Background: Acne vulgaris is a common disorder affecting 79% - 95% of the adolescent popula- tion. The choice of treatment depends on the severity, patients with mild to moderate acne should receive topical therapy such as azelaicacid. Rising antibiotic drug resistance consequent to the widespread use of topical antibiotics is causing concern and effective non-antibiotic treatments are needed. Objective: To compare the efficacy and side effects of topical azelaicacidcream20% versus active lotion containing triethyl citrate and ethyl linoleate (TCEL) in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Patients and Methods: This single, blinded, comparative, therapeutic study was done in the Department of Dermatology-Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq; from May 2013-July 2014. Scoring of acne was carried out and the patients were examined every 2 weeks for 10 weeks of treatment. One month after stopping drugs, patients were evaluated for drug complications and disease recurrence. Sixty patients fulfilling enrollment criteria were in- cluded in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A (30 patients) treated twice daily with TCEL lotion and Group B (30 patients) treated twice daily with topical azelaicacidcream20%. Results: Both topical TCEL lotion and azelaicacidcream were statistically an effective therapy for treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. TCEL lotion was more effective and act earlier than
Azelaicacid, anti-acne drug has been selected having very low solubility and permeability. The poor water solubility and permeability of azelaicacid results in difficulties in the formulation of this substance for topical application. Topical formulations of azelaicacid are available in the concentration ranging from 10-20 % w/v. Marketed azelaicacid gel (15% w/v) improves some of the less satisfactory properties of cream formulations, such as their high lipid and emulsifier content, inherent instability, sticky feel, and whitening effect, a nominally lower strength in comparison to marketed cream (20% w/v). The most frequent treatment-related cutaneous adverse events that occurs during administration of azelaicacid gel include burning/ stinging/tingling and pruritus. Gels are considered to be the most suitable delivery vehicle for topical formulation. Use of chemical penetration is one of the approaches to reduce the systemic adverse effects of topically applied drugs to enhance their permeability so as to reduce the topically applied dose. Hence, our present work attempted to increase its permeability and reducing side effects by using two different types of penetration enhancer i.e. from natural source i.e. piperine and that of synthetic i.e. DMSO and their combination.
AZA was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis Mo, USA). HPLC grade methanol and acetonitrile (ACN) were obtained from Merck and Sigma Aldrich, respectively. Sodium di-hydrogen orthophosphate and ortho-phosphoric acid were procured from Loba Chemie, Mumbai, India. Aziderm cream20 % (w/w), a product of Micro Labs Limited, was purchased from a Local Pharmacy. High quality pure triple-distilled Millipore (Model-Milli-Q R , Merck, US) water was
In this study the influence of azelaicacid (AZA) 20% cream on the sebum excretion rate (SER) of 80 volunteers having mild to moderate acne vulgaris was demonstrated. Absorbent paper and Sebutape were used to collect the sebum and quantification was carried out by direct gravimetric method. It was shown that topical application of AZA creams could reduce the SER and number of acneic lesions as well as the grade of acne. Sebutape has the advantage of simplicity and reproducibility and direct weighing of Sebutape is preferred to the classic scoring method. A near correlation was observed between the two sampling methods, i.e., absorbent paper and Sebutape.
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.98071 971 Food and Nutrition Sciences drates content but higher in vitamins, provitamin A, antioxidants, and minerals as well as low in cost . Vegetables are not widely used as ice cream as flavor- ing and coloring agents. Interestingly, the use of some non-acid vegetable such as carrot and pumpkin for ice cream production may eliminate adding commer- cial flavoring and coloring agents and may prevent technical challenges that are associated with the nature of using acidic fruit juice. Various interactions are possible when acidic juices are mixed with milk protein such as protein aggrega- tion, peptide precipitation and polyphenols and proteins interactions which lead to form of polyphenols-protein complexes  . Carrot and pumpkin could be converted to value-added products if processed properly when incorporated into ice cream dessert to improve its physical, nutritional and organoleptic properties.
Figure 3 shows the comparison of photoprotection acti vity of sunscreen active agent between nanopropolis and nano casein, the influence of nanopropolis concentration and comparison between beeswax and carnauba wax. The creams D and E have higher SPF value than cream A which mean that encapsulated propolis can improve photoprotection activity in sunscreen cream. The incre asing nanopropolis concentration also can improve the photoprotection activity (cream D containing 14% nano propolis and cream E was 16% of it). The cream C is the cream control that comparing between encapsulant and the encapsulated product in the cream D, the result shows that the encapsulated propolis by casein micelle have higher photoprotection activity compare with only casein micelle. The propolis can improve photoprotec- tion of casein micelle and this results showed that casein also have photoprotection activity.
