License Plate Recognizer is an efficient and effective system to identify the vehicles. In this paper we represent the simple and effective technique to identify the Indian license plate. This Proposed system consist tree steps, first is extraction of license plate from a captured image by camera. Second step is segmentation of the character from number plate and extract. And the last step is recognizing the characters and display it informs of text. So in this paper for first step used technique is morphological operation, for second step we used histogram to extract the numbers. For recognition we used the template matching by cross correlation between extracted character and database. At last to display recognized number plate at long distance on the LCD display AVR microcontroller is used .
In this paper,AVR microcontroller is used to take input from flex sensors and then this analog data is converted into digital form by using microcontroller.All the data from microcontroller is sent to android phone and we are getting the audio signal of sign language in the mobile phone.By this way physically impaired person will be able to go through the entire sentence that he wants to communicate.By using this system the physically impaired people would be beneficial as they can communicate with everyone freely which indeed would be great achievement for the mankind.
Abstract- This Project aims to study the application aspects of the speech recognition; speech recognition is the process by which a computer (or other type of machine) identifies spoken words. Basically, it means talking to your computer, and having it correctly recognized what you are saying. Voice or speech recognition is the ability of a machine or program to receive and interpret dictation, or to understand and carry out spoken commands. which can be used in automation system to manage electrical equipment’s by voice only. We will restrict our attention to basic home appliances. The proposed system consists of Atmel’s AVR Microcontroller ATmega16, relay circuit and other peripherals. Codes are developed using AVR Studio IDE and HEX files are uploaded to the controller chip by using AVR Burner through Usbasp Program loader. AMR Voice is the speech recognition software that converts speech into text commands and transmits those on Bluetooth. ISIS Proteus is advance simulation software which is used to simulate the Prototype before actual hardware implementation. Upon successful recognition of voice commands, the ATmega drives the corresponding load.
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Chiller is the system which is used to keep any water/air reservoir cool. It is mainly used in industries where the heavy machines are operated which needs low temperature and liberate the heat which can damage the device. Laser diode for diamond cutting ranging from 1 to 3.7 lakh of rupees can be damaged when its temperature increases so the chiller system which is commonly known as tray in industries are used for controlling the temperature of the device. The chiller can be on PLC or microcontroller based but the microcontroller based system is cheaper than PLC so, it is advisable to use microcontroller operated chiller. Chillers come in various size based on the requirement. They can be of different types like the indoor and outdoor compressor. Mostly up to now they have wired connection with the system and the tank as it is in proximity to the system and the operator is needed to take care of it. In this dissertation the efforts has been done and made it successful for
Module. On these aspects of the modules the author informs that the concentrator itself is composed of part of the control unit, the database storage unit, a clock unit, a carrier communication unit , the communication unit the data transfer and the like. Concentrator only does PC slave, but also a host carrier meter, its hardware and software design requirements to ensure system reliability and stability for all. In the concentrator design, both SCM and PC communicate, but for communication and the telephone network we need two serial ports. W77E58 is a fast 8051 compatible microcontroller; its core redesigned to improve the clock speed and memory cycles. The author informs that W77E58 can run at lower clock frequencies. W77E58 contains 32KB Flash EPROM, operating voltage of 4.5V-5.5V, with 1KB on-chip external data memory when the user application using on-chip SRAM instead of external SRAM, can save more I / O ports.
S Shyamaladevi, V G Rajaramya, P Rajasekar and P Sebastin Ashok, 2014; In this research paper they told about their project ARM7 based automated high performance system for LPG refill booking and leakage detection and methodology to make their project. In this, if there is a case of leakage, the resistance of the sensor decreases which increase its conductivity. The related output pulse is fed to microcontroller and which switches on the buzzer and exhaust fan to provide quick alert to house members. Microcontroller as well as sends a message “EMERGENCY ALERT: LPG gas leakage found in your home” to required cell numbers via GSM module and the same will be displayed on LCD. The gas leakage detection system was proposed, designed and successfully implemented in this paper for home safety and industrial applications. Along with gas leakage detection, this system gives a fully automated approach towards the gas booking. Real time weight measurement of the gas and its display on LCD makes it an efficient home system and also can be used in industries and other places to detect gas leaks. This project was implemented using the ARM 7 processor and simulated using the Keil software. The cost involved in developing the system is significantly low and is much less than the cost of gas detectors commercially available in the market. That’s why it turns ourt to be a good product to develop on a large scale to be available in market .
The testing of basic electronic component was very difficult in preceding days because the testing of each component has to be done in those distinct devices. In this project, all the basic electronic component can be tested in a single kit that can be accomplished using AVR-Microcontroller. In AVR-Microcontroller family, ATMEGA-328 is chosen under 8051 microcontroller, using AVR CODE STUDIO (Version-7.0) Program is given to the ATMEGA-328 Microcontroller, the program will be run and the working condition of basic electronic component can be displayed in LCD(Light emitting display).The LCD will display the condition of basic electronic component by giving the output as “GOOD” or “BAD”.
