one hand, it is claimed there is a need to finalize the process of attributing competences to the regions; on the other, the CG is criticized for interfering in regional competences. And all sides agree that the assignment of competences arising from the Constitution is confusing and unwieldy (Aja, 2014; García Roca, ed., 2014), which in the end also affects how citizens understand and value the State of Autonomies (López Laborda and Rodrigo, 2015).
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Public spending on university education in the Autonomous Communities of Spain

Public spending on university education in the Autonomous Communities of Spain

The Spanish taxation system has three levels: national, regional and local taxation. The central government’s main contribution to funding university education is through the National Scholarship System. Otherwise, the AC’s a largely responsible for the funding of public university education within their region, making the regional level taxes very influential on the amount of funding on university education in the regions. Due to their more advantageous economic situations, the Autonomous Communities that have a higher GDP per capita collect a larger amount of taxes per capita, and, for this reason, have more economic resources from these taxes in order to improve technology in education, have a better instructor to student ration, and to improve the general quality of the university education.
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The state and autonomous communities in spain: A Relationship that Complicates the Task of Reducing Public Deficit

The state and autonomous communities in spain: A Relationship that Complicates the Task of Reducing Public Deficit

There is furthermore the Organic Law 3/2009, of 18 December, that modifies Law 8/1980, of 22 September, Organic Law for the Financing of the Autonomous Com- munities. The Organic Law 3/2009, of 18 December, contains a single transitory proviso that is important in relation to the subject we are focusing on. This transi- tory proviso refers to “authorisations of credit operations” in its second and third paragraphs establishing that: “Exceptionally and exclusively for the period 2009 and 2010, should, as a consequence of extraordinary economic circumstances, it be necessary to guarantee the covering of fundamental public services, credit oper- ations for a period of greater than a year and no greater than five years can be arranged without application of the restriction foreseen in paragraph two a) of the fourteenth article of the Organic Law 8/1980 of 22 September, Financing of the Autonomous Communities”, by virtue of which the total amount of credit should be allocated exclusively to investments.
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Sustainable Curbing Of Youth Restiveness In IMO State: The Strategic Role Of Entrepreneurship Development

Sustainable Curbing Of Youth Restiveness In IMO State: The Strategic Role Of Entrepreneurship Development

The descriptive survey research method was adopted in this study and it covered a population of 1396 people randomly selected from 20 autonomous communities from the two oil bearing Local Government Areas in Imo state, representatives of community based Non-governmental organizations that are involved in youth capacity development, security experts and scholars of sociology and rural development. Data was generated through a five point likert scale questionnaire from a sample of 311 respondents chosen using the Taro Yamene method. The hypotheses were tested with kruskawalis test (H) with the aid of the 23.0 version of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) based on the 279 questionnaires validly filled and returned
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Plurality of Laws, Legal Traditions and Codification in Spain

Plurality of Laws, Legal Traditions and Codification in Spain

However, Felipe V’s measures affected also the current Spanish legal system. Let me explain this very briefly. When article 149.1.8 SC provided that only Autonomous Communities which had some regional laws at the time when the Constitution was approved (1978) would enjoy legislative powers “to preserve, amend, and develop” their own private institutions, it was clear that only those old regions which managed to keep their laws in force were called to enjoy legislative competence in civil law matters. Interestingly though, there was an old regional territory, Valencia, with a considerable body of old laws which, according to a strict interpretation of the Spanish Constitution, had a very limited scope of legislative competences in civil law (because Felipe V never gave back in general terms their civil laws), while others (like Galicia), not being an old region at all and, hence, lacking old laws, enjoyed a great deal of legislative competence because in the twentieth century this territory took good advantage of the position of some Galician politicians who achieved the making of a private law compilation (1963) without old regional written legislation; so the Galician drafters adopted regional custom as their principal source.
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Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