Cichorium is safe for human use, The toxicity evaluation of Cichorium extracts has also been done by Vibrio fischeri bioluminesce inhibition test (Microtox acute toxicity test). This bacterial test measures the decrease in light emission from the marine luminescent bacteria V. fischeri when exposed to organic extracts. The tested extracts showed less than 20% inhibition of bioluminescence and hence were concluded to be safe for human use [F. Conforti 2008].
The present work was designed to formulate and evaluate topical formulation for its antioxidant properties using various fruit seed oils reported for their antioxidant effect. Products containing natural antioxidants are used for combating the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiations thus producing photo protective effect and have the ability to heal and repair the skin giving a smooth texture and glow to the facial skin. Pomegranate seed oil (PSO), Carrot seed oil (CSO) and almond oil are widely known for its benefits in prevention of disease due to the bioactive constituents it contains such as polyphenols, flavonoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils are reported for their antioxidant properties, sun protecting, anti-aging and skin rejuvenating properties. In the present work these seed oils were analyzed for their poly unsaturated fatty acid content (Linoleic acid and oleic acid) using GC-MS and HPTLC. The formulation were prepared using blend of the three oil namely PSO,CSO and almond oil ( 3% and 5%)with carbopol, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol as emulsifying and thickening agents. Further, in-vitro antioxidant activity was carried out by using reducing power assay and DPPH assay for the oils and formulation. The sun screening effect of the seed oils and formulation was studied by using Mansur equation. The physicochemical parameters of the formulations (F1 to F4) were studied and subjected for stability studies for three months at30 ± 2º C and 65%± 5% RH. Based on the physicochemical parameters, stability and the antioxidant activity, F4 formulation containing 10 % of seed oils can be considered as best for its use in skin care.
in saturated fatty acid of Karinyagi samples. Palmitic acid is one of the saturated fatty acids causing raise of serum cholesterol while stearic acid does not influence serum cholesterol . Therefore, from nutritional point of view it is an unwanted component. Unfortunately, pal- mitic acid was the highest level out of all saturated fatty acid occurring in Karinyagi samples. This level is slightly lower comparing to data for butter produced with cream and yoghurt. Seçkin et al.  reported that palmitic acid content of butter was 34.6%. Stearic and myristic acid contents were 12.16% and 11.45% respect- tively.
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of topical application of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. rhizome extract and is cream formulations in Arachidonic acid -induced ear inflammation and excision wound model was confirmed in albino mice. The extraction of these rhizomes was carried out by ethanol. The ethanol extract and formulations exhibited significant anti- inflammatory activity in arachidonic acid - induced ear inflammation. It also showed significant wound healing activity in excision wound model. Thus, resultant anti-inflammatory activity might be due to effects on several mediators and arachidonic acid metabolism involving cyclo- oxygenase pathway resulting in prostaglandin synthesis.
In this study, a brief qualitative assessment of a range of dietetic ice cream (ice cream with aroma of fruit and amarina topping, cream with cream and forest fruit sauce, Sky with strawberry flavor) is desirable, the assessment based on the identification of the additive substances present on the sample label with the determination of the classes of which they belong and the risk of consumption for each identified additive. Also, the qualitative assessment is based on a sensorial analysis, following the specific parameters: general appearance, taste, odor, color.
were anesthetized, shaved and treated as described above. Subsequent once daily cream applications were performed without anesthesia. Five mice in each treatment arm were sacrificed after one, five, and ten applications. At each of these times, mice were euthanized, a blood sample via a cardiac puncture and two four-millimeter punch skin biopsies were obtained. The remainder of the shaven treatment area was excised and stored at – 80 °C. To provide a positive control for inflammation markers, an additional mouse was wounded with a 4 mm punch biopsy as described previously , then tissue harvested using an 8 mm punch biopsy 3 days after wounding. All tissue biopsies were fixed in 4 % paraformaldehyde/PBS at 4 ° C for 24 h. Samples were then processed for paraffin histology sections. For immunohistochemistry, tissue sections were deparaffinized and antigen retrieval performed by heating tissue sections in a microwave oven in 0.01 M aqueous sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0). Tissue sections were washed then incubated with one of the following primary antibodies: rabbit Ki67 monoclonal (1:100 Abcam), rabbit K10 monoclonal (1:7000 dilution, Abcam), and rat F4/80 monoclonal (1:100 dilution, AbD Serotec) followed by the appropriate biotinylated secondary antibody. Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin then mounted in Richard-Allan Scientific Cytoseal 60 (ThermoScientific). Digital images of stained tissue sections were obtained using an Aperio Scanscope. Five representative areas were taken per mouse and analyzed using ImageJ.
