Autonomous Quadcopter

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Autonomous Quadcopter for Surveillance and Monitoring

Autonomous Quadcopter for Surveillance and Monitoring

Sandeeep Khajure, Vaibhav Surwade, Vivek Badak, [1], proposed a design process by using metal rod for the quadcopter frame and in that design there is a possibility of increased vibration. Due to the vibration the quadcopter often gets imbalanced, hence we have designed our quadcopter by using the thick plastic material. It may reduce the weight and as well as vibration in the body of the copter. The quadcopter used the open source software in the work done by Nuryono Nuryono S. Widodo et al. [3] to reduce cost. They have discussed using open source software for 3D modelling of ground surface. In the work done by Sravan Kumar N et al. [2], a manually controlled quadcopter using the RC transmitter and receiver is discussed. In this design, the quadcopter is to be controlled manually and the flight controller parameters are obtained in trial and error method. According to the work by Moulesh Kumar et al. [4], for the navigating process they used Raspberry Pi 2. But Raspberry Pi board is not designed for real-time quadcopter control. Hence it is found to be more difficulty to navigate with this design. Anurag Singh Rajpoot et al. [7] designed quadcopter with arduino UNO board as the controller. But arduino board is not suitable for real time control of quadcopter. Hence the quadcopter requires tuned PID parameters. Also the flight characteristics of quadcopter is not good. In the work of Wael R. Abdulmajeed et al. [8] they used apm 2.6 controller which leads the quadcopter using onboard sensors. But it is not having the inbuilt compass required for navigation. Also it is designed as a manually controlled quadcopter. Here we have used arducopter APM 2.8 quadcopter, the latest version of APM series which has many sensors onboard. We also designed as an autonomous quadcopter.
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Autonomous Quadcopter Based Human Detection System for Search and Rescue

Autonomous Quadcopter Based Human Detection System for Search and Rescue

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with an autonomous system developed rapidly in the last few years [1] including search and rescue purpose [2]. Search and rescue in disaster areas with extensive terrain or on locations with dangerous conditions that could threaten the rescue team. In this research, the UAV technology used is a quadcopter that can perform vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). In the process of search and rescue for disaster areas required autonomous quadcopter with knowing the real-time location and the position of starting point when flying. Previous research related to object detection has been conducted [3] [4] [5]. The first phase of the study was conducted in the design of a quadcopter control system aimed at stabilizing the quadcopter
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Trajectory Tracking Control Methods for an Autonomous Quadcopter

Trajectory Tracking Control Methods for an Autonomous Quadcopter

short flight time that can be achieved. In this respect, designing a manufacturing process that relies on transportation carried out by quadcopters would be surrealistic. However, the flexibility and speed of these UAVs can be appealing for several other uses. Autonomous robots running on the ground are already used for transportation within manufacturing processes. Quadcopters could be used for example as a backup in the event of a sudden failure of one of these robots. The robot is disabled in the middle of the transportation process and hence the transported part can not reach its final destination, a following step in the manufacturing. In this case, the continuity of the whole manufacturing process is endangered. If such a situation appears, an autonomous quadcopter could be alarmed to pick up the part from the disabled robot and transport it to its destination. An other application possibility is to use autonomous UAVs for monitoring the manufacturing site from the air in certain time periods. Since both previously mentioned application fields take place in industrial environment, accurately and reliably executed flights are mandatory. The motivation for the controller design is to fulfill these strict requirements.
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Autonomous Quadcopter Using Arduino Uno For  Rescue  S.Aravind, I.Aasif Ahmed, K.Ravi Varman, T.Nandhakumar, M.Banusundareswari Abstract PDF  IJIRMET160203206

Autonomous Quadcopter Using Arduino Uno For Rescue S.Aravind, I.Aasif Ahmed, K.Ravi Varman, T.Nandhakumar, M.Banusundareswari Abstract PDF IJIRMET160203206

Abstract: The aim of this research paper is to design a light weight quadcopter system using budget friendly Arduino UNO. The quad copter will be controlled from a laptop or a RC (Remote controller) from a certain distance wirelessly. This small and highly manageable system would acquire data such as video/images from a camera installed in the quadcopter and send them to the base station. The project would have an impact on carrying out future rescue missions and would provide visual and audio aid to the people in distress. It will have the ability to help assist, locate and save victims, faster with more efficiency than any other option. It could also be used as a measure for survey or surveillance.
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Design and Fabrication of Four Way Controlled Autonomous Quadcopter with Real Time Anti Collision Feature

Design and Fabrication of Four Way Controlled Autonomous Quadcopter with Real Time Anti Collision Feature