Relevant initiatives to improve the quality in this sec- tor are for example the treatment protocols and techni- cal assistance publications (including models of good practice) that are being prepared by the US Center for Substance Addiction Treatment [13]; the Accreditation Manual for Behavioral Care issued by the Joint Commis- sion [14], or the epidemiological studies and reports that are linked to evaluation and improvement efforts pub- lished by the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction [15]. Moreover, traditional quality management models, such as the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model, have been applied to substance abuse centers [16]. In Spain, too, various Autonomous Communities have launched activ- ities to improve the quality of substance-abuse centers, for example the evaluation based on the Common Assessment Framework carried out by the Government of Cantabria, the assessment of compliance of substance abuse centers with a set of standards conducted by the Institute for Addiction Research in Madrid and the quality plan and external evaluation system deployed by the Catalonian Government to improve substance abuse services [17]. We described the conceptual basis of the latter system in a previous article [18].
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Promoting a theatre in crisis: poster design and the marketisation of culture on the Madrid stage

Promoting a theatre in crisis: poster design and the marketisation of culture on the Madrid stage

than elsewhere (see below). Yet the hardships of the post-2008 era have had less serious consequences for theatre in the capital because it does not rely on public funding to the same extent as other areas of Spain. As a result of swingeing cuts to the budgets of autonomous communities and municipalities as part of the general austerity measures rolled out by central government, the number of performances commissioned by ayuntamientos across Spain between 2008 and 2013 fell by 60% (García, R. 2013). Thus, while audience numbers have continued to drop (or at best levelled off) in the vast majority of Autonomous Communities over the past few year s, Madrid’s powerful private theatre sector has helped buck the national trend, attendance figures in the region increasing by over 600,000 between 2013 and 2014, and continuing to edge upwards since then. As a consequence, the weakening of Madrid ’s position of dominance in Spanish theatre that took place between 1997 and the onset of the crisis has reversed. Recent Anuarios de Estadísticas Culturales show how, of the total
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Autonomous cars: A driving force for change in motor liability and insurance

Autonomous cars: A driving force for change in motor liability and insurance

driving cars has received significant media attention, due, not only to its technological significance, but also the social, legal and political implications of this revolutionary development in transportation. This article outlines the legal and regulatory issues surrounding the introduction of autonomous vehicles. It is intended that this article briefs readers in allied sectors on the motor liability and insurance implications of the introduction of autonomous vehicles and the legal framework for the testing of autonomous vehicles on public roads. It is worth noting that autonomous cars also have widespread legal implications in areas such as cybersecurity, collaborations and partnerships and data protection law, which are beyond the scope of this article.
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AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE

AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE

Autonomous means having the ability of self-governance. An autonomous car, also known as a driverless car, self-driving car or robotic car. Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings withsuch techniques as radar, LIDAR, GPS, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage [1, 2]. Autonomous vehicles are capable of updating their maps based on sensory input, allowing the vehicles to keep track of their position even when conditions change or when they enter uncharted environments.
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Studies on autonomous underwater vehicle systems

Studies on autonomous underwater vehicle systems

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are usually battery powered and carry its own computer. They gain information from their sensors for navigation and mission tasks. In military applications, AUVs are also known as Unmanned Undersea y can operate in water as deep as 6000 meters and with recent advances in battery technology, these robotic submarines can travel tens of kilometers (Allen et al., . Primarily oceanographic tools, AUVs carry sensors to atures of the ocean. Typical sensors include compasses, depth sensors, side-scan and other sonar’s, magnetometers, thermistors and conductivity probes. Underwater robots require adequate guidance and control to perform useful tasks. Visual information is important to these tasks and visual servo control is one method by which guidance can be obtained. The demand for advanced underwater robot technologies is growing and will eventually lead to fully autonomous, specialized, reliable underwater robotic vehicles. on, it was realized that the most difficult problems to overcome in the development of AUV would be navigation, et al., 1995). The navigational problem presents itself in several forms. First, the ferential GPS is unavailable due to the fact that the vehicle is operating both underwater and under ice, preventing even periodic surfacing for GPS position fixes. A reliable DGPS signal simply cannot be assured under these conditions. navigation systems progressively accumulate
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Autonomous toolkit to forecast customer churn