were measured at fixed times of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Calibration plots of A v/s [CXO] at each fixed time value were realized. For each fixed time value, the linear regression equations, the coefficients of determination and respective statistical parameters were obtained, such as variance, standard deviation, confidence limits. The slopes and intercepts are increased with time. Moreover, a t-student was performed considering a two-tailed t-test and n-2 degrees of freedom as a function of r. The values obtained are shown in Table 1. Considering a statistical null hypothesis H 0 , of no correlation between the
The mothers' diet had a relatively low energy content and, in a majority of the cases, a low content of EFAs both of the w6 and of the w3 series. It has been argued previously that low intake of w3 may contribute to premature birth , which would be supported by our study, since most mothers had w3 intake below recommended levels. It may be argued that the food composition did not mirror the usual food composition of the women, because the food intake records were done when most women were still in the hospital and under stress. However, when the dietary assessment was repeated 6 months later the results were not significantly different, except that the energy intake was 20% lower than at the first recording. This indi- cates that it is unlikely that the energy intake was underre- ported at the first investigation. The strong correlations between dietary factors and infants' FA concentrations suggest that more attention should be directed towards mothers' food intake during pregnancy. Dietary intake of both LA and ALA was strongly correlated to the total intake of fat (E %), but in breast milk only LA was associ- ated with the mother's dietary intake, probably because ALA is considered to be oxidized to a greater extent . This may be cause for concern since it has been suggested that at low fat and energy intake, more EFAs may be β-oxi- dized , which would further increase the risk that the infant may get an insufficient supply of EFAs in the breast milk. Mothers in this study, with the most "ideal" diet according to general recommendations (i.e. a low fat-high carbohydrate intake) also gave birth early to infants with the lowest LA concentrations. Our results suggest a risk that recommendations of low fat intake during pregnancy Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6w3, unfilled symbols) and
0.75g/day along with vitamin E and C where as 30 controls were given only vitamin E and C for 6-8 weeks. 20% patients showed >95% reduction in the severity of disease, 30% >60% decrease and another 33% had 20-60% improvement. They concluded that it is better to increase the duration of treatment or the number of courses than to increase the dose of TNA. Regarding safety, there was no change in the coagulation laboratory tests and only a few cases of GI upset were reported. 25 Liu et al. 26 using a
Abstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were formulated by a high-pressure homogenization method. The best formulation of SLN dispersion consisted of 13% lipid (cetyl palmitate or stearic acid), 8% surfactant (Tween 80 or Tego Care 450), and water. Stability tests, particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and release study were conducted to find the best formulation. A simple cream of CoQ10 and a cream containing CoQ10-loaded SLNs were prepared and compared on volunteers aged 20–30 years. SLNs with particle size between 50 nm and100 nm exhibited the most suitable stability. In vitro release profiles of CoQ10 from simple cream, SLN alone, and CoQ10-loaded SLN cream showed prolonged release for SLNs compared with the simple cream, whereas there was no significant difference between SLN alone and SLN in cream. In vitro release studies also demonstrated that CoQ10-loaded SLN and SLN cream possessed a biphasic release pattern in comparison with simple cream. In vivo skin hydration and elasticity studies on 25 volunteers suggested good dermal penetration and useful activity of Q10 on skin as a hydratant and antiwrinkle cream.
A few vegetable fat ice creams and half creams con- tained little TFA, however the proportion was less than 1% in every case. Compared to cream, vegetable fat half creams in general contained less SFA and more PUFA. The product with coconut powder contained the highest proportion of SFA. The mean value for SFA in vegetable fat ice creams was almost the same as in cream; never- theless, the large variation means that products with more SFA than cream are common. Against the general pre- supposition, it can be concluded that consuming vegeta- ble fat ice cream instead of real ice cream may increase SFA intake. Levels of LNA and ALA in vegetable fat ice creams and half creams also varied considerably, presuma- bly according to the fat source. However, they contain more LNA than cream. The n-6/n-3 ratios in vegetable fat half creams were, in general, at the recommended level of between 3 and 9, and no exceeding values were detected. However, one half cream and 10 ice creams with vegeta- ble fat did not have detectable amounts of ALA, so the ratio could not be calculated and can be considered to exceed the recommended level. The obligatory labelling for products without a nutritional claim is very restricted; only fat content must be labelled. Consumers should have good knowledge about vegetable fats and oils to be able to distinguish the product with the best fatty acid profile for health.
The present study involves Formulation, Development and Evaluation of Multipurpose Skin Cream. The present work mainly focuses on the potential of extracts from cosmetic purposes. The uses of cosmetic have been increased in many folds in personal care system. The prepared body cream was o/w type emulsion, hence can be easily washed with plane water which gives better customer compliance. Our study indicated that the formulations(C3 and C6) were more stable. The prepared formulations showed good spreadability, no evidence of phase separation. These formulations (C3 and C6) had almost a constant PH, emollient properties; they were not greasy and easily removable after the application. The stable formulations were safe and skin irritations and allergic sensitizations were scarce. All the formulations passed the microbial limit test which included some parameters like total bacterial count and fungal count; pathogens like E.Coli and Bacillus were also absent.