The effective distance measuring range for this proximity sensor is 10 -80cm. If an object is closer than the shortest distance, it reports an analog output and is consistent with the expected results. We have attached the IR sensor to an object (here we have used cardboard moving dynamically to and fro from quadcopter). With the IR sensor in place on quadcopter, we took measurements from different distances. To get values, we have used LCD of Flight Controller board by interfacing with arduino. Here we have kept safe distance of 25 cm, i.e it will detect obstacle at a distance of less than or equal to 25cm.The getSensorValue() results are tabulated as shown:
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Design and Construction of a Quadcopter with Payload for Pipeline Inspection and Surveillance

Design and Construction of a Quadcopter with Payload for Pipeline Inspection and Surveillance

A few authors have been able to achieve reasonable milestones on the same system for example; some achieved only tethered flight because their quadcopters could not maintain stable positions when flying while some designed semi- autonomous quadcopters capable of self-sustained flight via wireless communications while utilizing two different microcontrollers [1-2] attempted to design a quadcopter to autonomously stabilize itself as his final year project; however it was just an attempt [3]. created a sustainable and flexible platform for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) using a quadcopter design profile [4]. designed but didn’t implement an autonomous quadcopter that integrated an android smartphone; an Arduino MCU and several ultrasonic sensors to independently explore and map an unknown area. In 2015; The Mathworks; Inc. attempted a matlab simulation of the same system. Yet another author built a miniaturized radio controlled quadcopter with cameras attached to it in 2015; designed to be controllable by smartphones or tablet devices; but could only achieve 5 minutes flight time. In July 2015; a video was posted on YouTube of an airborne quadcopter with a handheld pistol as its payload. Designed by an anonymous individual; it sparked lots of regulatory concerns though it was lauded as an ingenious attempt at the same work and hence increased the design capabilities of the UAV (quadcopter type) design. Though a lot of students and companies have attempted same project; only a few have successfully designed and constructed a quadcopter.
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Environment Monitoring using Quadcopter Interfaced with Arduino

Environment Monitoring using Quadcopter Interfaced with Arduino

The Flight Controller (aka “FC”) is the brain of a quadcopter, it has sensors on the board so it can understand how the craft is moving. Using the data provided by these sensors, the FC uses algorithms to calculate how fast each motor should be spinning for the craft to behave as the pilot is instructing via stick inputs on the TX (Radio Transmitter). Most of the wiring on your quad will be focussed around the FC. It needs to have the RX (receiver) connected, so it can be told what the pilot wants the craft to do. Each of the ESC signal and ground wires need to be connected for the FC commands to be carried out by the motors. With -47the introduction of BetaFlight OSD (On Screen Display).More functions often means more wires. For beginners an “all singing, all dancing” FC might sound fantastic, but the wiring might become very tightly spaced making it difficult to solder. Remember to test fit your components to your frame before you start trimming wires. Measure twice, cut once!
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Design of Solar Powered and Fatigue Durable Quadcopter

Design of Solar Powered and Fatigue Durable Quadcopter

Abstract: This paper features a new concept design of mini-quadcopter consisting of two types of power source systems. The solar type of power source and rechargeable lithium battery type of power source systems. The quadcopter design introduced showcases the extensive usefulness of solar cells on aircrafts. The title is “SPFD quadcopter”, the SPFD stand for “solar powered fatigue durable” quadcopter. the quadcopter in question is designed to be powered by 40 solar thin film cells rated at 1.5v per panel. A fatigue analysis is conducted in its arm structures that offer support to the four mounted brushless motors responsible for driving the propellers that produce sufficient thrust to provide lift. By use of the “ANSYS” designing and simulating program, the carried out analysis shows the level of deformation in the arms due to the weight of the entire craft which tends to rest on the arms when the quadcopter is in flight. A fatigue structure analysis was considered necessary, to take appropriate precautions in both early stages of design and choice of material, to prevent premature structure failure in the field. Our objective of this paper is generally to show case the use of flexible solar cells as the source of power for providing power to the motors with the capability of charging the lithium battery during flight when being operated in battery mode. this new type of UAV can be used for military and civilian needs, surveillance and even space operations such as being set as a satellite to provide signal for internet back to earth.
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Fertilizer Spraying Quadcopter using Arduino UNO

Fertilizer Spraying Quadcopter using Arduino UNO

The goal of our project is to implement it in the field of agriculture. In order to achieve better stability we have used kk2.1.5 flight controller board, and to lift more payload 1000kva brushless dc motor is used. As the load increases the consumption of power increases which is directly proportional to the flight time (duration of flying).So 2250mAH Lipo battery (Turnigy-3s) battery is used. The lesser the weight of the quadcopter more is the efficiency , so the frame is designed with the help of glass fibre.The fertilizer and pesticide spraying process is performed by the quadcopter with the help of a servo motor which is controlled by Arduino. The entire process is monitored with the help of a mobile application created using MIT App Inventor (open source android platform). A camera is mounted on the drone in order to get the clear view of the entire field. It makes the drone user friendly and triggers the younger generation to get involved in the field of agriculture.
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Novel quadcopter flight controller and telemetry remote