Autonomous toolkit to forecast customer churn

In the proposed system, Python programming has been used to build the model for churn prediction. It is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. For building predictive model the descriptive stats in which the libraries of a Python have been used (Pandas, Numpy, Scipy, Scikit-Learn, Stats Models, Matplot libraries). The purpose of this paper to make predictive applicationis to reduce the effort of the data scientists and provide some relief to those business managers who lack technical knowledge. The tool helps to know the best possible technique for the prediction of the given dataset. The toolkit will solve the problem for the business managers that they had to hire data scientists in order to know the best possible techniques for the prediction of their given dataset. The salary they had to pay for this purpose could be avoided. The problem is the high wages of the data scientists, it’s not easy for small-scale organizations to pay this much high wage to a data scientist. By making this autonomous toolkit one can get some of the aspects of data scientists for his/her organization.
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Autonomous Eye

Autonomous Eye

Abstract: Autonomous Eye is a powered wheel chair system, its movement is controlled using the eye movements. The system is implemented mainly for the paralyzed persons. The system helps the disabled persons to move independently. The system consists of a wheelchair, RF modem and a PC, which is connected to a webcam[12]. User’s eye movements are converted to screen position using matlab software. When user looks at appropriate direction, using some image processing techniques the computer system will detect the direction, based on the coordinate position of centre of the iris[1] i.e., when user moves his eyes balls up then move forward, left then move left, right then move right, down then move backward and in all other cases wheel chair will stop[16]. The series of images captured by the camera is being processed and then it is fed to the RF modem. The RF transmitter transmits the processed data and it is received by the RF receiver on the wheelchair part. The decoder decodes the data and feds to the microcontroller. The microcontroller will produce the corresponding control information for the wheelchair motors. Ultrasonic sensors are connected to the microcontroller to detect the static and moving obstacle on the path of the wheelchair. The wheelchair consists of four
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An Autonomous Vehicle Using Wall Following Detection

An Autonomous Vehicle Using Wall Following Detection

An autonomous wall following detection is a vehicle that has capability of traveling and stopping parallel to a wall includes right and left driving wheels. In the other word, this autonomous vehicle system will follow a pre-determined path marked by stationary beacons and the control system is built to control the actuation and motor system for the autonomous vehicle system.

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Autonomous Car

Autonomous Car

Navigation or guidance is of paramount importance in an autonomous car, because its primary function is to enable the car to travel on the desired path. When the autonomous car is aware of its environment then it needs to plan its path based on the destination. With the help of navigation hardware such as the well-known global positioning system (GPS) module, the car generates a path between the current position and destination as a function of time. Road networks are physically pre-defined and the autonomous car’s guidance system regularly checks the car’s movement against the calculated path [2]. The car’s navigation system must be robust to handle sudden and subsequent changes in the path by adjusting the already pre-computed route. Road networks are physically pre-defined and the autonomous car’s guidance system regularly checks the car’s movement against the calculated path. It is worth pointing out that although a GPS-based solution provides a rich set of functionalities in guidance and navigation, in certain scenarios, GPS on its own is not sufficient. Since GPS is based on signals from in-orbit satellites, the signals may sometimes get blocked or deteriorated due to natural or artificial phenomena, such as underground roads and tunnels. In such cases, other means of inertial guidance and navigation are needed [2].
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Autonomous fire protection robot with notification

Autonomous fire protection robot with notification

SK40C board is designed for autonomous robot by utilizing 40 pins PIC microcontroller. This board is On board USB programmer where this board is easily to use and user friendly. Pins configuration is fully compatible for 40 pins PIC microcontroller especially for PIC18F4550. SK40C SK40C is another enhanced version of 40 pins PIC microcontroller start up kit. It is designed to offer an easy to start board for PIC MCU user. However, all interface and program should be developed by user. This board comes with basic element for user to begin project development. It offer plug and use features. Figure 3.5 show the picture of Cytron™ SK40C board.
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The autonomous unmanned aerial surveillance vehicle navigation and user interface

The autonomous unmanned aerial surveillance vehicle navigation and user interface

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been around since the dawn of aviation, and Australia has been developing some form of UAV since the late 1940s including the highly successful GAF Jindivik target drone (Wong & Bil 2003). Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) have been used in niche military applications, and whilst many believed they would take over various roles of piloted aircraft, the fact that they require a skilled pilot on the ground has limited their growth (Wong & Bil 2003). Current UAV technology however, allows for fully autonomous systems to be employed. It has been the development of lightweight, inexpensive and compact sensors and microprocessors as well as a fast growing world-wide UAV knowledge base to which Wong and Bil (2003) attribute the steep growth in the market for civilian UAV applications. UAVs have unmatched qualities that often make them cost effective methods of carrying out objectives that may be either highly risky to pilots or where their presence isn’t necessary.
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Resource Brokering in Grid Computing