This paper is about design and implementation of a mobile embedded system to monitor and record key parameters of a distribution transformer like load current, oil level and ambient temperature. The idea of on-line monitoring system integrates a global service mobile (GSM) Modem before any catastrophic, with a standalone single chip microcontroller and different sensor. It is installed at the distribution transformer site and above parameters are recorded using the analog to digital converter (ADC)of the embedded system. The obtained parameter are processed and recorded in the system memory.if any abnormality or an emergency situation occurs the system sends SMS (short message service) messages to the mobile phone containing information about the abnormality according to some predefined instructions programmed in the microcontroller. This mobile system will help the transformers to operate smoothly and identify problems failure.
Abstract— In the present scenario the application of robots are quite common to reduce human efforts in several areas. If we want to save our manpower loss there is need in today’s world to place equipment in dangerous areas such as camera and sensors .Robots are the best options in place of manpower to do this task because of which we are able to situation and dangers in that area. For that we require a mobile device that is accessed by the remote. This paper gives the information about how can we design and implement the robot easily. In this robot we are using AVR microcontroller ATmega16 for various functions. This robot is able to climb the stairs and we can operate the robot with the help of RF module.
The proposed system is to design a portable device which resembles a normal jacket. It consists of AVR microcon- troller, GSM/GPS modules, screaming alarm, LED modules and two switches. The prototype includes two indepen- dent system controlled using two switches. When first switch is pressed the device will get activated, imme- diately the location of the victim will be tracked with the help of GPS and emergency message along with latitude and longitude value will be sent to stored contacts every one minute with updated location. Simultaneously the LED module along with the screaming alarm unit will be activated. The LED module consists of high intensity leds connected in series that will let out a flash which will make the attacker lose his veering for few seconds, while the alarm will send out sirens to call out for help. When second switch is pressed the system will only send the location. The receiver will receive victim’s updated loca- tion in form of coordinates which can be used to find ex- act location using GOOGLE MAPS.
In this study, the design and prototype implementation of Smart Home Automation System is proposed. Home Automation is a budding technology. Modern homes are becoming Smart Homes. These homes are progressively shifting from conventional switches to a centralized control system. At present, conventional wall switches located in different parts of the house make it difficult for the user to go near them to operate. Furthermore, it becomes more difficult for the elderly or physically handicapped people to do so. The system incorporates sensors, microcontroller and Bluetooth module to provide automation capability to various household activities. A microcontroller offers high performance and flexibility. The author has adopted an AVR microcontroller for controlling various appliances. The main objectives of the Smart Home Automation System are to provide a low-cost solution to minimize the energy consumption, provide support and comfort, and make life easier. The system can monitor the changes in temperature, lighting, detect fire and keep a check on the safety of the house.
ENC28J60 Ethernet Controller- An Ethernet Controller is a device that is used to implement Ethernet Protocols.ENC28J60 as an Ethernet Controller is used in our application because it supports SPI(Serial Peripheral Interface) interfacing. The SPI interfacing reduces the number of data and address lines used and provides serial interface with the device. With an industry standard Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), the ENC28J60 is a stand-alone Ethernet controller. It is designed to serve as an Ethernet network interface for different controllers equipped with SPI. The ENC28J60 meets all the specifications of the IEEE 802.3. To limit the incoming packets it incorporates a number of packet filtering schemes. Moreoverit provides an internal DMA module for fast data throughput and hardware checksum calculation, which can be further used in different network protocols. The communication with the host controller is implemented through an interrupt pin and the SPI interface, with clock rates of up to 20 MHz. The Two dedicated pins are used for network activity indication and LED link.An ATmega128 Microcontroller uses SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) to efficiently communicate with the Ethernet controller ENC28J60.Thiseliminate large number of lines used with the usage of SPI provides serial communication for data and addressing purpose. The SPI allows high-speed synchronous data transfer between the AVR microcontroller and peripheral devices or between several AVR devices. The connection between two SPI devices always happens between a master and a slave device. When compared to some peripheral devices such as sensors which can only run in slave mode, the SPI interface of the AVR microcontroller can be configured for both master and slave mode. The running mode of the AVR microcontroller is specified by setting the master bit (MSTR) in SPI control register (SPCR). SS pin taken is taken under special considerations. The master is the active part in this system and on the basis of serial data transmission it has to provide the clock signal. The slave cannot get active on its own as it is not capable of generating the clock signal. The slave just sends and receives data if the master generates the necessary clock signal. The master however generates the clock signal only while sending data. That means that the master has to send data to the slave to read data from the slave.