Novel quadcopter flight controller and telemetry remote

The aim of this thesis is to design, construct and implement a novel quadcopter flight controller which can be quickly implemented on any ‘X’ frame quadcopter. The system will be combined with a remote control, enabling flight control settings to be seamlessly modified in the field without the aid of a computer. Moreover, basic functions found in expensive, commercial systems such as data logging, retrieval of previous flight settings, altitude hold and restrictions (in accordance with the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA)) will be included.

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Quadcopter control using Android based sensing

Quadcopter control using Android based sensing

are the only external electronics used in the system. The experiments in this work are performed with the quadcopter flying, or at surface level mounted on a balljoint. Power is suplied by a 7.2V Lithium poly- mere (LiPo) battery during flight. For experiments performed at surface level a power supply unit (PSU) is used to power the system. When using the balljoint the number of degrees of freedom decreases from six to three. This enables more controlled and safe testing of new algorithms before a flight experiment.

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Fighter Quadcopter Control Using Computer System

Fighter Quadcopter Control Using Computer System

This paper presents the modeling of a four rotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicle known as the quad rotor aircraft. The paper presents a new model design method for the flight control of an autonomous quad rotor. The paper describes the controller architecture for the quad rotor as well. The dynamic model of the quad-rotor, which is an under actuated aircraft with fixed four pitch angle rotors was described. The Modeling of a quad rotor vehicle is not an easy task because of its complex structure. The aim is to develop a model of the vehicle as realistic as possible. The model is used to design a stable and accurate controller. This paper explains the developments of a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control method to obtain stability in flying the Quad-rotor flying object. The model has four input forces which are basically the thrust provided by each propeller connected to each rotor with fixed angle. Forward (backward) motion is maintained by increasing (decreasing) speed of front (rear) rotor speed while decreasing (increasing) rear (front) rotor speed simultaneously which means changing the pitch angle. Left and right motion is accomplished by changing roll angle by the same way. The front and rear motors rotate counter-clockwise while other motors rotate clockwise so that the yaw command is derived by increasing (decreasing) counter-clockwise motors speed while decreasing (increasing) clockwise motor speeds.
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Motion Control Analysis of Quadcopter with PID Controller

Motion Control Analysis of Quadcopter with PID Controller

Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) widely used in Aerial surveillance, Remote sensing and Transport system. UAV with four propeller, known as Quadcopter. Quadcopter requires high flexibility and narrow area mobility. To analyze the behaviour of quadcopter, the dynamic model of the quad-rotor is required. Quadcopter is inherently unstable as it cannot recover to straight and level flight when there is momentary change in the control inputs unlike aircrafts. In this paper, to reduce the effect of momentary control inputs on stability of the Quad-rotor proposed PD and PID controllers by the MATLAB simulation.
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System Identification and Model-Based Control of Quadcopter UAVs

System Identification and Model-Based Control of Quadcopter UAVs

In this thesis, a non-linear dynamic model of a quadcopter vehicle is developed using Linear Least Squares Error method of parameter estimation. The RT-MaG powered quadcopter platform developed for this research is flown in an indoor test environment equipped with a VICON visual tracking camera system and excited to create frequency rich data sets. The in-flight data is then processed offline to estimate model parameters. Once the model was created it was then implemented in a simulation environment, and linearized to perform a model-based classical control law designs for both attitude and position. These control laws were simulated and then deployed on the physical quadcopter for flight tests. The results show the ability of this dynamic model to serve for both simulation as well as model-based control design.
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Hybrid Communication Based Surveillance Quadcopter UAV (NetQuadcopter)

Hybrid Communication Based Surveillance Quadcopter UAV (NetQuadcopter)

Abstract The concept of the design for the hybrid communication based surveillance quadcopter UAV (Netquadcopter) in this research is centered on the use of Netquadcopter to survey areas which normally would be difficult and dangerous for human beings to ply. It also aids communication between the control station and a base station severing as a medium of communication in areas where there is limited telecommunication network. It uses a combination of PID algorithm for flight control, and logistic model for mathematical modeling of SMS delivery, with X configuration. It consists of wireless communication system that transmits sensor values from the Netqaudcopter to a computer (control station), showing in real time activities and state of the Netquadcopter. The Netquadcopter built in this research achieved remarkable results using minimal and affordable components with significant evidence that full industrial production and deployment of communication-based surveillance quadcopters can go a long way to aid the surveillance and security of territories of interest.
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Design and Development of Magnetic Type Landing Gear for Quadcopter