Resource Brokering in Grid Computing

At the time of writing this chapter, there is no literature related to resource brokering in open environments. In order to design a solution for such an environment, one needs to study the characteristics that define an open environment. By definition, open environments are dynamic, where software systems are arranged at run-time to create a solution[72]. This type of system requires interaction and autonomy at the individual component or service level. Autonomy is a property of a software system that allows it to function under dynamic and unknown conditions and therefore a key characteristic of software entities designed for the open environment. The proposed solution will shown the ability to dynamically select a scheduling algorithm, different scheduling algorithms may not be available in the initial design and deployment of the system. However, additional scheduling algorithms can be deployed into the environment as separate and new entities with specific scheduling capabilities. Autonomy yields the required capability for entities to cooperate in an open environment. A particular type of interaction called coordination can provide solutions to problems that previously did not exist. The solution is composed of a newly formed system that can solve the problem, all done at run-time. For example, two autonomous robots exist in a building with different rooms and doors between each room. Each of the robots has different capabilities and the ability to communicate and cooperate, however, they are not designed as part of one system. Now, if a request is made for one robot to be present in a different room and that robot does not have the capability to open the door, in order to move between rooms, it would fail to fulfill the request. However, since another robot in that space exists with the capability to open the door, the goal can be attained by the first robot to have the door opened and moved to the desired location.
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Teacher beliefs and practices in communicative language competence towards the development of an autonomous learning model

Teacher beliefs and practices in communicative language competence towards the development of an autonomous learning model

Whether it is in terms of language learning or language use, Little (2007) claims that the aim of learning is to create autonomous learners. An autonomous learner can be described as an individual who is able to manage and take responsibility for his or her own learning (Holec, 1981; Little, 1991). Nevertheless, this does not mean that the role of the teacher is relinquished. In fact, Benson (2001) asserts that learner autonomy can also be fostered through facilitation by teachers as well as peer support. Instead of being the sage on the stage, a teacher plays a primary role in developing autonomous learners by facilitating students to make learning happen. The teacher will share information when required, but will spend most of the time in the classroom getting students to be involved in authentic and challenging tasks such as problem-based learning. Three pedagogical principles facilitate the development of autonomy in language learners. They are:
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BIASAV (BRAIN INTERFACED AUTONOMOUS & SEMI-AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE)

BIASAV (BRAIN INTERFACED AUTONOMOUS & SEMI-AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE)

1. Signal detection: - This part of autonomous car is used to read signals coming from human brain. The signals are detected by high intensity micro electrodes which can easily read signals without error. For the purpose of disability this car has a limitation to respond on signals through Brain, so the person should be of low intensity disability. In most of the cases it is observed that the person with disability of AUTISM have no problem in the frontal lobe of brain. This part of brain is used for decision making so this decision of location is transferred to GPS with high accuracy and the GPS system start Guiding the Computer for detection of path. So the computer now performs the function of autonomous car.
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Queer Responses to Austerity: Insights from the Greece of Crisis

Queer Responses to Austerity: Insights from the Greece of Crisis

It becomes clear that these queer discursive spaces stay away form the mainstream ‘public sphere’. They are rather part of counterpublic discourses, which repoliticize sexual and gender identities through an ‘in-your-face’ tactic. Celebration of their marginality is part of their playful repertoire (Shepard, 2010). By bringing queer visibility within both the anti-authoritarian movement and the mainstream public life, they claim an autonomous space in which they do not compromise with any state or other institutional support; thus, “social and political alternatives become thinkable again” (Brown, 2007: 2696). Aligning with a ‘totality thinking’, queer groups develop a criticism which views sexuality as intersecting with, not isolated from, other social processes. Embedded in their anti- authoritarian scenes, queer discourses seem to be aware of the interconnections between capital’s crisis, austerity implementation and the establishment of Golden Dawn in public life. Beyond the autonomous discourse they attempt to trace, queer activists in Greece are equally present in public spaces. With their interventions, they attempt to repoliticize, giving a new flavor to the ravaged from the crisis urban space.
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