Accelerometer module is used for Gesture recognition. This Gesture recognition module is the one of the most important part of this project. The moment of hand is detected by the accelerometer sensor or module. The wheelchair control system is designed with the help of MEMS accelerometer sensor, AVR microcontroller, Motor driver IC and RF module is mainly used in this project, as the motor drivers we used the L293D IC and control the motors from it. The hand gesture based wheelchair reduces the extra effort of the physically handicapped person and elder peoples so they can live freely and independently in the today’s fast world and it is very easy to use by the needed person. The aim of this work is to develop a hand gesture recognition based wheelchair which is control by the physical disable person or needed person with the movement of the hand or motions of the hand only that could move forward, backward, left and right direction very easily.
staff co-operates more efficiently with less working. The customer will scroll menu list by a single touch on LCD screen only. This system consists of Transmitter & Receiver. The transmitter unit consist of AVR microcontroller atmega16 & Graphic LCD display 128x64 pixels, touch screen sensor IC and RS 232-serial communication cable which is available on customer table. The receiver unit consists of AVR microcontroller and 16x2 characters LCD display which is employed at kitchen & managers desk in the restaurants. The data for the menu can be written on an EEPROM connected to each such microcontroller based unit, so that portable data updating is possible. The customer will scroll the menu screen & could order his food or drink just by touching on the LCD screen. Upon finalizing the order the customer will be able to place it by clicking the confirm option displayed on the screen. The order placed shall be transmitted to the receiver unit employed at manager desk as well as in the kitchen for further processing. 
any patents for the techniques described in this paper. Organization of the paper. Section 2 briefly reviews the specifics of the AVR ATmega family of microcontrollers. Section 3 first considers efficient approaches for small multi- precision multiplication, then discusses different approaches for implementing Karatsuba multiplication on AVR ATmega, and finally derives a lower bound on the number of cycles purely from arithmetic instructions. Section 4 describes how we minimize the number of loads and stores in Karatsuba multiplication for different input sizes to translate the lower computational complexity to lower cycle counts. In Section 4.2 we present detailed performance results of our software and compare with the best results from the literature. We con- clude the paper and give ideas for future work in Section 6.
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Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the role of ST segment depression in the limb leads aVR and aVL for the diagnosis of acute posterior wall infarction and the identification of infarct related artery (IRA) in patients with acute inferior wall MI. Methods: In 159 patients with I-STEMI, 127 (80%) had RCA occlusion and 32 (20%) had LCX occlusion. In the ECG algorithms, RCA occlu- sion was indicated by ST depression in lead aVL higher than lead aVR and no ST depression in lead aVL and aVR. LCX occlusion was indicated by ST depression in lead aVR higher than or equal to lead aVL and no ST depression in aVL and aVR. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of these algorithms were high (98%, 82%, 92% and 95% for RCA occlu- sion and 83%, 98%, 95% and 92% for LCX occlusion). Conclusion: The ECG algorithms can reliably identify the culprit artery in I-STEMI. ST segment depression in limb leads aVR and aVL with avR ≥ aVL helps to diagnose left circumflex artery as a culprit IRA in an acute inferior wall MI.
Microcontroller is a computer-in-chip device that is used in controlling the circuit. Being a computer-in-chip means it has all the features of a simple which enables it to function alone independently. It has features like central processing unit (CPU), memories in the case of random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), registers, input and Output units and other peripherals as shown in figure 1[1, 2, 4].
The proposed model for safe & smart locking system can be used at homes, banks, shops, malls, hotels etc., Here the system is designed using 8051 based microcontroller 89C51. The keypad is interfaced to the controller to enter the password. It is a two way password protected locker. User has to first enter the four digits password. If the password is correct then on users registered mobile user will get the six digits OTP. Then system will ask user to enter the OTP if OTP is matched then locker will open. The system uses dc motor to open & close the lock. When the dc motor rotates forward the locker will open & when the dc motor will rotate reverse the locker will close.
DOI: 10.4236/wjcs.2018.86009 104 World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery the small incision. The surgical technique with a right parasternal incision was reported as the first minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MICS-AVR) performed by Cosgrove et al. in 1996 . Initially the evaluation of MICS in Ja- pan has been low and it has not spread very much. However, due to the recent spread of minimally invasive surgical operations and the progress of surgical in- struments, the demand for MICS is increasing. Some surgical approaches have been performed for MICS-AVR, and the approach with a partial upper ster- notomy  is commonly used. We have started MICS for cardiac valve diseases since 2010 in our hospital, and we have adopted an approach via a partial lower sternotomy. In this study, we investigated MICS-AVR with the partial lower sternotomy which was performed in our hospital.
Arduino aims to provide a low cost and simple and easy path for the users to use devices that interact with the environment with the help of sensors and actuators such as in motion detectors and robotics etc. Servo motors are in limelight owing to their tremendous electrical performance and hence are being used in various applications. Servomotors have high torque capabilities. Servomotors are also known as control motors. Unlike large industrial motors, they are not used for continuous energy conversion but only for precise speed and precise position control at high torques. The main objective of this paper is to experimentally demonstrate the interfacing of a servomotor with the Arduino uno microcontroller board. The paper also emphasizes the working of servomotors and its salient features.