Design and Development of Magnetic Type Landing Gear for Quadcopter

The development of magnetic type landing gear is to reduce the vibration produced in quadcopter during landing phase successfully. Not only vibration, it also to reduce the drag component in quadcopter. The real time confirms that better results on the reduction of drag and vibrations caused in the landing gear. It also observed that good output response of magnetic type landing gear for various loads. The demerit of the system is weight only. In order to reduce the weight, we develop the neodymium magnetic landing gear system in less weight material in future work.
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Quadcopter Attitude Control Optimization and Multi-Agent Coordination

Quadcopter Attitude Control Optimization and Multi-Agent Coordination

With these observations in mind, a balance of efficacy and efficiency is found for final tuning of the Quadcopter SMC gains. Coupled responses are used with a swarm consisting of 30 particles iterated for 100 steps using Equation (3.3) as the cost function. This setup yields consistent results. Furthermore, particles exhibit the desired behavior from the selected inertial, global, and personal weights as can be seen through the cost at each step for each particle in Figure 3.3. It is also observed that the cost has discrete values when very large. This may be an artifact of the plotting technique, a result of Sliding Mode Controller saturation, caused by cost parameter assignment when bounds are exceeded, or a combination of these or other factors. The final gains used for implementation on physical test platforms and in later simulations are given in table 3.4.
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Open-Source Project (OSPs) Platform for Outdoor

Quadcopter

Open-Source Project (OSPs) Platform for Outdoor Quadcopter

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, 81300 Johor, Malaysia. 1 sulaiman@utem.edu.my, *,2 sophan@fke.utm.my Abstract – In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in quadcopter technology implementation in the real world; for instance in real estate photography, aerial surveying, periodic forest monitoring, and search/rescue missions. Generally, each quadcopter implementation required different sensors which are needed to attach and integrate into quadcopter system. However, the most critical part in almost cases is preparing the quadcopter flight performance and capability to be suited in any outdoor applications. Because of that reason, this paper has proposed an implementation of Open-Source Project (OSPs) platform as autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) quadcopter development that can be fitted for any outdoor applications or even in research experimental purposes. We started out with an explanation about the general approach that has been used in the development of a quadcopter testbed, and then followed with detail explanations in the OSP platform approach. The OSP platform is the most popular approach. The main reason is because of their flexibility in both hardware and software. The basic quadcopter configuration for autonomous flight also presented and applied. This paper also provided several outdoor experiments results in uncontrolled environment that have been executed using our developed testbed to evaluate their performance, such as attitude and altitude stabilization, interference and vibration effect, and trajectory mapping generation. Finally, throughout this project, we realized that the OPSs quadcopter platform has offered almost complete frameworks in the development of quadcopter for any outdoor applications or even as a research testbed system. Copyright © 2016 Penerbit Akademia Baru - All rights reserved.
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Design and Development of Magnetic Type Landing Gear for Quadcopter

Design and Development of Magnetic Type Landing Gear for Quadcopter

The development of magnetic type landing gear is to reduce the vibration produced in quadcopter during landing phase successfully. Not only vibration, it also to reduce the drag component in quadcopter. The real time confirms that better results on the reduction of drag and vibrations caused in the landing gear. It also observed that good output response of magnetic type landing gear for various loads. The demerit of the system is weight only. In order to reduce the weight, we develop the neodymium magnetic landing gear system in less weight material in future work.
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Feasibility study of the quadcopter propeller vibrations for the energy production

Feasibility study of the quadcopter propeller vibrations for the energy production

For the simulated tests, using SolidWorks, it was important to ensure that the setup used was as close to the operational environment of the propeller as possible. During the Linear Static and Frequency analyses, the two main features to consider for this were the definition of fixtures and loads. Fixtures were used to describe the way how the model was supported by the motor mounts, with loads being used to introduce the simulated effect of the turning motor which was excluded from the analysis. Fig. 4 shows the fixtures used for simulations. The blue arrows indicate faces of the model that are restricted using the ‘Fixed Hinge’ fixture, this type of restraint results in the selected circular faces only being able to rotate around their own axis, chosen to represent the interaction between the propeller and the motor mount. In this same figure the green arrows show the planar faces that were restrained using the ‘Roller/Slider’ fixture. This fixture type limited the selected faces to moving freely within their own plane, without allowing it to move in a direction that was normal to their plane. Once the fixtures had been applied, the external load type was then selected. To replicate the turning force applied by the quadcopter motor, the centrifugal load type was selected. This allowed for an angular velocity to be
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